Alexandria Troas

Alexandria Troas ("Alexandria of the Troad"; Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια Τρωάς; Turkish: Eski Stambul) is the site of an ancient Greek city situated on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of Turkey's western coast, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). It is located southeast of modern Dalyan, a village in the Ezine district of Çanakkale Province. The site sprawls over an estimated 400 hectares (990 acres); among the few structures remaining today are a ruined bath, an odeon, a theatre, gymnasium complex[1] and a recently uncovered stadion.[2] The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.

Alexandria Troas
Αλεξάνδρεια Τρωάς
Eski Stambul
Troas Therme 2
Thermae in Aleaxandria Troas
Alexandria Troas is located in Turkey
Alexandria Troas
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameSigeia, Antigonia Troas, Colonia Alexandria Augusta Troas, Troas
LocationDalyan, Çanakkale Province, Turkey
RegionTroad
Coordinates39°45′06″N 26°09′31″E / 39.75167°N 26.15861°ECoordinates: 39°45′06″N 26°09′31″E / 39.75167°N 26.15861°E
TypeSettlement
Area400 ha (990 acres)
Alexandreia-Smintheus
Coin (Didrachm) of Alexandreia, 102-66 BC. Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo. Reverse: Apollo Smintheus standing right, quiver over shoulder, holding bow, arrow, and patera, ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ ΣΜΙΝΘΕΩΣ [ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΩΝ ΑΡΧΑΓΟΡΟΥ in exergue].

History

Hellenistic

According to Strabo, this site was first called Sigeia;[1] around 306 BC Antigonus refounded the city as the much-expanded Antigonia Troas by settling the people of five other towns in Sigeia,[3] including the once influential city of Neandreia.[4] It did not receive its name until its name was changed by Lysimachus to Alexandria Troas, in 301 BC, in memory of Alexander III of Macedon (Pliny merely states, in his view, that the name changed from Antigonia to Alexandria[5]). However, Pliny's view is not correct, because the city continued being called Alexandria Troas, and so is also stated in the 4th-5th c. AD Tabula Peutingeriana. As the chief port of north-west Asia Minor, the place prospered greatly in Roman times, becoming a "free and autonomous city" as early as 188 BC,[3] and the existing remains sufficiently attest its former importance. In its heyday the city may have had a population of about 100,000.[4] Strabo mentions that a Roman colony was created at the location in the reign of Augustus, named Colonia Alexandria Augusta Troas (called simply Troas during this period). Augustus, Hadrian and the rich grammarian Herodes Atticus contributed greatly to its embellishment; the aqueduct still preserved is due to the latter. Constantine considered making Troas the capital of the Roman Empire.[6]

Roman

In Roman times, it was a significant port for travelling between Anatolia and Europe. According to the account in the Acts of the Apostles, Paul of Tarsus sailed for Europe for the first time from Alexandria Troas[7] and returned there from Europe (it was there that the episode of the raising of Eutychus is said to have occurred[8]). Ignatius of Antioch also paused at this city before continuing to his martyrdom at Rome.[9]

Byzantine

Several of its later bishops are known: Marinus in 325; Niconius in 344; Sylvanus at the beginning of the 5th century; Pionius in 451; Leo in 787; Peter, friend of the Patriarch Ignatius, and adversary to Michael, in the ninth century. In the 10th century Troas is given as a suffragan of Cyzicus and distinct from the famous Troy (Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte ... Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, 552; Georgii Cyprii descriptio orbis romani, 64); it is not known when the city was destroyed and the diocese disappeared. The bishopric remains a titular see of the Catholic Church under the name Troas, vacant since 1971.[10]

Troas is also a titular see of the Orthodox Church under the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Bishop Savas (Zembillas) of Troas[11] served as hierarch from 2002 to 2011, and then became Metropolitan Savas (Zembillas) of Pittsburgh in the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.[12]

Ottoman

Karasid Turkomans settled in the area of the Troad in the 14th century. Their beylik was conquered by the Ottomans in 1336. The ruins of Alexandria Troas came to be known among the Turks as Eski Stambul, the "Old City".[1] The site's stones were much plundered for building material (for example Mehmed IV took columns to adorn his Yeni Valide Mosque in Istanbul). As of the mid-18th century the site served as "a lurking place for bandetti".[13]

Modern

By 1911, the site had been overgrown with Vallonea oaks and much plundered, but the circuit of the old walls could still be traced, and in several places they were fairly well preserved. They had a circumference of about ten kilometres, and were fortified with towers at regular intervals.[14] Remains of an ancient bath and gymnasium complex can be found within this area; this building is locally known as Bal Saray (Honey Palace) and was originally endowed by Herodes Atticus in the year 135.[1] Trajan built an aqueduct which can still be traced.[14] The harbour had two large basins, now almost choked with sand. It is the subject of an early twenty-first century study by German archaeologists digging and surveying at the site. Their excavation uncovered the remains of a large stadium dating to about 100 BC.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c d John Freely (2003). The Aegean Coast of Turkey. Redhouse Press, Istanbul, pp.3-8.
  2. ^ a b Gina Jacobs (2010). Remnants of Glory: A "found" stadium conjures Olympic history. Retrieved 2010-4-15.
  3. ^ a b Jona Lendering (2006). Alexandria in Troas (from Livius.org). Retrieved 2010-4-15.
  4. ^ a b Robert Jewett (2005). The Troas Project: Investigating Maritime and Land Routes to Clarify the Role of Alexandria Troas in Commerce and Religion. Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2010-4-15.
  5. ^ Pliny, Naturalis Historia 5:124.
  6. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Vailhé, Siméon (1912). "Troas" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  7. ^ Paul of Tarsus. Acts 16:8-11.
  8. ^ Acts 20:5-12.
  9. ^ Ignatius of Antioch. Ad Philad. 11:2; Ad Smyrn. 12:1.
  10. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 997
  11. ^ Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (2002-1-28). Ordination of Bishop-Elect Savas Zembillas on Saturday, February 2, 2002 at Holy Trinity Cathedral. Archived 2010-06-13 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2010-4-15.
  12. ^ Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (2011-11-3). Bishop Savas of Troas Elected Metropolitan of Pittsburgh Archived 2011-11-04 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
  13. ^ Richard Chandler. Travels in Asia Minor, 1764-65. Quoted in Freely, op. cit.
  14. ^ a b Hogarth, David George (1911). "Alexandria Troas" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 575.

Bibliography

  • Feuser, Stefan, Der Hafen von Alexandria Troas (Bonn: Dr. Rudolf Habelt, 2009) (Asia Minor Studien, 63).

External links

Media related to Alexandria Troas at Wikimedia Commons

Acts 16

Acts 16 is the sixteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It records the second missionary journey of Paul, together with Silas and Timothy. The book containing this chapter is anonymous but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke.

Acts 20

Acts 20 is the twentieth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the Christian New Testament of the Bible. It records the third missionary journey of Paul the Apostle. The book containing this chapter is anonymous, but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke the Evangelist composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke.

Aigosages

The Aigosages were a Celtic tribe dwelling on both sides of the Hellespont, first in Thrace and then in Troas and Mysia on the Asian side.

Coming probably from the Kingdom of Tylis, they crossed over to Asia Minor where they were hired by the Hellenistic ruler Attalus I of Pergamum who intended to employ them as mercenaries in his war against the Seleucid prince Achaeus. After a lunar eclipse on September 1st 218 BC, however, the Celts refused to obey and Attalus, considering the risk of a revolt, led them back to the Hellespont, promising to give them land in the area between Lampsacus and Alexandria Troas.After the king's departure the Aigosages laid siege on the city of Ilium, but were thwarted by the Alexandrinian general Themistes. The Celts then turned against the territory of Abydos, taking the town of Arisba. Here they were finally defeated in battle by the Bithynian king Prusias I, who put them all to the sword, including the women and children.

Cebrenia

Cebrenia was an ancient country in the Troad, the hinterland of Troy beside the Dardanelles in what is now Turkey.

The location of Cebrenia was described by Strabo (c. 64 BCE–24 CE) in section 13.1.33 of his Geography:

"Above them [the coastal cities near Troy] lies the plain of Troy, extending as far as Mount Ida to the east ... The part at the foot of the mountain is narrow ... This country Homer places under the command of Aeneas and the Antenoridae, and calls it Dardania. Below it is Cebrenia, which for the most part consists of plains, and lies nearly parallel to Dardania. There was also formerly a city Cybrene. ... Cebrenia extends as far as the Scepsian district. The boundary is the River Scamander, which runs through the middle of Cebrenia and Scepsia. There was continual enmity and war between the Scepsians and Cebrenians till Antigonus settled them both together in the city then called Antigonia, but at present Alexandria Troas. The Cebrenians remained there with the other inhabitants ... "Cebrenia is also briefly noted in Book 5, chapter 33 of Pliny's later Natural History, concerning Troas and the adjoining nations: "The first place in Troas is Hamaxitus, then Cebrenia, and then Troas itself, formerly called Antigonia, and now Alexandria, a Roman colony." The name Cebrenia had mythological roots. Before Paris of Troy carried off Helen and started the Trojan War, he had been married to Oenone, a nymph whose father was the River Cebren, a tributary of the Scamander which gave its name to Cebrenia.

When the 19th century astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli was compiling his maps of Mars, he used the name Cebrenia for a mostly featureless area in the northern hemisphere now known as the Cebrenia quadrangle.

List of ancient Greek theatres

This is a list of ancient Greek theatres by location.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Marpessos

Marpessos (Ancient Greek: Μάρπησσος) was a settlement in the middle Skamander valley of the Troad region of Anatolia. The settlement's name is also spelled Μαρμησσός, Μαρμισσός, Μερμησσός in ancient sources. It was known in Classical antiquity primarily as the birthplace of the Hellespontine Sibyl Herophile. Its site has been located at Dam Dere approximately 2 km SE of the village of Zerdalilik in the Bayramiç district of Çanakkale Province in Turkey. Despite the similarity of its name and its location on Mount Ida, the settlement is apparently unrelated to the mythological figure Marpessa and her husband Idas. It should likewise not be confused with the Mount Marpessa on Paros.

Menander Rhetor

Menander Rhetor (Greek: Μένανδρος Ῥήτωρ), also known as Menander of Laodicea (Greek: Μένανδρος ὁ Λαοδικεύς), was a Greek rhetorician and commentator.

Two incomplete treatises on epideictic (or show) speeches have been preserved under his name, but it is generally considered that they cannot be by the same author. Bursian attributes the first to Menander, whom he placed in the 4th century, and the second to an anonymous rhetorician of Alexandria Troas, who possibly lived in the time of Diocletian. Others, from the superscription of the Paris manuscript, assign the first to Genethlius of Petrae in Palestine.

In view of the general tradition of antiquity, that both treatises were the work of Menander, it is possible that the author of the second was not identical with the Menander mentioned by the Suda; since the name is of frequent occurrence in later Greek literature. The first treatise, entitled Division of Epideictic Styles (Διαίρεσις τῶν Ἐπιδεικτικῶν), discusses the different kinds of epideictic speeches; the second, On Epideictic Speeches (Περὶ Ἐπιδεικτικῶν), has special titles for each chapter.

Text in L Spengel's Rhetores graeci, iii. 329-446, and in C Bursian's "Der Rhetor Menandros und seine Schriften" in Abhandl. der bayer. Akad. der Wissenschaften, xvi. (1882); see also Wilhelm Nitsche, Der Rhetor M. und die Scholien zu Demosthenes; JE Sandys, Hist. of Classical Scholarship (1906), i. 338; Wilhelm von Christ, Gesch. der griechischen Litteratur (1898), 550.

Neandreia

Neandreia (Ancient Greek: Νεάνδρεια), Neandrium or Neandrion (Νεάνδριον), also known as Neandrus or Neandros (Νέανδρος), was a Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia. Its site has been located on Çığrı Dağ, about 9 km east of the remains of the ancient city of Alexandria Troas in the Ezine district of Çanakkale province, Turkey (based on the work of John Manuel Cook). The site was first identified as Neandreia by Frank Calvert in 1865 and Joseph Thacher Clarke in 1886 and was first excavated by the German architect Robert Koldewey when he excavated in 1889.

Scepsis

Scepsis or Skepsis (Ancient Greek: Σκῆψις or Σκέψις) was an ancient settlement in the Troad, Asia Minor that is at the present site of the village of Kurşunlutepe, near the town of Bayramiç in Turkey. The settlement is notable for being the location where the famous library of Aristotle was kept before being moved to Pergamum and Alexandria. It was also home to Metrodorus of Scepsis and Demetrius of Scepsis.

Sopater

Sopater [4] (Greek: Σώπατρος, Sṓpatros) was the son of Pyrhus,[5] a man from the city of Berea, mentioned in Acts 20:4. Sopater and others (Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians, and Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy, and Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia) accompanied Paul out of Macedonia after a group of Jews began to plot against Paul, and then sailed from Philippi to Alexandria Troas where they met Paul who had gone by land.

It is commonly accepted that Sopater was the kinsman of Paul noted in Romans 16:21. as Sosipater.[6] although some writers think the words "the son of Pyrrhus" were added to distinguish Sopater from Sosipater.Sosipater is honored as Saint Sosipater by the Eastern Orthodox Church with a feast day on 29 April.

Sositheus

Sositheus (Ancient Greek: Σωσίθεος, c. 280 BC), a Greek tragic poet from Alexandria Troas, was a member of the Alexandrian "pleiad".

He must have resided at some time in Athens, since Diogenes Laërtius tells us that he attacked the Stoic Cleanthes on the stage, and was hissed off by the audience. As the Suda also calls him a Syracusan, it is conjectured that he belonged to the literary circle at the court of Hiero II.

According to an epigram of Dioscorides in the Greek Anthology (Anth. Pal. vii.707) he restored the satyric drama in its original form. A considerable fragment is extant of his pastoral play Daphnis or Lityerses, in which the Sicilian shepherd, in search of his love Pimplea, is brought into connexion with the Phrygian reaper, son of Midas, who slew all who unsuccessfully competed with him in reaping his grain. Heracles came to the aid of Daphnis and slew Lityerses.

See Otto Crusius s.v. Lityerses in Röscher's Lexikon der griechischen and römischen Mythologie. The fragment of twenty-one lines in Nauck's Tragicorum graecorum fragmenta apparently contains the beginning of the drama. Two lines from another play titled Aethlius (probably the traditional first king of Elis, father of Endymion) are quoted by Stobaeus (Flor. li. 23).

Titus Junius Montanus

Titus Junius Montanus was a Roman of the first century and suffect consul in AD 81 with Lucius Julius Vettius Paullus as his colleague. An inscription found in Alexandria Troas indicates that was his hometown, making Montanus the first person from the Greek portion of the Roman Empire admitted to the Roman senate.Syme further identifies Montanus with "the slow fat senator of Juvenal 4.107", and suggests that he may be the Montanus mentioned in another passage (4.137).

Troad

The Troada or Troad (Anglicized; or ; Greek: Τρωάδα, Troáda), or Troas (; Ancient Greek: Τρωάς, Troás), is the historical name of the Biga Peninsula (modern Turkish: Biga Yarımadası) in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey. This region now is part of the Çanakkale province of Turkey. Bounded by the Dardanelles to the northwest, by the Aegean Sea to the west and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida, the Troad is drained by two main rivers, the Scamander (Karamenderes) and the Simois, which join at the area containing the ruins of Troy.

Mount Ida, called by Homer "many-fountain" (πολυπίδαξ), sourced several rivers, including Rhesos, Heptaporos, Caresus, Rhodios, Granicus (Granikos), Aesepus, Skamandros and Simoeis [Iliad 12.18 ff]; these rivers, were deified as a source of life by the Greeks, who depicted them on their coins as river-gods reclining by a stream and holding a reed.

Troy Museum

The Troy Museum (Turkish: Troya Müzesi or Truva Müzesi) is an archaeological museum located close to the archaeological site of the ancient Greek city of Troy, in northwestern Turkey. Opened in 2018, it exhibits in seven sections of a contemporary architectural building the historical artefacts from Troy and some other ancient cities around and on nearby islands. The museum director is Ali Atmaca.

Çanakkale Archaeological Museum

Çanakkale Archaeological Museum (Turkish: Çanakkele Arkeoloji Müzesi) was a museum in Çanakkale, Turkey.

Çanakkale is situated on the Anatolian side of the Dardanelles Strait. It is close to famous Troy of the antiquity. The Dardanelles campaign of World War I is known as Çanakkale Savaşı in Turkish.

In 1960, an abandoned church was opened as a museum. In 1984, the museum moved to 100. Yıl street of the city at 40°07′59″N 26°24′35″E.

However, its contents have been moved to the 2018-established Troy Museum (Turkish: Troya Müzesi or Truva Müzesi), close to the excavation site of the ancient Greek city of Troy. It is best to combine a visit to the museum with a visit to Troy itself, Monday generally is a closed day for museums in Turkey, but as during a visit it was very hard to get proper information one should try and get information locally. A minibus, starting at the Minibus station at the bridge over the Çanakkale Çay bridge of the Atatürk Caddesi, provides a regular service to both Troy and the museum. When that bus passed the (former) museum in Çanakkale it seemed closed, but that could not be confirmed.

The following text was found to be correct for the Troy Museum: The main items in the exhibition halls are artifacts from various ruins around Çanakkele such as a Troia, Assos, Apollon, Smintheion, Tenedos and Alexandria Troas. Some of the items are marble sculptures, steles, illumination gadgets, terracota and bronze kitchenware, glassware and ornaments. A colored sarcophagus from the Achaemenid Empire and Polyxena sarcophagus are among the notable items. There are also some ethnographic items.

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