Alfonso XIII of Spain

Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year. Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902.

During Alfonso's reign Spain experienced four major problems that contributed to the end of the liberal monarchy: the lack of real political representation of broad social groups; the poor situation of the popular classes, especially peasants; problems arising from the Rif War; Catalan nationalism. This political and social turbulence that began with the Spanish–American War prevented the turnaround parties from establishing a true liberal democracy, which led to the establishment of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. With the political failure of the dictatorship, Alfonso impelled a return to the democratic normality with the intention of regenerating the regime. Nevertheless, it was abandoned by all political classes, as they felt betrayed by the king's support of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera.

He left Spain voluntarily after the municipal elections of April 1931, which were taken as a plebiscite between monarchy or republic.

Alfonso XIII
Rey Alfonso XIII de España, by Kaulak
King of Spain
Reign17 May 1886 – 14 April 1931
Enthronement17 May 1902
PredecessorAlfonso XII
SuccessorJuan Carlos I
RegentMaria Christina of Austria
Prime MinistersPráxedes Mateo Sagasta
Born17 May 1886
Madrid, Kingdom of Spain
Died28 February 1941 (aged 54)
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
Burial3 March 1941
SpouseVictoria Eugenie of Battenberg
... among others
Full name
Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena
FatherAlfonso XII of Spain
MotherMaria Christina of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Alfonso XIII's signature


Birth and regency

Alfonso XIII y María Cristina Regente. 1898. Luis Alvarez Catalá
Alfonso and his mother, María Cristina, in 1898

Alfonso was born in Madrid on 17 May 1886. He was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, who had died in November 1885, and became King of Spain upon his birth. Just after he was born, he was carried naked to the Spanish prime minister on a silver tray.

Five days later he was carried in a solemn court procession with a golden fleece round his neck and was baptized with water specially brought from the River Jordan in Palestine.[1] The French newspaper Le Figaro described the young king in 1889 as "the happiest and best-loved of all the rulers of the earth".[2] His mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as his regent until his 16th birthday. During the regency, in 1898, Spain lost its colonial rule over Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War.

When he came of age in May 1902, the week of his majority was marked by festivities, bullfights, balls and receptions throughout Spain.[3] He took his oath to the constitution before members of the Cortes on 17 May.

Engagement and marriage

By 1905, Alfonso was looking for a suitable consort. On a state visit to the United Kingdom, he stayed at Buckingham Palace with King Edward VII. There he met Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the Scottish-born daughter of Edward's youngest sister Princess Beatrice, and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. He found her attractive, and she returned his interest. There were obstacles to the marriage. Victoria was a Protestant, and would have to become a Catholic. Victoria's brother Leopold was a haemophiliac, so there was a 50 percent chance that Victoria was a carrier of the trait. Finally, Alfonso's mother Maria Christina wanted him to marry a member of her family, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine or some other Catholic princess, as she considered the Battenbergs to be non-dynastic.

Victoria was willing to change her religion, and her being a haemophilia carrier was only a possibility. Maria Christina was eventually persuaded to drop her opposition. In January 1906 she wrote an official letter to Princess Beatrice proposing the match. Victoria met Maria Christina and Alfonso in Biarritz, France, later that month, and converted to Catholicism in San Sebastián in March.

Anarchist attack on the King of Spain Alfonso XIII (1906)
Photograph taken moments after the assassination attempt on Alfonso and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg on their wedding day

In May, diplomats of both kingdoms officially executed the agreement of marriage. Alfonso and Victoria were married at the Royal Monastery of San Jerónimo in Madrid on 31 May 1906, with British royalty in attendance, including Victoria's cousins the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King George V and Queen Mary). The wedding was marked by an assassination attempt on Alfonso and Victoria by Catalan anarchist Mateu Morral. As the wedding procession returned to the palace, he threw a bomb from a window which killed or injured several bystanders and members of the procession.[4]

On 10 May 1907, the couple's first child, Alfonso, Prince of Asturias, was born. However, Victoria was in fact a haemophilia carrier, and Alfonso inherited the condition.

Neither of the two daughters born to the King and Queen were haemophilia carriers, but another of their sons, Gonzalo (1914–1934), had the condition. Alfonso distanced himself from his Queen for transmitting the condition to their sons.[5]

From 1914 on, he had several mistresses, and fathered five illegitimate children. A sixth illegitimate child had been born before his marriage.

Alfonso XIII in uniform of a British Field Marshall
Alfonso in uniform of Field marshal of the United Kingdom, 1928

World War I

During World War I, because of his family connections with both sides and the division of popular opinion, Spain remained neutral.[6] The King established an office for assistance to prisoners of war on all sides. This office used the Spanish diplomatic and military network abroad to intercede for thousands of POWs – transmitting and receiving letters for them, and other services.[7] The office was located in the Royal Palace.

Alfonso became gravely ill during the 1918 flu pandemic. Spain was neutral and thus under no wartime censorship restrictions, so his illness and subsequent recovery were reported to the world, while flu outbreaks in the belligerent countries were concealed. This gave the misleading impression that Spain was the most-affected area and led to the pandemic being dubbed "the Spanish Flu."[8]

Rif War and Miguel Primo de Rivera

Bundesarchiv Bild 102-09411, Primo de Rivera und der König von Spanien
Alfonso (left) in 1930 with his dictatorial Prime Minister, Miguel Primo de Rivera

Following World War I, Spain entered the lengthy yet victorious Rif War (1920–1926) to preserve its colonial rule over northern Morocco. Critics of the monarchy thought the war was an unforgivable loss of money and lives, and nicknamed Alfonso el Africano ("the African").[9] Alfonso had not acted as a strict constitutional monarch, and supported the Africanists who wanted to conquer for Spain a new empire in Africa to compensate for the lost empire in the Americas and Asia.[10] The Rif War had starkly polarized Spanish society between the Africanists who wanted to conquer an empire in Africa vs. the abandonistas who wanted to abandon Morocco as not worth the blood and treasure.[11] Alfonso liked to play favourites with his generals, and one of his most favored generals was Manuel Fernández Silvestre.[12] In 1921, when Silvestre advanced up into the Rif mountains of Morocco, Alfonso sent him a telegram whose first line read "Hurrah for real men!", urging Silvestre not to retreat at a time when Silvestre was experiencing major difficulties.[13] Silvestre stayed the course, leading his men into the Battle of Annual, one of Spain's worst defeats. Alfonso, who was on holiday in the south of France at the time, was informed of the "Disaster of the Annual" while he was playing golf. Reportedly, Alfonso's response to the news was to shrug his shoulders and say "Chicken meat is cheap", before resuming his game of golf.[14] Alfonso remained in France and did not return to Spain to comfort the families of the soldiers lost at the "Disaster of the Annual", which many people at the time saw as a callous and cold act, a sign that the King couldn't care less about the lives of his soldiers. In 1922, the Cortes started an investigation into the responsibility for the Annual disaster and soon discovered evidence that the King had been one of the main supporters of Silvestre's advance into the Rif mountains.

After the "Disaster of the Annual", Spain's war in the Rif went from bad to worse, and as the Spanish were barely hanging onto Morocco, support for the abandonistas grew as many people could see no point to the war.[11] In August 1923, Spanish soldiers embarking for Morocco mutinied, other soldiers in Malaga simply refused to board the ships that were to take them to Morocco, while in Barcelona huge crowds of left-wingers had staged anti-war protests at which Spanish flags were burned while the flag of the Rif Republic was waved about.[11] With the Africanists comprising only a minority, it was clear that it was only a matter of time before the abandonistas forced the Spanish to give up on the Rif, which was part of the reason for the military coup d'état later in 1923.[11] On September 13, 1923, General Miguel Primo de Rivera, seized power in a military coup. He ruled as a dictator with Alfonso's support until 1930. It is believed that one of Alfonso's main reasons for supporting the coup was his desire to suppress the publication of the damning Cortes report into the Annual disaster. The poetic Generation of '27 as well as Catalan and Basque nationalism grew in this era.

Downfall and Second Republic

In January 1930, due to economic problems and general unpopularity, Miguel Primo de Rivera resigned as Prime Minister. Alfonso, as the Prime Minister's ally, shared the popular dislike. The King had so closely associated with the Primo de Rivera dictatorship that it was difficult for him to distance himself from the regime he had supported for almost seven years. In April 1931, General José Sanjurjo told him even the army was not loyal. On 12 April, the republican parties won a landslide victory in municipal elections. The municipal elections were fought as a virtual referendum on the future of the monarchy. Alfonso fled the country on 14 April as the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed, but did not formally abdicate. He eventually settled in Rome.

By a law of 26 November 1931, Alfonso was accused by the Cortes of high treason.[15] This law would later be repealed by a new law dated 15 December 1938, signed by Francisco Franco.[16]


In 1933, his two eldest sons, Alfonso and Jaime, renounced their claims to the throne, and in 1934 his youngest son Gonzalo died. This left his third son Juan, Count of Barcelona his only male heir. Juan later was the father of Juan Carlos I.

Civil War

When the Army rose up against the democratically elected Republican Government,[17] war broke out, Alfonso made it clear he favoured the "Nationalist" military rebels against the Republic. But in September 1936 the Nationalist leader, General Francisco Franco, declared that the Nationalists would not restore Alfonso as king. (The Nationalist army included many Carlist supporters of a rival pretender.)

Nevertheless, he sent his son Juan to Spain in 1936, to participate in the uprising. However, General Mola had Juan arrested near the French border and expelled from the country.

On 29 September 1936, upon the death of Infante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime (the Carlist pretender), Alfonso also became the senior heir of Hugh Capet and so was hailed by some French legitimists as King Alphonse I of France and Navarre.

Renunciation of claims to the throne and death

On 15 January 1941, Alfonso XIII abdicated his rights to the vacant Spanish throne in favour of Juan. He died in Rome on 28 February of that year.

In Spain, the caudillo Franco ordered three days of national mourning.[18] His funeral was held in Rome in the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri. Alfonso was buried in the Church of Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli, the Spanish national church in Rome, immediately below the tombs of Pope Callixtus III and Pope Alexander VI.[19] In January 1980 his remains were transferred to El Escorial in Spain.[20]


Palace Hotel (Madrid) 03
Madrid's Hotel Palace was built on Alfonso's wishes in 1912

Alfonso was a promoter of tourism in Spain. The need for the lodging of his wedding guests prompted the construction of the luxury Hotel Palace in Madrid. He also supported the creation of a network of state-run lodges (Parador) in historic buildings of Spain. His fondness for the sport of football led to the patronage of several "Royal" ("Real" in Spanish) football clubs, the first being Real Club Deportivo de La Coruña in 1907.[21] Selected others include Real Madrid, Real Sociedad, Real Betis, Real Unión, Espanyol and Real Zaragoza.

An avenue in the northern Madrid neighbourhood of Chamartín, Avenida de Alfonso XIII, is named after him. A plaza or town center in Iloilo City, Philippines (now Plaza Libertad) was named in his honour called Plaza Alfonso XIII.[22] A street in Merthyr Tydfil, in Wales, was built especially to house Spanish immigrants in the mining industry and named Alphonso Street after Alfonso XIII.[23]

Alfonso XIII appears as "King Buby" in Luis Coloma's story of Ratoncito Pérez (1894), which was written for the King when he was 8 years old. The story of Ratoncito Pérez has been adapted into further literary works and movies since then, with the character of Alfonso XIII appearing in some. Alfonso XIII is also mentioned on the plaque to Ratoncito Pérez on the second floor of "la calle del Arenal".

Marriage and children

On 31 May 1906, Alfonso married Scottish-born Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (1887–1969). Only entitled to the style of Serene Highness by birth, Ena, as she was known, was granted the higher honorific of Royal Highness one month before her wedding.

Alfonso and Ena had six surviving children:

Name Birth Death Marriage Their children
Date Spouse
Alfonso, Prince of Asturias 10 May 1907 6 September 1938 21 June 1933
Divorced 8 May 1937
Edelmira Sampedro y Robato
3 July 1937
Divorced 8 January 1938
Marta Esther Rocafort-Altuzarra
Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia 23 June 1908 20 March 1975 4 March 1935
Divorced 6 May 1947
Emmanuelle de Dampierre Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz
Gonzalo, Duke of Aquitaine
3 August 1949 Charlotte Luise Auguste Tiedemann
Infanta Beatriz 22 June 1909 22 November 2002 14 January 1935 Alessandro Torlonia, 5th Prince of Civitella-Cesi Sandra Torlonia of Civitella-Cesi
Marco Torlonia, 6th Prince of Civitella-Cesi
Marino Torlonia of Civitella-Cesi
Olimpia Torlonia of Civitella-Cesi
Infante Fernando (stillborn) 21 May 1910
Infanta María Cristina 12 December 1911 23 December 1996 10 June 1940 Enrico Eugenio Marone-Cinzano, 1st Conte Marone-Cinzano Vittoria Eugenia Marone-Cinzano
Giovanna Paola Marone-Cinzano
Maria Theresa Marone-Cinzano
Ana Alessandra Marone-Cinzano
Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona 20 June 1913 1 April 1993 12 October 1935 Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria
Infante Alfonso
Infante Gonzalo 24 October 1914 13 August 1934
Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia with their six children
Alfonso and Queen Victoria Eugenie with their children at Santander's Palacio de la Magdalena. Standing, from left to right: Infanta María Cristina, the Prince of Asturias and Infanta Beatriz. Seated, from left to right: Infante Jaime, the Queen, the King, Infante Gonzalo and Infante Juan seated on ground

Illegitimate issue

Alfonso also had six known illegitimate children:

By French aristocrat Mélanie de Gaufridy de Dortan (1876–1937), married to Philippe de Vilmorin, he had

  • Roger Marie Vincent Philippe Lévêque de Vilmorin (12 September 1905 – 20 July 1980)[24][25]

By Pauline of Saint Glen, he had

  • Charles Maxime Victor of Saint Glen (3 July 1914 – 20 May 1934).

By Béatrice Noon, he had

  • Juana Alfonsa Milán y Quiñones de León (19 April 1916 – 16 May 2005)

By Spanish actress María del Carmen Ruiz y Moragas (1898–1936):

  • Ana María Teresa Ruiz y Moragas (9 October 1925 – 6 September 1965)
  • Leandro Alfonso Luis Ruiz y Moragas (26 April 1929 – 18 June 2016), officially recognized by Spanish Courts on 21 May 2003 as Leandro Alfonso Luis de Borbón y Ruiz Moragas

By Marie Sousa, he had

  • Alonso of Borbon Sousa (28 December 1930 – 30 April 1934).


Full Ornamented Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1931)

Coat of arms of Alfonso XIII with royal supporters

Royal Monogram of Alfonso XIII of Spain
Royal Monogram


Spanish honours

Foreign honours

In the Royal Library of Madrid, there are many books with different emblems and super libros of the king.[46]

See also


  1. ^ Magnificent Monarchs (Fact Attack series) p.21 by Ian Locke; published by Macmillan in 1999; ISBN 978-0330-374965
  2. ^ "The Happiest Living Monarch", New York Times. 14 August 1889.
  3. ^ "Alfonso's Reign Begins on 17 May; He Will Take the Oath on That Day – Festivities to Last a Week," New York Times, 29 March 1902.
  4. ^ "Royal Wedding #1: Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg & King Alfonso XIII of Spain". Edwardian Promenade. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  5. ^ "Reinas Borbones de cuidado". Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  6. ^ his wife was British, his mother Austrian, amongst other family relationships.
  7. ^ ""Royal Knight of Charity": King Alfonso XIII of Spain in WWI". Retrieved 19 Jan 2018.
  8. ^ Barry 171.
  9. ^ "Rebelion. Prlogo para "Alfonso XIII: un enemigo del pueblo" de Pedro L. Angosto". Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  10. ^ Perry, James Arrogant Armies Great Military Disasters and the Generals Behind Them, Edison: Castle Books, 2005 page 274
  11. ^ a b c d Perry, James Arrogant Armies Great Military Disasters and the Generals Behind Them, Edison: Castle Books, 2005 page 286.
  12. ^ Perry, James Arrogant Armies Great Military Disasters and the Generals Behind Them, Edison: Castle Books, 2005 page 276
  13. ^ Perry, James Arrogant Armies Great Military Disasters and the Generals Behind Them, Edison: Castle Books, 2005 page 280.
  14. ^ Perry, James Arrogant Armies Great Military Disasters and the Generals Behind Them, Edison: Castle Books, 2005 page 284.
  15. ^ See: Ley aprobando el acta acusatoria contra D. Alfonso de Borbón Habsurgo-Lorena, dictando sentencia condenatoria en la forma que se inserta. Gaceta de Madrid no. 332, 28/11/1931, p. 1250
  16. ^ See: Ley concediendo la nacionalidad española a D. Alfonso de Borbón. Boletín Oficial del Estado no. 173, 20/12/1938, p. 3039.
  17. ^ Paul Preston, History of the Spanish Civil War
  18. ^ "Mourning in Spain", The Times (3 March 1941): 3.
  19. ^ "Italians to Mourn Death of Alfonso," The New York Times. 2 March 1931.
  20. ^ "21 Guns for Dead King's Homecoming", The Times (21 January 1980): 4.
  21. ^ "Deportivo history – Football Espana". Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  22. ^ "Plaza Libertad: The face of Ilonggo History". Iloilo I LOVE!. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  23. ^ Morris, Jan. The Matter of Wales (1986 ed.). Penguin Books. p. 339. ISBN 0-14-008263-8.
  24. ^ (in French) XII. Roger de Vilmorin, sur Dynastie capétienne, consulté le 09/09/2013
  25. ^ (in French) Jean-Fred Tourtchine (préf. Juan Balansó), Les manuscrits du C.E.D.R.E. – dictionnaire historique et généalogique, numéro 6 : Le royaume d'Espagne, vol. 3, Cercle d'Études des Dynasties Royales Européennes, Paris, 1996, 213 p. ISSN 0993-3964
  26. ^ Faustino Menéndez Pidal de Navascués; María del Carmen Iglesias (1999). Símbolos de España. ISBN 978-84-259-1074-6.
  27. ^ a b Dotor, Santiag. "Discussion on the 1931 addition of Jerusalem arms". Royal Banner of Spain (1761–1931). Flags of the World. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  28. ^ Eduardo García-Menacho y Osset (2010). Introducción a la Heráldica y Manual de Heráldica Militar Española. Ministerio de Defensa. Subdir. Gral. Publicaciones. pp. 105–107. ISBN 978-84-9781-559-8.
  29. ^ Ricardo Mateos Sáinz de Medrano (2007). La reina María Cristina: madre de Alfonso XIII y regente de España. ISBN 978-84-9734-638-2.
  30. ^ Collier, William Miller. (1912). At the Court of His Catholic Majesty, pp. 35–36; Order of the Golden Fleece.
  31. ^ Miller, pp. 37–38; Orden de Carlos III (in Spanish) Archived 24 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ Miller, pp. 39–39; Order of Santiago Archived 28 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ Miller, pp. 39–39; Order of Calatrava Archived 10 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Miller, pp. 39–39; Order of Alcántara Archived 13 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  35. ^ Miller, pp. 39–39; Order of Montesa Archived 13 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ RD of 14.02.1902
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha 1922 (1922) page 36
  39. ^ Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 470. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
  40. ^ "Japan to Decorate King Alfonso Today; Emperor's Brother Nears Madrid With Collar of the Chrysanthemum for Spanish King," New York Times, 3 November 1930; see also Nutail, Zelia. (1906). The Earliest Historical Relations Between Mexico and Japan, p. 2.
  41. ^ a b c "The King of Spain´s enthronement". The Times (36770). London. 17 May 1902. p. 7.
  42. ^ "Grand Crosses of the Order of the Tower and Sword". Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  43. ^ Wm. A. Shaw, The Knights of England, Volume I (London, 1906) page 423
  44. ^ "No. 27441". The London Gazette. 10 June 1902. p. 3749.
  45. ^ "No. 27803". The London Gazette. 9 June 1905. p. 4107.
  46. ^ > "Real Biblioteca – Búsqueda por ex libris". Retrieved 25 June 2015.


  • Barry, John M. (2004). The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Greatest Plague in History. Viking Penguin. ISBN 0-670-89473-7.
  • Churchill, Sir Winston. Great Contemporaries. London: T. Butterworth, 1937. Contains the most famous single account of Alfonso in the English language. The author, writing shortly after the Spanish Civil War began, retained considerable fondness for the ex-sovereign.
  • Collier, William Miller. At the Court of His Catholic Majesty. Chicago: McClurg, 1912. The author was American ambassador to Spain from 1905 to 1909.
  • Noel, Gerard. Ena: Spain's English Queen. London: Constable, 1984. Considerably more candid than Petrie about Alfonso, the private man, and about the miseries the royal family experienced because of their haemophiliac children.
  • Nuttall, Zelia (1906). The earliest historical relations between Mexico and Japan: from original documents preserved in Spain and Japan. The University Press.
  • Petrie, Sir Charles. King Alfonso XIII and His Age. London: Chapman & Hall, 1963. Written as it was during Queen Ena's lifetime, this book necessarily omits the King's extramarital affairs; but it remains a useful biography, not least because the author knew Alfonso quite well, interviewed him at considerable length, and relates him to the wider Spanish intellectual culture of his time.
  • Pilapil, Vicente R. Alfonso XIII. Twayne's rulers and statesmen of the world series 12. New York: Twayne, 1969.
  • Sencourt, Robert. King Alfonso: A Biography. London: Faber, 1942.

External links

Alfonso XIII of Spain
Born: 17 May 1886 Died: 28 February 1941
Regnal titles
Title last held by
Alfonso XII
King of Spain
17 May 1886 – 14 April 1931
Title next held by
Juan Carlos
Titles in pretence
Loss of title — TITULAR —
King of Spain
14 April 1931 – 15 January 1941
Succeeded by
Juan III
Preceded by
Alfonso Carlos
King of France and Navarre
29 September 1936 – 28 February 1941
Reason for succession failure:
Bourbon monarchy deposed in 1830
Succeeded by
Jaime IV
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Dwight F. Davis
Cover of Time Magazine
22 December 1924
Succeeded by
Charles Evans Hughes
1902 Copa de la Coronación

The 1902 Copa de la Coronación was a football competition in honour of the coronation of Alfonso XIII of Spain. It was an unofficial competition, the Royal Spanish Football Federation do not recognize it as the first season of the Copa del Rey, which began the following year.The competition started on May 13, 1902, and concluded on May 16, 1902, with the Final, held at the Hipódromo in Madrid, in which Bizcaya lifted the trophy.

The competition was thought up after Carlos Padrós, later president of Madrid FC, suggested a football competition to celebrate the coronation of Alfonso XIII. Four other teams joined Madrid for the first competition: FC Barcelona, Club Español de Foot-Ball, Bizcaya (a combination of Athletic Club and Bilbao Football Club) and New Foot-Ball Club. The competition featured the first recorded game between FC Barcelona and Madrid FC, with the former emerging 3–1 winners. Bizcaya eventually beat FC Barcelona in the final.

1903 Copa del Rey

The Copa del Rey 1903 was the first official staging of the Copa del Rey, the Spanish football cup competition. It followed the 1902 Copa de la Coronación, held to celebrate the coronation of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, which was won by Club Vizcaya de Bilbao (a temporary combination of Bilbao Football Club and Athletic Bilbao) and given to them permanently.

A Survey

A Survey is a book of fifty-two caricatures and humorous illustrations by British essayist, caricaturist and parodist Max Beerbohm. It was published in Britain in 1921 by William Heinemann and in the United States in the same year by Doubleday, Page & Company of New York City.

Beerbohm created the illustrations for A Survey at his home in Rapallo in Italy and in Britain, where he and his wife Florence Kahn returned for the duration of World War I. The book was a satire on that War, and was published in plum cloth covered boards with fifty-two tipped-in pictures, comprising fifty-one monochrome illustrations and one colour frontispiece. Each plate was accompanied by a guard sheet with a descriptive letterpress.

The caricatures included Joseph Conrad, the book included caricatures of David Lloyd George, Lytton Strachey, Philip Guedalla, Woodrow Wilson, Edward Gordon Craig, Edward Carson, Maurice Hewlett, Philip Sassoon, Claude Phillips, Edmund Gosse, Paderewski, Gabriele d'Annunzio, James McNeill Whistler, Stephen Gwynn, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir E. Ray Lankester, Lord Charles Spencer, Ralph Nevill, George Bernard Shaw, Georg Brandes, Henry James, George Robey, H. H. Asquith, Leon Trotsky, Bonar Law among other eminent men of the day and a variety of contemporary politicians.


The term Alfonsism refers to the movement in Spanish monarchism that supported the restoration of Alfonso XIII of Spain as King of Spain after the foundation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931. The Alfonsists competed with the rival monarchists, the Carlists, for the throne of Spain.Politically, before 1923, Alfonso XIII and his supporters had generally supported liberal democracy alongside Catholic traditionalism with a minority authoritarian wing as well, including support of Charles Maurras' conception of monarchy. After the overthrow of the monarchy, Alfonsists began to adapt authoritarian elements from Italian Fascism, Action Française, and Portuguese Integralism into their cause.After the overthrow of the monarchy of Alfonso XIII, Alfonsist supporters formed the Renovación Española, a monarchist political party, which held considerable economic influence and had close supporters in the Spanish army. Renovación Española did not, however, manage to become a mass political movement. Alfonso XIII had alienated the Union Monárquica Nacional political party by deposing Miguel Primo de Rivera as Prime Minister. The Alfonsists received little support outside of their clique of well-established supporters, while their rivals, the Carlists, soared to become a mass movement in Spain. Renovación Española cooperated with the fascist Falange party led by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, hoping to coopt it as a tool for the party's objectives. In 1937, the Alfonsists of Renovación Española joined alongside the Falange, the Carlist traditionalists, and CEDA under Francisco Franco's directive to form a united National Movement in the Spanish Civil War, which was known as the Spanish Traditionalist Phalanx of the Assemblies of the National Syndicalist Offensive (FET-JONS).

Descendants of Alfonso XIII of Spain

The descendants of Alfonso XIII of Spain, Bourbon monarch of the Kingdom of Spain, are numerous. With his wife, Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, he had a total of six legitimate children, with an additional child Ferdinand having been stillborn. Outside of his marriage, Alfonso was known to have had some issue, but they are not in the line of succession for any throne. The modern day king and royal family of Spain is descended from Alfonso, as is the legitimist claimant to France.

Duke of Dato

The Dukedom of Dato is a Spanish dukedom created on 21 March 1921. King Alfonso XIII of Spain created the Dukedom for María de Barrenechea whose husband, Eduardo Dato e Iradier, Prime Minister of Spain, had been assassinated on 8 March 1921.

Great Contemporaries

Great Contemporaries is a collection of 25 short biographical essays about famous people, written by Winston Churchill.

The original collection was published in 1937 and included 21 essays mainly written between 1928 and 1931. Four were added to the book in the 1939 edition, about Lord Fisher, Charles Stewart Parnell, Lord Baden-Powell and Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1941 the essays on Boris Savinkov and Leon Trotsky were removed from editions published at that time, since they had been opponents of Joseph Stalin, who as leader of Russia was now officially an ally of Britain against Germany in World War II, and the article on Roosevelt was removed in 1942 when America also became officially an ally of Britain with Roosevelt as president. The Odhams edition of 1947 reinstated the three essays after the war.

Other subjects of the essays were Earl of Rosebery, Kaiser Wilhelm II, George Bernard Shaw, Joseph Chamberlain, Sir John French, John Morley, Hindenburg, H. H. Asquith, Lawrence of Arabia, the Earl of Birkenhead, Marshal Foch, Alfonso XIII, Douglas Haig, Arthur James Balfour, Adolf Hitler, George Nathaniel Curzon, Philip Snowden, Georges Clemenceau, and George V.

Infanta María Cristina of Spain

Infanta Maria Cristina of Spain, Countess Marone (Doña María Cristina Teresa Alejandra María de Guadalupe María de la Concepción Ildefonsa Victoria Eugenia de Borbón y Battenberg; 12 December 1911 – 23 December 1996) was the fourth child of Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg and paternal aunt of King Juan Carlos I.

Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia

Infante Jaime of Spain, Duke of Segovia, Duke of Anjou, (Jaime Leopoldo Isabelino Enrique Alejandro Alberto Alfonso Víctor Acacio Pedro Pablo María de Borbón y Battenberg) (23 June 1908 – 20 March 1975), was the second son of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and his wife Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. He was born in the Royal Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso in Segovia Province, and was consequently granted the non-substantive title of "Duke of Segovia", courtesy he held along with "Duke of Anjou" as the Legitimist pretender to the French throne. Jaime was a great-grandchild of Queen Victoria.

Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona

Infante Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona (Juan Carlos Teresa Silverio Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg; 20 June 1913 – 1 April 1993), also known as Don Juan, was the third son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. His father was replaced by the Second Spanish Republic, and under his son, Juan Carlos I, a constitutional monarchy was restored.

List of ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Spain

The Ambassador of the United Kingdom to Spain is the United Kingdom's foremost diplomatic representative in the Kingdom of Spain, and in charge of the UK's diplomatic mission in Spain. The official title is Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador to the Kingdom of Spain.

The British ambassador to Spain is also non-resident ambassador to the Principality of Andorra.

In 1822, Foreign Secretary George Canning downgraded the Embassy to a Mission, and the Head of Mission from an Ambassador to an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, to reflect Spain's decreased importance on the world stage. The Mission in Madrid was upgraded to a full Embassy once more on 9 December 1887.

Marco Torlonia, 6th Prince of Civitella-Cesi

Don Marco Alfonso Torlonia, 6th Prince of Civitella-Cesi (2 July 1937 – 5 December 2014) was the son of Alessandro Torlonia, 5th Prince of Civitella-Cesi and his wife, Infanta Beatriz of Spain, daughter of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. He was, therefore, first cousin to King Juan Carlos I of Spain. He was also an uncle to Princess Sibilla of Luxembourg, daughter of his younger sister, Olimpia.

Miguel Villanueva y Gómez

Miguel Villanueva y Gómez (31 October 1852, in Madrid, Spain – 13 September 1931, in Madrid) was a Spanish politician and lawyer who served as Minister of State from 1915 to 1916, during the reign of King Alfonso XIII of Spain.

Military Medal (Spain)

The Military Medal (Spanish: Medalla Militar) is a high military award of Spain to recognise battlefield bravery.

The medal was established in 1918 by Alfonso XIII of Spain. Since then it is awarded to members of the Spanish military service independent of rank.

Postage stamps and postal history of Elobey, Annobon, and Corisco

Elobey, Annobón and Corisco was a colonial administration of Spanish Africa located in the Gulf of Guinea. The colony consisted of the small islands of Elobey Grande, Elobey Chico, Annobón and Corisco. The capital was Santa Isabel. The islands are presently part of Equatorial Guinea.

The colony is remembered by philatelists for having issued its own postage stamps between 1903 and 1910. The first issue depicted a profile of the young Alfonso XIII of Spain, and consisted of 18 values, from 1/4 centimos to 10 pesetas. The values from 1c to 10p were reprinted in 1905, but inscribed "1905".

In 1906, the 1c, 2c, 3c, and 4c values were surcharged 10c, 15c, 25c, and 50c, using a box with the value and "1906". A 1907 set of 16 values updated to a profile of an older Alfonso. Several of these values were surcharged between 1908 and 1910. A total of 72 issues are identified in the Yvert catalogue. Stanley Gibbons lists 69 issues from 1903 to 1909.Subsequently, the islands used the stamps of Spanish Guinea.

Provisional Government of the Second Spanish Republic

The Provisional Government of the Second Spanish Republic was the government that held political power in Spain from the fall of Alfonso XIII of Spain on April 14, 1931 and the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic until the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1931 on December 9 and the formation of the first regular government on December 15. The King's departure created the need for a provisional government, whose first president was Niceto Alcalá Zamora, who presided until 1936, when Manuel Azaña took over. The new constitution established freedom of speech, freedom of association, extended voting privileges to women, allowed divorce, and stripped the Spanish nobility of their special legal status.

Real Club Astur de Regatas

Real Club Astur de Regatas (Royal Astur Yacht Club) is located in Gijón, Asturias (Spain). It is the oldest and most important yacht club in Asturias.

It was established September 10, 1911. Royal patronage was granted by king Alfonso XIII of Spain soon thereafter. The king was a frequent sailor at the club's regattas during 1912 and 1913 with his yacht "Giralda IV".


Tacoronte is a city and municipality of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It is located in the north-east of the island. Mostly rural, the municipality stretches for 30 square kilometers from the volcanic peaks that rise in the center of the island to the Atlantic shore. The municipality seat, also called Tacoronte, lies about 16 km west of the capital, Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Old manorial houses and farms are situated here, as well as vineyards that produce the wine known as Tacoronte-Acentejo.

The TF-5 motorway passes through the municipality. The Tenerife North Airport is 4 km to the east.

Tacoronte is a toponym of Guanche origin, believed to be derived from Tagoror, meaning "place where the Council of Elders meets". Its territory constituted an ancient menceyato, as the Guanche kingdoms were known, ruled by the mencey Acaymo. After the Spanish conquest of Tenerife, the area was settled by the Portuguese Sebastián Machado, who founded the town of Tacoronte around the hermitage of Santa Catalina that he had built. The town grew during succeeding centuries and in 1911, Alfonso XIII of Spain granted the town the status of municipio.

Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg

Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (Victoria Eugenie Julia Ena; 24 October 1887 – 15 April 1969) was Queen of Spain as the wife of King Alfonso XIII.

Ancestors of Alfonso XIII of Spain
16. Charles IV of Spain
8. Infante Francisco de Paula of Spain
17. Princess Maria Luisa of Parma
4. Francis, Duke of Cádiz
18. Francis I of the Two Sicilies
9. Princess Luisa Carlotta of Naples and Sicily
19. Infanta María Isabella of Spain
2. Alfonso XII of Spain
20. Charles IV of Spain (= 16)
10. Ferdinand VII of Spain
21. Princess Maria Luisa of Parma (= 17)
5. Isabella II of Spain
22. Francis I of the Two Sicilies (= 18)
11. Princess Maria Cristina of the Two Sicilies
23. Infanta María Isabella of Spain (= 19)
1. Alfonso XIII of Spain
24. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
12. Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
25. Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain
6. Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria
26. Frederick William, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
13. Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg
27. Burgravine Louise Isabelle of Kirchberg
3. Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria
28. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (= 24)
14. Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary
29. Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (= 25)
7. Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria
30. Duke Louis of Württemberg
15. Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg
31. Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg
Senior Carlists
Bourbon-Parma claimants
Bourbon claimants
Alternative Bourbon claimants
Habsburg claimants
Monarchy in exile (1792–1815)
Legitimist pretenders (1830–present)
Orléanist pretenders (1848–present)
Unionist succession (1830–present)
Bonapartist Prince Imperial (1814–present)
Bonapartist Prince Canino (1832–1924)

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