Alexandre Herculano

Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo (March 28, 1810 – September 13, 1877) was a Portuguese novelist and historian.

Alexandre Herculano
Alexandre Herculano
BornAlexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo
March 28, 1810
Lisbon, Portugal
DiedSeptember 13, 1877 (aged 67)
Santarém, Portugal
OccupationNovel writer, poet, journalist, historian, politician
GenreHistorical novel, Romantic poetry
Literary movementRomanticism
Notable worksEurico, o Presbítero, O Monge de Cister, História de Portugal de Alexandre Herculano, História da Origem e Estabelecimento da Inquisição em Portugal

Early life

Herculano's family had humble origins. One of his grandfathers was a foreman stonemason in the royal employ. Herculano received his early education, comprising Latin, logic and rhetoric, at the Necessidades Monastery, and spent a year at the Royal Marine Academy studying mathematics with the intention of entering on a commercial career. In 1828 Portugal fell under the absolute rule of D. Miguel, and Herculano, becoming involved in the unsuccessful military pronunciamento of August 1831, had to leave Portugal clandestinely and take refuge in England and France. In 1832 he accompanied the Liberal expedition to Terceira Island as a volunteer, and was one of D. Pedro's famous army of 7,500 men who landed at Mindelo and occupied Porto. He took part in all the actions of the great siege, and at the same time served as a librarian in the city archives. He published his first volume of verses, A Voz de Propheta, in 1832, and two years later another entitled A Harpa do Crente.[1]

Privation had made a man of him, and in these little books he proves himself a poet of deep feeling and considerable power of expression. The stirring incidents in the political emancipation of Portugal inspired his muse, and he describes the bitterness of exile, the adventurous expedition to Terceira, the heroic defence of Porto, and the final combats of liberty. In 1837 he founded the Panorama in imitation of the English Penny Magazine, and there and in Illustração he published the historical tales which were afterwards collected into Lendas e Narrativas; in the same year he became royal librarian at the Ajuda Palace, which enabled him to continue his studies of the past. The Panorama had a large circulation and influence, and Herculano's biographical sketches of great men and his articles of literary and historical criticism did much to educate the middle class by acquainting them with the story of their nation, and with the progress of knowledge and the state of letters in foreign countries.[1]


After spending his early years as a poet, Herculano introduced the historical novel into Portugal in 1844 by a book written in imitation of Walter Scott. Eurico treats of the fall of the Visigothic monarchy and the beginnings of resistance in the Asturias which gave birth to the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. A second book, Monge de Cister, published in 1848, describes the time of King João I, when the middle class and the municipalities first asserted their power and elected a king who stood in opposition to the nobility.[2]

From an artistic standpoint, these stories are rather laboured productions, besides being ultra-romantic in tone; but it must be remembered that they were written mainly with an educational goal, and, moreover, they deserve high praise for their style. Herculano had greater book-learning than Scott, but lacked descriptive talent and skill in dialogue. His touch is heavy, and these novels show no dramatic power, which accounts for his failure as a playwright, but their influence was as great as their followers were many.[2]

Chronicles and Histories

25 Escudos célébrant le centenaire de de la mort de l’écrivain Alexandre Herculano, 1977
Alexandre Herculano

These and editions of two old chronicles, the "Chronicle of Dom Sebastião" (1839) and the "Annals of king João III" (1844), prepared Herculano for his life's work, and the year 1846 saw the first volume of his "History of Portugal from the Beginning of the Monarchy to the end of the Reign of Afonso III", a book written on critical lines and based on documents.[2]

The difficulties he encountered in producing it were very great, for the foundations had been ill-prepared by his predecessors, and he was obliged to be artisan and architect at the same time. He had to collect manuscripts from all parts of Portugal, decipher, classify and weigh them before he could begin work, and then he found it necessary to break with precedents and destroy traditions. Serious students in Portugal and abroad welcomed the book as an historical work of the first rank, for its evidence of careful research, its able marshalling of facts, its scholarship and its painful accuracy, while the sculptural simplicity of the style and the correctness of the diction made it a Portuguese classic. The second volume of his history appeared in 1847, the third in 1849, and the fourth in 1853.[2]

Historiographic controversy

The first volume, however, gave rise to a celebrated controversy, because Herculano had reduced the famous battle of Ourique, which was supposed to have seen the birth of the Portuguese monarchy, to the dimensions of a mere skirmish, and denied the apparition of Christ to King Afonso, a fable first circulated in the 15th century.[2]

Herculano was denounced from the pulpit and by the press for his lack of patriotism and piety, and after bearing the attack for some time his pride drove him to reply. In a letter to the cardinal patriarch of Lisbon entitled Eu e o Clero (1850), he denounced the fanaticism and ignorance of the clergy in plain terms, and this provoked a fierce pamphlet war marked by much personal abuse. A professor of Arabic in Lisbon intervened to sustain the accepted view of the battle, and charged Herculano and his supporter, Pascual de Gayangos with ignorance of the Arab historians and of their language. The conduct of the controversy, which lasted some years, did credit to none of the contending parties, but Herculano's statement of the facts was eventually universally accepted as correct.[2]

History of the Inquisition

In his youth, the excesses of absolutism had made Herculano a Liberal, and the attacks on his history turned this man, full of sentiment and deep religious conviction, into an anti-clerical who began to distinguish between political Catholicism and Christianity. His "History of the Origin and Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal" (1854–1855), relating the thirty years' struggle between King John III and the Jews—he to establish the tribunal and they to prevent him—was compiled, as the preface showed, to stem the ultramontane reaction, but nonetheless carried weight because it was a recital of events with little or no comment or evidence of passion in its author.[2]

Next to these two books ("History of Portugal from the beginning of the monarchy to the end of the reign of Afonso III" and "History of the origin and establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal"), his study, "Condition of the working classes on the peninsula from the seventh to the twelfth century" ("Do Estado des classes servas na Peninsula desde o VII. até o XII. seculo"), was Herculano's most valuable contribution to history.[2]


In 1856 Herculano began editing a series of Portugalliae monumenta historica, but personal differences between him and the keeper of the Archives, which he necessarily frequented, interrupted his historical studies. On the death of his friend King Pedro V, Herculano left the Ajuda and retired to a country house near Santarém.[2]

The alliance of Liberalism and Catholicism, represented by Herculano and his fellow poetic historians Chateaubriand and Lamartine had ended as the movement known as Ultramontanism grew within the Catholic hierarchy after the Revolutions of 1848. Disillusioned with mankind and despairing of the future of his country, Herculano rarely emerged from his retirement; when he did so, it was to fight political and religious reactionaries. Herculano defended Portugal's monastic orders (advocating their reform rather than suppression) and successfully opposed the entry of foreign religious orders. He supported the rural clergy and idealized the village priest in his Pároco da Aldeia, an imitation, unconscious or otherwise, of Oliver Goldsmith's "The Vicar of Wakefield". Herculano also opposed the Concordat of February 21, 1857, between Portugal and the Holy See, regulating the Portuguese Padroado in the East. Herculano supported civil marriage, although his "Studies on Civil Marriage" ("Estudos sobre o Casamento Civil") was banned (put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum).[2] English historian Lord Acton and German historian Ignaz von Döllinger experienced similar problems, especially as they all fought the new dogmas of the Immaculate Conception (1854) and papal infallibility (1871). Other key documents issued by Pius IX during the ecclesiastical retrenchment include the Syllabus of Errors (1864) and Etsi multa (1873).

Political legacy

In the domain of letters he remained until his death a veritable pontiff, and an article or book of his was an event celebrated from one end of Portugal to the other. The nation continued to look up to him for intellecual leadership, but, in his later years, lacking hope himself, he could not stimulate others or use to advantage the powers conferred upon him. In politics he remained a constitutional Liberal of the old type, and, for him, the people were the middle classes in opposition to the lower, which he saw to have been the supporters of tyranny in all ages, while he considered radicalism to mean a return via anarchy to absolutism. However, though he conducted political propaganda campaigns in the press in his early days, Herculano never exercised much influence in politics.[2]


Grave as most of his writings are, they include a short description of a crossing from Jersey to Granville, in which he satirizes English character and customs, and he reveals an unexpected sense of humour. A rare capacity for tedious work, a dour Catonian rectitude, a passion for truth, pride, irritation when criticized, and independence of character are the marks of Herculano as a man.[2]

He could be broken but never bent, and his rude frankness accorded with his hard, sombre face, and he often alienated men's sympathies though he seldom lost their respect. His lyricism is vigorous, feeling but austere, and almost entirely subjective and personal, while his pamphlets are distinguished by energy of conviction, strength of affirmation, and contempt for weaker and more ignorant opponents.[2]

His History of Portugal is a great but incomplete monument. A lack of imagination and a deficit of the philosophic spirit prevented him from penetrating or drawing characters, but his analytical gift, joined to persevering toil and honesty of purpose, enabled him to present a faithful account of ascertained facts and a satisfactorily lucid explanation of political and economic events.[2]

His remains lie in a majestic tomb in the Jerónimos Monastery at Belém, near Lisbon, which was raised by public subscription. His more important works have gone through many editions, and his name is still one to reckon with when considering modern historians of Portugal and of the Iberian peninsula.[2]

Family life

In 1866, Herculano married an old love of his, Mariana Hermínia de Meira, born about 1830, with whom he had no children.

Principal works


  • The Voice of the Prophet (A Voz do Profeta) 1836
  • The Believer's Harp (A Harpa do Crente) 1838
  • Poems (Poesias) 1850


  • The Frontier of Africa, or Three Nights of Heartburn (O Fronteiro de África ou três noites aziagas) A drama based on Portuguese history, in three acts, staged in Lisbon, in 1838, at the Salitre Theatre, revived in Rio de Janeiro in 1862
  • The Princes in Ceuta (Os Infantes em Ceuta) 1842


  • The Vicar of Aldeia (O Pároco de Aldeia) 1851
  • The Galician: Life, Sayings, and Deeds of Lázaro Tomé (O Galego: Vida, ditos e feitos de Lázaro Tomé)

Historical novels, novellas and short stories

  • The Jester (O Bobo) 1828–1843
  • The Monasticon (‘’O Monasticon’’) duology:
    • Eurico, the Presbyter: Visigoth Era (Eurico, o Presbítero: Época Visigótica) 1844
    • The Monk of Cister; in the time of João I (O Monge de Cister; Época de D. João I) 1848, 2 volumes
  • Legends and Narratives (Lendas e narrativas) 1851, collection of novellas and short stories
    • Legends and Narratives, Volume 1 (Lendas e narrativas, 1.º tomo) 1851
      • The Qaid of Santarém (O Alcaide de Santarém 950–961)
      • Médsceatt by Charter of Spain (Arras por Foro de Espanha, archairc Portuguese for "Fee by Charter of Spain", 1371–2)
      • The Castle of Faria (O Castelo de Faria 1373)
      • The Vaulted Ceiling (A Abóbada 1401)
    • Legends and Narratives, Volume 2 (Lendas e narrativas, 2.º tomo) 1851
      • Destruction of Auria: Spanish Legends (8th century) (Destruição de Áuria: Lendas Espanholas (século VIII))
      • The Black Bishop (O Bispo Negro 1130)
      • The Death of the Toiler (A Morte do Lidador 1170)
      • The Emprazado: Chronicle of Spain (O Emprazado: Crónica de Espanha 1312)
      • The Assassinated Master: Chronicle of the Templars (O Mestre Assassinado: Crónica dos Templários 1320)
      • Master Gil: A Chronicle of the Fifteenth Century (Mestre Gil: Crónica (Século XV))
      • Three Months in Calcutta: First Account of the Indian States, 1498 (Três Meses em Calecut: Primeira Crónica dos Estados da Índia, 1498)
      • The Chronicler: To live and believe in another time (O Cronista: Viver e Crer de Outro Tempo)


  • "History of Portugal from the beginning of the monarchy to the end of the reign of Afonso III" (História de Portugal: 1.ª época, desde an origem da monarquia até D. Afonso III) 1846–1853
  • "History of the origin and establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal" (História da Origem e Estabelecimento da Inquisição em Portugal) 1854–1859
  • Historical Monuments of Portugal (Portugaliae Monumenta Historica) 1856–1873


  • Pamphlets: Public Questions, Volume 1 (Opúsculos: Questões Públicas, Tomo I)
    • The Voice of the Prophet (A Voz do Profeta) 1837
    • Theatre, Ethics, Censorship (Teatro, Moral, Censura) 1841
    • The Exits (Os Egressos) 1842
    • On the Economic System (Da Instituição das Caixas Económicas) 1844
    • The Nuns of Lorvão (As Freiras de Lorvão) 1853
    • The Condition of the Church's Records of the Kingdom (Do Estado dos Arquivos Eclesiásticos do Reino) 1857
    • The Suppression of Lectures in the Barracks (A Supressão das Conferências do Casino) 1871
  • Pamphlets: Public Questions, Volume 2 (Opúsculos: Questões Públicas, Tomo II)
    • Patriotic Monuments (Monumentos Pátrios) 1838
    • On Intellectual Property (Da Propriedade Literária) 1851–1852
    • Letter to the Academy of Sciences (Carta à Academia das Ciências) 1856
    • Mousinho da Silveira 1856
    • Letter to the Members of the Cintra Club (Carta aos Eleitores do Círculo de Cintra) 1858
    • Manifest of the Popular Association for the Advancement of Education of Women (Manifesto da Associação Popular Promotora da Educação do Sexo Feminino) 1858
  • Pamphlets: Controversies and Historical Studies, Volume 1 (Opúsculos: Controvérsias e Estudos Históricos, Tomo I)
    • The Battle of Ourique (A Batalha de Ourique):
      • I. Me and the Clergy (Eu e o Clero) 1850
      • II. Peaceful Considerations (Considerações Pacificas) 1850
      • III. Solemn Words (Solemnia Verba) 1850
      • IV. Solemn Words (Solemnia Verba) 1850
      • V. The Science of an Arab Academic (A Ciência Arábico-Académica) 1851
    • "Condition of the working classes on the peninsula from the seventh to the twelfth century" (Do estado das classes servas na Península, desde o VIII até o XII Século) 1858
  • Pamphlets: Public Questions, Volume 3 (Opúsculos: Questões Públicas, Tomo III)
    • The Ties that Bind (Os Vínculos) 1856
    • Immigration (A Emigração) 1870–1875
  • Pamphlets: Controversies and Historical Studies, Volume 2 (Opúsculos: Controvérsias e Estudos Históricos, Tomo II)
    • Portuguese historians (Historiadores portugueses) 1839–1840:
      • Fernão Lopes
      • Gomes Eanes de Azurara
      • Vasco Fernandes de Lucena and Rui de Pina
      • Garcia de Resende
    • Letters about the History of Portugal (Cartas Sobre a História de Portugal) 1842
    • Answer to the Criticisms of Vilhena Saldanha (Resposta às Censuras de Vilhena Saldanha) 1846
    • Letter to the Editor of the Universal Review (Carta ao Redactor da Revista Universal)
    • On the Existence and non-Existence of Feudalism in Portugal (Da Existência e não Existência do Feudalismo em Portugal) 1875–1877
    • Explanations (Esclarecimentos):
      • A. Gothic Destinies (Sortes Góticas)
      • B. Feudalism (Feudo)
  • Pamphlets: Controversies and Historical Studies, Volume 4 (Opúsculos: Controvérsias e Estudos Históricos, Tomo IV)
    • An Old Newtown (Uma Vila-Nova Antiga)
    • Random Thoughts about an Obscure Man (Cogitações Soltas de um Homem Obscuro)
    • Portuguese Archeology (Arqueologia Portuguesa):
      • The Adventure of Cardinal Alexandrino (Viagem de Cardeal Alexandrino);
      • Characteristic of Lisbon (Aspecto de Lisboa);
      • The Adventure of Two Knights (Viagem dos Cavaleiros Tron e Lippomani)
    • A Little Light in the Thick Darkness (Pouca luz em muitas trevas)
    • Notes on the History of Royal Virtue (Apontamentos para a historia dos bens da coroa)
  • Pamphlets: Public Questions, Volume 4 (Opúsculos: Questões Públicas, Tomo IV)
    • Two Eras and Two Monuments, or the Royal Farm at Mafra (Duas Épocas e Dois Monumentos ou a Granja Real de Mafra)
    • Brief Thoughts on Some Aspects of the Farm Economy (Breves Reflexões Sobre Alguns Pontos de Economia Agrícola)
    • The Farm of Calhariz (A Granja do Calhariz)
    • A Legal Project (Projecto de Decreto)
    • Peace and the National Interest (O País e a Nação)
    • Representation of Belém City Hall to the National Government (Representação da Câmara Municipal de Belém ao Governo)
    • Representation of Belém City Hall to Parliament (Representação da Câmara Municipal de Belém ao Parlamento)
    • Agricultural Subsidy Project (Projecto de Caixa de Socorros Agrícolas)
    • On the Question of Forais (Sobre a Questão dos Forais)
  • Pamphlets on Literature:
    • What is the condition of our literature? What path will it take? (Qual é o Estado da Nossa Literatura? Qual é o Trilho que Ela Hoje Tem a Seguir?)
    • Poetry: Imitation, Beauty, Unity (Poesia: Imitação—Belo—Unidade)
    • Origins of Modern Theatre: Portuguese Theatre up to the End of the Sixteenth Century (Origens do Teatro Moderno: Teatro Português até aos Fins do Século XVI)
    • Accounts of Portuguese Chivalry (Novelas de Cavalaria Portuguesas)
    • History of Modern Theatre: Spanish Theatre (Historia do Teatro Moderno: Teatro Espanhol)
    • Popular Portuguese Beliefs or Popular Superstitions (Crenças Populares Portuguesas ou Superstições Populares)
    • The House of Gonzalo, a Comedy in Five Acts: An Opinion (A Casa de Gonçalo, Comédia em Cinco Actos: Parecer)
    • Historic Praise for Sebastian Xavier Botelho (Elogio Histórico de Sebastião Xavier Botelho)
    • Lady Maria Teles, a Drama in Five Acts: An Opinion (D. Maria Teles, Drama em Cinco Actos: Parecer)
    • Lady Leonor de Almeida, Marquess of Alorna (D. Leonor de Almeida, Marquesa de Alorna)

Other works

  • From the Isle of Jersey to Granville (De Jersey a Granville) 1831
  • Estudos sobre o casamento civil: por occasião do opusculo do sr. Visconde de Seabra sobre este assumpto 1866 (Digitalized at Google)


  1. ^ a b Prestage 1911, p. 344.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Prestage 1911, p. 345.


  • Wikisource-logo.svg Ford, Jeremiah Denis Mathias (1910). "Alejandro Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Endnotes:
    • DE SERPA PIMENTEL, Herculano e o seu tempo (Lisbon, 1881)
    • VON DÖLLINGER, Gedächtnisrede auf A. Herculano in his Akademische Vorträge
    • ROMERO ORTIZ, La literatura portuguesa en el siglo XIX (Madrid, 1870)
    • DE VASCONCELLOS, Portugiesische Litteratur in GROEBER, Grundriss der romanischen Philologie, vol. II, pt. II, pp. 372 sqq.


External links

1877 in Portugal

Events in the year 1877 in Portugal.

Alexandre (given name)

Alexandre is the French, Portuguese, Catalan and Galician form of the masculine given name Alexander. Notable people with the name include:

Alexandre Aja (born 1978), French film director

Alexandre Baptista, Portuguese footballer

Alexandre de Beauharnais, French political figure and general during the French Revolution

Alexandre Bilodeau, Canadian skier

Alexandre Brasseur, French actor

Alexandre Dupuis (born 1990), Canadian football player

Alexandre Dumas, French writer

Alexandre Farnoux, French historian and Minoan archaeologist

Alexandre Gaydamak, French businessman, co-owner & Chairman of Portsmouth F.C.

Alexandre Herculano, Portuguese novelist and historian

Alexandre Lacazette, French footballer for Arsenal F.C.

Alexandre Lippmann (1881–1960), French 2x Olympic champion épée fencer

Alexandre Sarnes Negrão, Brazilian race car driver

Alexandre José Oliveira, Spanish-Brazilian football player

Alexandre O'Neill, Portuguese poet

Alexandre Pétion, Haitian President

Alexandre Pato, Brazilian footballer

Alexandre Quintanilha, Portuguese scientist

Alexandre de Serpa Pinto, Portuguese explorer

Alexandre Alves da Silva, Brazilian football player

Alex Song, Cameroonian football player

Alexandre Sperafico, Brazilian driver

Alexandre Trudeau, Canadian filmmaker and journalist

Alexandre Vauthier, French fashion designer

Alexandre Yokochi, Portuguese swimmer

Philippe Alexandre Autexier (1954–1998), French music historian and masonic researcher

Avenida da Liberdade

Avenida da Liberdade (Portuguese for "Avenue of Liberty") is an important boulevard in central Lisbon, Portugal, famous as one of the most expensive shopping streets in Europe. Originating in the Passeio Público, an 18th-century park built for the Portuguese nobility, the avenue was built in 1879, when the former park was turned into a major boulevard, marking the northward expansion of the city during the 19th century. It has since become one of the most prestigious addresses in Portugal and one of Europe's most popular luxury shopping destinations, as the home to numerous luxury stores, boutiques, and hotels. The Avenida is also home to numerous embassies and diplomatic missions.

The Avenida is a 90 metre-wide boulevard, 1100 m long, with ten lanes divided by pedestrian pavements decorated with gardens. It links Marquis of Pombal Square in the north to Restauradores Square, the entrance to the Lisbon Baixa. It is commonly referred to by the inhabitants of Lisbon simply as the "Avenida" (the Avenue).

Azulejos (journal)

Azulejos : Semanário Ilustrado de Ciências, Letras e Artes (Portuguese for "Titles: Weekly Illustrations of Sciences, Arts and Letters") was a review published in Lisbon, Portugal from September 1907 to February 1909. Five series of fifteen issues were published.

The periodical was advertised as a journal open to all authors, but especially those who were as yet unknown, since the magazine specialized in promoting new writing talent. Subjects published varied from sporting life to spiritualism.

Its head was Palermo de Faria, and the editorial team included Anacleto Oliveira, Bento Mântua, Xavier da Silva, Luís Cebola, Aarão de Lacerda, and Alfredo Mantua. Many of the "new talents" which took part in its journal publication later became well-known writers in Portugal, including Mário de Sá Carneiro, Abel Botelho, Amélia Janny, Astrigildo Chaves, Augusto Casimiro, Guerra Junqueiro, João de Câmara, João de Freitas Branco, Júlio Dantas, Olavo Bilac and a few texts, were published posthumously, including those by Alexandre Herculano, Bocage, Camilo Castelo Branco and João de Deus.

Eurico, the Presbyter

Eurico, the Presbyter (Portuguese: Eurico, o Presbítero) is an 1844 historical novel by Alexandre Herculano. It is about the ending days of the Visigoth kingdom that existed in the Iberian Peninsula, as the Moors invaded it in the 8th century.


Herculano is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Alexandre Herculano (1810-1877), Portuguese novelist and historian

Suzana Herculano-Houzel (born 1972), Brazilian neuroscientist

José Marques da Silva

José Marques da Silva (18 October 1869 – 6 June 1947) was a Portuguese architect and educator.

Júlio Gonçalves

Luís Manuel Júlio Frederico Gonçalves (1846 in Nova Goa – 1896), who usually wrote simply as J. Gonçalves, was a Goan writer. Referred to by his contemporaries as the Alexandre Herculano of Goa, Gonçalves had a foundational role in developing Portuguese-language writing in the Portuguese colony of Goa.A lawyer by training, Gonçalves served in public administration, most significantly as librarian of Panjim's public library.Portugal's Regeneration saw the reintroduction of the press to Goa, along with expanded Portuguese education, and in its wake, Gonçalves founded and ran the monthly journal Ilustração Goana from 1864-66. 'It focussed on literary and historical themes, with some incursions into the natural sciences' and carried Gonçalves's 'Bosquejos Literários', literary critical pieces, perhaps the first pieces of modern literary criticism in Goa.Gonçalves is noted today as a writer of short stories, which he wrote in two series: Contos da Minha Terra and Aventuras de um Simplício. They are reckoned 'some of the very first efforts to European-style literary fiction to a Goan setting' and show the influence of European Romanticism. Two of his works are available in English translation.

Leonor Teles

Leonor Teles (or Teles de Meneses) (c. 1350 – c. 1405) was queen consort of Portugal by marriage to King Ferdinand I, and one of the protagonists, along with her brothers and her daughter Beatrice, of the events that led to the succession crisis of 1383–1385, which culminated in the defeat of her son-in-law King John I of Castile and his armies in the Battle of Aljubarrota. Called "the Treacherous" (a Aleivosa in Portuguese) by her subjects, who execrated her on account of her adultery and treason to her native country, she was dubbed by the historian Alexandre Herculano as "the Portuguese Lucrezia Borgia".

Lisbon Synagogue

The Lisbon Synagogue (formally, the Synagogue Shaaré Tikvah (Gates of Hope) is a historical Portuguese synagogue situated in the civil parish of Santo António, in the municipality of Lisbon.

List of Portuguese novelists

This is a list of Portuguese novelists.

List of Romantic poets

The six best-known English authors are, in order of birth and with an example of their work:

William Blake – The Marriage of Heaven and Hell

William Wordsworth – The Prelude

Samuel Taylor Coleridge – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

George Gordon, Lord Byron – Don Juan, "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"

Percy Bysshe Shelley – Prometheus Unbound, "Adonaïs", "Ode to the West Wind", "Ozymandias"

John Keats – Great Odes, "Hyperion", "Endymion"

Notable female poets include Felicia Dorothea Hemans, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Charlotte Turner Smith, Mary Robinson, Hannah More, and Joanna Baillie.

List of people from Lisbon

Verissimo, Maxima and Julia according to tradition were the first three martyrs of Olisipo, considered native and later also as Romans in the city (3rd and 4th centuries AD)

São Gens was a legendary bishop-martyr who, according to tradition, has been one of the first bishops of Lisbon, even during the Roman domination of Lusitania

Fernando Martins de Bulhões, later Saint Anthony of Lisbon (c. 1195–13 June 1231) is a Catholic saint

Pedro Julião, ordained Pope John XXI, (c. 1215–20 May 1277), was the only Portuguese-born Pope

Fernão Lopes (c. 1385–after 1459, chronicler appointed by King Edward of Portugal. Fernão Lopes wrote the history of Portugal, but only a part of his work remained. His way of writing was based on oral discourse, and, on every page, it revealed his roots among the common people. He is one of the fathers of the European historiography, or a precursor of the scientific historiography, basing his works always on the documental proof, and, has he said, on his pages "one cannot find the beauty of words but the nudity of the truth." He was an autodidact

Isaac Abrabanel, Isaac ben Judah Abrabanel (1437–1508), commonly referred to just as Isaac Abrabanel or Isaac Abravanel, was a Portuguese Jewish statesman, notable philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier.

Francisco de Almeida (c. 1450–1 March 1510), nobleman, soldier and explorer, counsellor to King John II of Portugal and the first Viceroy of Portuguese India. Almeida is credited with establishing Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean, with his decisive victory at the naval Battle of Diu in 1509

Duarte Pacheco Pereira (c. 1460–1533), called "the Great", was a 15th-century sea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer. He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde islands, around northern Brazil, in 1498 and before; also along the coast of West Africa and to India. His accomplishments in strategic warfare, exploration, mathematics and astronomy were of an exceptional level. With the anticipation of more than two centuries, he was responsible for calculating the value of the degree of the meridian arc with a margin of error of only 4%

Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480–1521), writer and navigator; embarked on the first expedition to circumnavigate the world, led by his brother-in-law Ferdinand Magellan.

João da Nova, Xoán de Novoa or Joam de Nôvoa (born c. 1460 in Maceda, Ourense, Galicia (Spain) – died July 1509 in Kochi, India) was a Galician explorer of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans at the service of Portugal. His skills earned him the appointment by King Manuel I of Portugal as Alcaide menor (mayor) of Lisbon in 1496. He is credited as the discoverer of Ascension and Saint Helena islands. The Juan de Nova Island, in the Mozambique Channel, is named after him. The Farquhar atoll (in the Seychelles) was, for a long time, known as the João da Nova islands.

António Galvão (c. 1490–1557), soldier and administrator in the Maluku islands in the Pacific Ocean, and a Renaissance historian, the first to present a comprehensive report of all the leading voyages and explorers up to 1550, either by Portuguese and by other nationalities. His works show a remarkable accuracy, especially the Treaty of Discovery published in Lisbon in 1563 and in English by Richard Hakluyt in 1601.

João de Castro (7 February 1500–6 June 1548), naval officer, notable scientist, writer and cartographer. He was also the fourth viceroy of Portuguese India. He was called Castro Forte ("Strong Castro") by poet Luís de Camões. He undertook many observations and can in a way be considered as one of the discoverers of crustal magnetism. He also discovered spatial variations of Declination in some points of the globe (as in Baçaim, India), which he attributed to the disturbing effects of underwater rock masses. Castro was one of the most important representative of scientific maritime investigations of the time

Francisco de Holanda (originally Francisco d'Olanda), (c. 1517–1585), humanist and painter. Considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance, he was also an essayist, architect, and historian. He was a maternal nephew of Pope Adrian VI and a remote uncle of Deodoro da Fonseca, Sérgio Buarque de Holanda and his namesake Chico Buarque

António Ferreira (1528 – 29 November 1569), poet and the foremost representative of the classical school, founded by Francisco de Sá de Miranda. His most considerable work, Castro, is the first tragedy in Portuguese, and the second in modern European literature. known as the Portuguese Horace, he was an ardent defender of the Portuguese language.

Diogo do Couto (about 1542–Goa, 10 December 1616), notable historian who continued the Decades of Asia of the great historian João de Barros. Couto was a close friend of the poet Luís de Camões.

António Vieira (6 February 1608–18 July 1697), Jesuit and writer, considered the "prince" of pulpit-orators in his time. The honorable and great poet Fernando Pessoa crowned Vieira with the magnificent title of "Emperor of the Portuguese Language"

João Pinto Ribeiro was a celebrated conjurado and one of the conspirators and planners of the revolution of 1 December 1640.

Catherine of Braganza (25 November 1638–31 December 1705), Queen Consort of King Charles II of England

Saint John de Brito (Portuguese: João de Brito, also spelled "Britto") (1 March 1647–died at Oriyur (ஓரியூர்), Tamil Nadu, India, on 11 February 1693) was a Jesuit missionary and martyr, often called "the Portuguese St. Francis Xavier" by Indian Catholics.

José da Silva Pais (25 October 1679–14 November 1760), soldier and colony administrator. He organized the support for the Sacramento Colony during the Spanish–Portuguese War, 1735–1737. For the purpose of maintaining the South of Brazil in the hands of Portugal, Pais was charged with the colonization and construction of many villages and Fortresses like the Jesus Maria e José and others in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquess of Pombal (Marquês de Pombal,; 13 May 1699 – 8 May 1782) was an 18th-century statesman in the Age of Enlightenment. He was Minister of the Kingdom in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered today to have been the de facto head of government. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake

Leonor de Almeida Portugal (1750–1839), Marchioness of Alorna, 8th Countess of Assumar, one of the greatest figures of Portuguese literature, known as Alcippe, and the most famous holder of the title

Carlos Frederico Lecor (6 October 1764–2 August 1836), general and politician. He was the first Baron of Laguna, in Portugal, and later Viscount of Laguna in Brazil. The only non-British General to have commanded one of the Anglo-Portuguese divisions of Wellington's Peninsular Army (the seventh, in late 1813), as well as having commanded the Portuguese Luso-Brazilian forces who invaded the Banda Oriental del Uruguay (Eastern Bank of Uruguay) in 1816.

António José de Souza Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha (18 March 1792–26 April 1860), 7th Count of Vila Flor, 1st Marquis of Vila Flor and 1st Duke of Terceira, was a military officer, statesman and a leader of the Constitutionalist side in the Liberal Wars, as well as a Prime Minister of Portugal

Alexandre Herculano (Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo; (28 March 1810–13 September 1877 in Santarém), novelist and historian

Camilo Castelo Branco (Camilo Ferreira Botelho Castelo-Branco, 1st Viscount de Correia Botelho; 16 March 1825 – 1 June 1890), prolific and notable writer, having authored over 260 books (mainly novels, plays and essays). His writing is, overall, considered original in that it combines the dramatic and sentimental spirit of Romanticism with a highly personal combination of bitterness, dark humour of sarcasm

Cesário Verde (25 February 1855–19 July 1886), poet. His work, while mostly ignored during his lifetime, is generally considered to be amongst the most important in Portuguese poetry and is widely taught in schools. This is partly due to his being championed by many other authors after his death, notably Fernando Pessoa

Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro (30 December 1861–11 February 1944), son of a Portuguese father and an Irish mother, was a soldier, colonial governor, monarchist politician and counter-revolutionary; he was notable for his role during the colonial occupation of Angola and Mozambique and for his dedication to the monarchist cause during the period of the First Portuguese Republic

Gago Coutinho or Carlos Viegas Gago Coutinho (17 February 1869–18 February 1959), aviation pioneer who, together with Sacadura Cabral (1881–1924), was the first to cross the South Atlantic Ocean by air, from March to June 1922 (some sources wrongly claim 1919), from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. Gago Coutinho invented a type of sextant incorporating two spirit levels to provide an artificial horizon. This adaptation of the traditional marine sextant allowed navigation without visual reference to the real horizon.

Fernando Pessoa (13 June 1888–30 November 1935 ), poet, writer, literary critic and translator, considered one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century

Mário de Sá-Carneiro (19 May 1890–26 April 1916), poet and writer. He is one of the most well known of the "Geração D'Orpheu" and friend of Fernando Pessoa and Almada Negreiros

Margarida de Abreu (26 November 1915–29 September 2006), choreographer, responsible for the introduction of Ballet school in Portugal

Amália Rodrigues (23 July 1920–6 October 1999), the Rainha do Fado (Queen of Fado), influential in popularizing the fado worldwide

Jorge Ferreira Chaves (22 February 1920–22 August 1982), architect

Mário Cesariny (9 August 1923–26 November 2006), surrealist poet, a minor painter

Alexandre O'Neill (19 December 1924–21 August 1986), poet/writer

Mário Soares (born 7 December 1924), politician, 17th President and 53rd/60th Prime-Ministers of Portugal

Jaime Montestrela (12 June 1925–8 November 1975), writer, poet and psychiatrist

Paula Rego (born c. 1935), painter, illustrator and printmaker

Jorge Sampaio (born 18 September 1939), politician, United Nations High Commissioner for the Alliance of Civilizations, former Mayor of Lisbon and 18th President of Portugal

Gonçalo Byrne (born c. 1941), architect

António Damásio (born c. 1944), neuroscientist

António Guterres (born 30 April 1949), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 62nd Prime-Minister of Portugal

José Manuel Durão Barroso (born 23 March 1956), President of the European Commission, 63rd Prime-Minister of Portugal

Joaquim de Almeida (born 15 March 1957), actor

António Costa (born 17 July 1961), 119th Prime Minister of Portugal, first one of Goan Konkani ancestry

José Mourinho (born 26 January 1963), football manager

Luis Figo (born 4 November 1972), football player

P.J. Marcellino (born 24 October 1978), film director, film producer, journalist

Livraria Bertrand

Livraria Bertrand (Bookstore Bertrand) is the oldest and largest bookstore chain in Portugal. Opened in 1732, in the district of Chiado, it was declared by the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest, operating bookstore in the world in 2016. It has a network of 52 shops across the country and has offered online services (such as Grupo Porto Editora) since 30 June 2010.

Founded in 1732 by Pedro Faure, the first bookstore opened along Rua Direita do Loreto. In 1755, his son-in-law, Pierre Bertrand, who ran the bookstore was forced to operate from the chapel of Nossa Senhora das Necessidades, following the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

In 1773, Bertrand reopened the bookstore in a shop in the old Pombaline downtown quarter, in the district of Chiado. It was frequented by various famous Portuguese authors, including Alexandre Herculano, Oliveira Martins, Eca de Queiros, Antero de Quental and Ramalho Ortigão, who were prominent literary figures and congregated with friends and acquaintances. The bookstore was at the center of the city's important historical events, including the escape of King João VI to Brazil or as an intersection of many political movements (liberals and conservatives, later Republicans and Democrats).

Portugaliae Monumenta Historica

The Portugaliae Monumenta Historica (Historical Monuments of Portugal, abbreviated PMH) is a collection of texts from Portuguese history. Inspired by the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, it was published by the Academia das Ciências de Lisboa between 1856 and 1917 and divided into four sections: Scriptores (writers), Leges et Consuetudines (laws and customs), Diplomata et Chartae (diplomas and charters) and Inquisitiones (investigations). The first three were compiled under the direction of Alexandre Herculano before 1873, and the last, Inquisitiones, between 1888 and 1897, after his death. The documents date from the Middle Ages and are primarily in Middle Latin and Old Portuguese.

Portuguese literature

Portuguese literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the Portuguese language, particularly by citizens of Portugal; it may also refer to literature written by people living in Portugal, Brazil, Angola and Mozambique, as well as other Portuguese-speaking countries. An early example of Portuguese literature is the tradition of a medieval Galician-Portuguese poetry, originally developed in Galicia and northern Portugal. The literature of Portugal is distinguished by a wealth and variety of lyric poetry, which has characterized it from the beginning of its language, after the Roman occupation; by its wealth of historical writing documenting Portugal’s rulers, conquests, and expansion; by the then considered Golden Age of the Renaissance period of which it forms part the moral and allegorical Renaissance drama of Gil Vicente, Bernardim Ribeiro, Sá de Miranda and especially the great 16th-century national epic of Luís de Camões, author of national and epic poem Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads).

The seventeenth century was marked by the introduction of the Baroque in Portugal and is generally regarded as the century of literary decadence, despite the existence of writers like Father António Vieira, Padre Manuel Bernardes and Francisco Rodrigues Lobo.

The writers of the eighteenth century tried to counteract a certain decadence of the baroque stage by making an effort to recover the level of quality attained during the Golden Age, through the creation of academies and literary Arcadias - it was the time of Neoclassicism. In the nineteenth century, the neoclassical ideals were abandoned, where Almeida Garrett introduced Romanticism, followed by Alexandre Herculano and Camilo Castelo Branco.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, Realism (of naturalistic features) developed in novel-writing, whose exponents included Eça de Queiroz and Ramalho Ortigão. Literary trends during the twentieth century are represented mainly by Fernando Pessoa, considered as one of the greatest national poets together with Camões, and, in later years, by the development of prose fiction, thanks to authors such as António Lobo Antunes and José Saramago, winner of the Nobel prize for Literature.

Rua Santos Minho

Rua Santos Minho is a small street in Póvoa de Varzim city center, in Portugal. The area formerly known as Campo das Cobras is the historical site for theater, bullfighting and cinema in Póvoa de Varzim.

Siege of Porto

The Siege of Porto is considered the period between July 1832 and August 1833 in which the troops of Dom Pedro remained besieged by the forces of Dom Miguel I of Portugal.The resistance of the city of Porto and the troops of Dom Pedro made the victory of the liberal cause in the Kingdom of Portugal possible. Those that fought in the Siege of Porto on the Liberal side include Almeida Garrett, Alexandre Herculano and Joaquim António de Aguiar.

Sociedade Propagadora dos Conhecimentos Úteis

The Sociedade Propagadora dos Conhecimentos Úteis (Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge) of Lisbon, Portugal, formed in 1837. The group produced a weekly illustrated magazine, O Panorama, intended for the general interest reader and priced relatively affordably. According to the society, some copies were also distributed free of charge to charities such as Casa Pia orphanage and Casa de Expostos. Editors included Alexandre Herculano, António Feliciano de Castilho, and António de Oliveira Marreca. Other contributors included Rodrigo Jose de Lima Felner.In addition to the magazine, the society published works by authors such as Luís da Silva Mouzinho de Albuquerque, José Ferreira Borges, Manuel Godinho de Erédia, Francisco José Freire, Almeida Garrett, and Inácio Pizarro de Morais Sarmento. Its printing press operated from Rua do Carmo in Baixa Pombalina.

The society formed during a post-civil war era of liberalized civil society in Portugal. Organizations with similar educational missions included the Sociedade das Ciências Médicas e da Literatura (est. 1833), Sociedade Promotora da Indústria Nacional (reactivated in 1834), Sociedade dos Amigos das Letras (est. 1836).(pt)

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