Alfonso d'Avalos

Alfonso d'Avalos d'Aquino, VI marquis of Pescara and II of Vasto (1502 – 31 March 1546), was a condottiero of Spanish-Italian origin.

Alfonso d'Avalos
From Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum


He was born in Ischia, the cousin of Francesco Ferdinando I d'Ávalos, inheriting his titles after 1525, fighting the French and the Venetians by his side. During the period 1526-1528 he fought under Hugo of Moncada, being captured on 28 April 1528 by the Genoese captain Filippino Doria at the Capo d'Orso.

In July 1535 he was part of the naval troops reconquering the city of Tunis in North Africa. The failure on the third war against France trying to invade Provence, and the death of the first Governor of the Duchy of Milan, Antonio de Leyva, prompted him in 1538 to accept the nomination as governor, replacing Marino Caracciolo, the second governor, becoming some sort of protector of literary and musical people. Wars with French and North Italians ended for a while with the Treaty of Crespy (1544). He also became a Knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Having fought at the Battle of Pavia, he later represented Spain as ambassador, in 1538, on the succession to the new Doge of the Republic of Venice, Pietro Lando.

He commanded the Imperial army in Italy during the Italian War of 1542 and was defeated by the French at the Battle of Ceresole. However, in the Battle of Serravalle on 2 June 1544, an aftermath of the Italian War of 1542, he managed to defeat a force of freshly raised Italian mercenaries in French service, commanded by Pietro Strozzi and Giovanni Francesco Orsini, count of Pitigliano.

He married in 1523 with Maria d'Aragona and had 5 children including


  • Oman, Charles (1937). A History of the Art of War in the Sixteenth Century. London: Methuen & Co.
  • Gran Enciclopedia de España, 22 volumes, 11,052 pages, (1991), vol 3, page 1,109 ISBN 84-87544-01-0
Political offices
Preceded by
Cardinal Marino Caracciolo
Governors of the Duchy of Milan
Succeeded by
Ferrante Gonzaga
Alfonso d'Avalos Addressing his Troops

Alfonso d'Avalos Addressing his Troops (Spanish: Alocución del Marqués del Vasto) is a portrait of Alfonso d'Avalos by Titian, painted in around 1540 and now held at the Museo del Prado in Madrid. Alfonso d'Avalos, Marquise del Vasto, was a noble Neapolitan, descended from a family of Castilian origin. He participated in the Battle of Pavia and the conquest of Tunis in 1535. In 1538 he was appointed governor of Milan. Military failures caused a subsequent falling out of favor with the Emperor Charles V.This work is both a portrait of the Marquis del Vasto and a picture of history narrating an incident that occurred in 1537. The Spanish troops stationed in Milan began an attempted mutiny over not receiving their pay, but the conflict was suppressed by the Marquis' eloquent speech to the men that inspired loyalty and guaranteed their pay given patience. He, having to leave for affairs elsewhere, left his son with the troops as a guarantee they would be paid.The marquis contracted Titian to paint the scene, depicting his son as a page holding his helmet for him during the speech. The composition is based on classical models, such as the reliefs of the Arch of Constantine and numerous Numismatic works. Titian features the General in an elevated position, addressing his men, and emphasizing his words, as advised classical oratory manuals, with elevation of the right arm.The work was commissioned in 1539 by the Marquis himself, during a trip to Venice. His first public exhibition was in Milan during 1541, taking advantage of the visit of Emperor Charles. It was subsequently acquired by the Gonzaga family, the Dukes of Mantua, and finally by King Charles I of England. When this King was executed his assets were auctioned, and the painting (like others of the same king) was acquired by Philip IV of Spain. In 1828 Fernando VII ceded it to the collection to the Museo del Prado.

Battle of Serravalle (1544)

The Battle of Serravalle took place on June 2–4, 1544, at Serravalle Scrivia, in the Apennine Mountains, between the Imperial-Spanish army commanded by Don Alfonso d'Avalos, Marquis del Vasto, and a force of freshly raised Italian mercenaries in French service, led by Pietro Strozzi, member of the rich and famous Florentine family of the Strozzi, and Giovan Francesco Orsini, Count of Pitigliano, during the Italian War of 1542–1546.

Cesare da Bagno

Cesare da Bagno (1530–1564), also known as Cesare di Niccolo di Mariano Federighi, was an Italian sculptor and medallist.

As his nickname implies, Cesare was born in Santa Maria al Bagno. Most of what is known about da Bagno is based on his surviving works. He produced a statue of Alfonso d'Avalos, Marquess of Vasto which now resides at the National Gallery of Art. He also produced a medal featuring Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He died in Milan in 1564.

Girl in a Fur

Girl in a Fur is a 1536–1538 painting by Titian, now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. He painted the same model in La Bella and Venus of Urbino.

Innico d'Avalos d'Aragona

Innico d'Avalos d'Aragona (1535/36–1600) was an Italian Cardinal, from Naples.

He was the son of condottiero Alfonso d'Avalos and Maria d'Aragona, from the family of the Dukes of Montalto, Spanish nobility. In 1563, he constructed the Castello d'Avalos on Procida, a small island in the Gulf of Naples.After a period as lay administrator (he was for a while Chancellor of the Kingdom of Naples, he was made bishop of Mileto in 1566, bishop of Sabina in 1586, bishop of Frascati in 1589, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1591.

In Spain, another clergyman member of this family was cardinal Gaspar Dávalos de la Cueva.

Madonna of the Cherries

The Madonna of the Cherries is a 1515 painting by Titian, heavily influenced by the work of Giovanni Bellini. Originally oil on wood, it was later transferred to canvas. During the 17th century it formed part of the collection of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, where it was copied by David Teniers. It is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.

Mater Dolorosa (Titian)

Mater Dolorosa is a painting of the Mater Dolorosa produced around 1550 or 1555 by the Italian artist Titian and his studio. It is now in the Museo del Prado. It is not to be confused with his c.1554 version of the same subject, also in the Prado.

Portrait of Alfonso d'Avalos with a Page

Portrait of Alfonso d'Avalos with a Page is a 1533 portrait by Titian of Alfonso d'Avalos, a general in the service of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. It has been in the Getty Museum in Los Angeles since 2004. After Venus and Adonis (1555-1560) and Penitent Magdalene (1555-1561), it was the third Titian work to enter the Getty collection.

Titian produced the work in Bologna. It was inherited by the subject's son marquis Francesco Ferdinando d'Avalos (c. 1530–1571) and probably remained in the family for a time after this. It moved to Poland at an unknown date and was owned by Jan Sobieski and Stanislaus II. August Poniatowski. It was probably then donated to the Potocki family, who retained it until 1921, when Alfred Potocki sold it to countess Martine-Marie-Pol de Béhague (1870 – 1939). She left it and the rest of her collection to her nephew Hubert de Ganay.

In 1989 de Ganay's heirs auctioned off much of the collection at Sothebys in Monte Carlo and the following year the insurance company Axa acquired the Titian for 65 million francs. Axa lent the painting to the Louvre for twelve years, with the option to buy it for 65 million francs plus inflation, a preferential price. The deal was arranged by the Louvre's director Pierre Rosenberg, but his successor Henri Loyrette let the twelve years expire, leaving the Getty to buy the work for $70 million. Since the painting was in private hands and the Réunion des Musées Nationaux had decided against purchasing it, the French state could not veto its sale outside of France.

Portrait of Giacomo Doria (Titian)

Portrait of Giacomo Doria is a portrait of Giacomo Doria by Titian, painted in 1533–1535 and now in the Ashmolean Museum.

Portrait of Ippolito de' Medici

The Portrait of Ippolito de' Medici is a 1532-33 portrait of Ippolito de' Medici by Titian, now in the Palazzo Pitti.

Portrait of Pietro Aretino

The Portrait of Pietro Aretino is a portrait of the Renaissance poet Pietro Aretino by Titian, painted around 1545, possibly for Cosimo I de' Medici. It is now in the sali di Venere of Palazzo Pitti in Florence.

Portrait of Pope Paul III (Titian)

Portrait of Pope Paul III (or Portrait of Pope Paul III Without Cap) is a 1543 portrait by Titian of Pope Paul III, produced during the pope's visit to Northern Italy. It is in the collection of the Capodimonte Museum, Naples, southern Italy.

Portrait of Queen Christina of Denmark

Portrait of Queen Christina of Denmark is late work of the Italian Renaissance master Titian, painted in 1555–1556 as an oil on canvas and now housed in the National Museum of Serbia of Belgrade, Serbia. This painting was part of collection of Mary of Hungary (1505–1558) already in 1556. Before the World War II was part of Contini Bonacossi Collection.

Portrait of a Man (Titian)

Portrait of a Man is an oil on canvas painting by Titian (950,2x45,1 cm), dating to around 1512. Wilhelm von Bode attributed it to Giorgione and Richter to Palma il Vecchio, but Longhi, Suida, Phillips, Morassi, Pallucchini and Pignatti all attributed it to Titian.

Owned by the Grimani family in Venice, it passed through various owners, including W. Savage in London and Benjamin Altman in New York, who bequeathed it to the Metropolitan Museum in New York City in 1913.

Saint Jerome in Penitence (Titian, 1575)

Saint Jerome in Penitence is a c.1575 painting of Saint Jerome by Titian, now in the Nuevos Museos in the El Escorial.

Saint Sebastian (Titian, Hermitage)

Saint Sebastian is a 1570-72 painting of Saint Sebastian by Titian, now in the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg.

St Margaret and the Dragon (Titian)

St Margaret and the Dragon is a c.1559 painting by Titian of saint Margaret the Virgin; it is now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.

Venus Blindfolding Cupid

Venus Blindfolding Cupid is a c.1565 painting by Titian, now in the Galleria Borghese in Rome.

The painting has been copied many times.

This painting was formerly in the collection of Cornelis van der Geest and can be seen in two paintings of his art gallery in the 1630s by Willem van Haecht.


Villalfonsina is a comune and town in the province of Chieti in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Named after a feudal Lord, Alfonso d'Avalos, it is believed he founded the town and developed it into a successful agricultural center.The town is located on the right bank of the Osento River and the inhabitants are called "villesi".

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