Alexandr Rasnitsyn

Alexandr Pavlovich Rasnitsyn (Russian: Александр Павлович Расницын) is a Russian entomologist, expert in palaeoentomology, and Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation (2001).[1] His scientific interests are centered on the palaeontology, phylogeny, and taxonomy of hymenopteran insects and insects in general. He has also studied broader biological problems such as evolutionary theory, the principles of phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature, and palaeoecology. He has published over 300 articles and books in several languages. In August 2008 he was awarded the Distinguished Research Medal of the International Society of Hymenopterists.

Alexandr Pavlovich (Alex) Rasnitsyn
Александр Павлович Расницын
Rasnitsyn Alava
Rasnitsyn at an amber locality in Alava, Spain
BornSeptember 24, 1936 (age 83)
ResidenceSoviet Union, Russia
Alma materMoscow State University
Known forpaleoentomologist
AwardsHonored Scientist of Russian Federation, 2001
Scientific career
FieldsEntomologist, paleontologist
InstitutionsPaleontological Institute, RAS

Biography

Rasnitsyn AP
A.P. Rasnitsyn in his laboratory

Alexandr Rasnitsyn was born on 24 September 1936 in Moscow. As a schoolboy Alex was active in the Society of Young Biologists at the Moscow Zoo. In 1955 he became a student at the Biological Faculty of the Moscow State University and in 1960 he graduated with honors from the Department of Entomology. His Master thesis was "Hibernation in the ichneumon-fly subfamily Ichneumoninae". The same year Rasnitsyn joined the Laboratory of Arthropods at the Paleontological institute, Academy of Sciences of USSR. In 1967 he received his Ph.D. in biology from the Paleontological Institute with the thesis "The Mesozoic Hymenoptera Symphyta and the early evolution of Xyelidae". After defending in 1978 his Dr. hab. (doktor nauk) thesis "The origin and evolution of Hymenoptera" Rasnitsyn became Head of the Laboratory of Arthropods. In 1991 he received the title of a Biology Professor. In 1996 he resigned from heading the Laboratory and continued there as a principal research worker, but after the new leader, Vladimir Zherikhin, died in 2001 Rasnitsyn again became the acting Head of the Laboratory (2002—present).[2]

Between 2001 and 2005 Rasnitsyn served as President of the International Palaeoentomological Society. Since 2007 he is serving on the Council of the Russian Entomological Society.[2]

During more than 20 field seasons between 1956 and 2009 Rasnitsyn conducted field work in various regions of Russia and the former USSR, including Fergana Valley, Issyk Kul, Central Asia, Transbaikalia, Taimyr, Okhotsk, Sikhote-Alin, and other parts of Siberia, Far East, and Mongolia.[2]

Family

Rasnitsyn has one son, Dmitri, who is from a previous marriage. Dmitri married a Masha Kreinin and Rasnitsyn now has three grandchildren; Alexandra, Shelly, and Jonathan Rasnitsyn, who all live in the US.

Research

One of the world’s leading paleoentomologists, Rasnitsyn has described ca. 250[3] new genera and over 800[4] new species of fossil insects from various orders.[2]

He is one of the foremost authorities on the paleontology and systematics of Hymenoptera whose ideas have formed the foundation of the modern classification of that insect order. Instead of the traditional division into Symphyta and Apocrita, he divided the order into “sawflies” (Siricina) and “stinging and parasitic wasps’’ (Vespina), the latter suborder including the parasitic Orussoidea, traditionally placed in the Symphyta.[2]

Rasnitsyn suggested his own hypothesis on the origin of insect flight. According to him, the wings first evolved, as a means to control gliding, in relatively large insects that had turned to feeding on generative organs of arboreal plants.[2]

Rasnitsyn is one of the most consistent opponents of cladism. He develops an alternative approach to biological systematics, called “phyletics”, which differs from phenetics in taking into account genealogy in addition to similarities and hiatuses.[2]

He also contributed significantly to the epigenetic theory of evolution and, in particular, has put forward the concept of “adaptive compromise” and the notion of macroevolution being irreducible to microevolutionary processes alone.[2]

Rasnitsyn has also made a significant contribution to paleoecology and in collaboration with Vladimir Zherikhin developed the theory of ecological crises.[2]

Ross brothers rasnitsyn
Three presidents of the International Palaeoentomological Society at the FossilsX3, Vitoria-Gasteiz, 2007: Andrew Ross, Denis Brothers, and Alexandr Rasnitsyn

New taxa described by Alexandr Rasnitsyn

  • Suborder †Eolepidopterigina Rasn., 1983 – a suborder of butterflies with the family Eolepidopterigidae Rasn., 1983[5]
  • Suborder †Aneuretopsychina Rasnitsyn et Kozlov, 1990 – a suborder of Mecoptera with the family Aneuretopsychidae Rasnitsyn et Kozlov, 1990[6]
  • Superfamily †Karatavitoidea Rasn., 1963 – a Mesozoic superfamily of the infraorder Orussomorpha Newman, 1834 with the family Karatavitidae Rasn., 1963[7][8]
  • Superfamily †Bethylonymoidea Rasn., 1975 – a Mesozoic superfamily of Hymenoptera Apocrita with the family Bethylonymidae Rasn., 1975. The ancestor group of Aculeata.[9]
  • Family †Parapamphiliidae Rasn., 1968 – later was included into Sepulcidae Rasn., 1968 as the subfamily Parapamphiliinae Rasn., 1968[10]
  • Family †Xyelydidae Rasn., 1968 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Symphyta from the superfamily Pamphilioidea[10]
  • Family †Gigasiricidae Rasn., 1968 – a Jurassic family of Hymenoptera Symphyta from the superfamily Siricoidea[10]
  • Family †Xyelotomidae Rasn., 1968 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Symphyta from the superfamily Tenthredinoidea[10]
  • Family †Pararchexyelydae Rasn., 1968 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Symphyta[10]
  • Family †Praeaulacidae Rasn., 1972 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita from the superfamily Evanioidea[11]
  • Family †Maimetshidae Rasn., 1975 – a Cretaceous family of Hymenoptera Apocrita from the superfamily Ceraphronoidea[9]
  • Family †Cretevaniidae Rasn., 1975 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita from the superfamily Evanioidea[9]
  • Family †Kotujellidae Rasn., 1975 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita from the superfamily Evanioidea[9] (later included into Gasteruptiidae Ashmead, 1900)[12]
  • Family †Anomopterellidae Rasn., 1975 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita from the superfamily Evanioidea[9]
  • Family †Baissidae Rasn., 1975 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita from the superfamily Evanioidea[9] (later was included into Aulacidae Schuckard, 1841)[13]
  • Family †Ichneumonomimidae Rasn., 1975 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita. Systematic position uncertain, probably a relative of Ichneumonoidea[9]
  • Family †Angarosphecidae Rasn., 1975 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita from the superfamily Scolioidea[9]
  • Family †Falsiformicidae Rasn., 1975 – a Cretaceous family of Hymenoptera Apocrita from the superfamily Scolioidea[9]
  • Family †Baissodidae Rasn., 1975 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita[9]
  • Family †Evenkiidae Rasn., 1977 – a Carboniferous family of the order Protortoptera[14]
  • Family †Permonkidae Rasn., 1977 – a family of Miomoptera[14]
  • Family †Palaeomantiscidae Rasn., 1977 – a family of Miomoptera[14]
  • Family †Karataidae Rasn., 1977 – a Mesozoic family of Hymenoptera Apocrita[15]
  • Family †Electrotomidae Rasn., 1977 – a family of Tenthredinoidea from Baltic amber[16]
  • Family †Praeichneumonidae Rasn., 1983 – a Lower Cretaceous family of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea[17]
  • Family †Strashilidae Rasnitsyn, 1992 – a family of Mecopteroidea. Hypothetical ancestors of Anoplura[18]
  • Family †Saurodectidae Rasnitsyn et Zherikhin, 2000 – a Mesozoic family of Mallophaga[19]
  • Family †Andreneliidae Rasnitsyn et Martinez-Delclos, 2000 – a family of Hymenoptera Apocrita of the superfamily Evanioidea[20]
  • Family †Tshekarcephalidae Novokshonov et Rasnitsyn, 2000 – a Paleozoic family of uncertain systematic position[21]
  • Family †Daohugoidae Rasn. et Zhang Haichun, 2004 – a family of Hymenoptera Symphyta of the superfamily Siricoidea[22]
  • Family †Khutelchalcididae Rasnitsyn, Basibuyuk et Quicke, 2004 – a family of Chalcidoidea
  • Family †Radiophronidae Ortega-Blanco, Rasnitsyn et Delclos, 2010 – a Mesozoic family of Ceraphronoidea[23]
  • Subfamily †Archexyelinae Rsan., 1964 – a subfamily of Xyelidae Newman, 1834[24]
  • Subfamily †Dolichostigmatinae Rasn., 1968 – a subfamily of Anaxyelidae Martynov., 1925[10]
  • Subfamily †Karatavitinae Rasn., 1968 –a subfamily of Karatavitidae Rasn., 1963[10]
  • Subfamily †Sepulcinae Rasn., 1968 – was described as a subfamily of Karatavitidae Rasn., 1963,[10] later was raised to the family rank, Sepulcidae Rasn., 1968[25]
  • Subfamily †Auliscinae Rasn., 1968 – a subfamily of Karatavitidae Rasn., 1963[10]
  • Subfamily †Praesiricinae Rasn., 1968 – was described as a subfamily of Karatavitidae Rasn., 1963, later was raised to the family rank, Praesiricidae Rasn. 1968[10]
  • Subfamily †Madygellinae Rasn., 1969 – a subfamily of Xyelidae Newman, 1834[25]
  • Subfamily †Cleistogastrinae Rasn., 1975 – a subfamily of Megalyridae Schletterer, 1889[9]
  • Subfamily Proscoliinae Rasn., 1977 – a recent subfamily of Scoliidae[16]
  • Subfamily †Juralydinae Rasn., 1977 – a subfamily ofPamphiliidae Cameron, 1890[14]
  • Subfamily †Mesorussinae Rasn., 1977 – a subfamily of Orussidae Mewman, 1834[14]
  • Subfamily †Cretogonalinae Rasn., 1977 – a subfamily of Trigonalidae Cresson, 1867[14]
  • Subfamily †Manlayinae Rasn., 1986 – a subfamily of Aulacidae Schuckard, 1841[26]
  • Subfamily †Ghilarellinae Rasn., 1986 – a subfamily of Sepulcidae Rasn., 1968[27]
  • Subfamily †Trematothoracinae Rasn., 1986 – a subfamily of Sepulcidae Rasn., 1968[27]
  • Subfamily †Priorvespinae Carpenter et Rasnitsyn, 1990 – a subfamily of Vespidae Latrielle, 1802[28]
  • Subfamily †Archaeoscoliinae Rasnitsyn, 1993 – a subfamily of Scoliidae[29]
  • Subfamily †Karataoserphinae Rasnitsyn, 1994 – a subfamily of Mesoserphidae Kozlov, 1970[30]
  • Subfamily †Iscopininae Rasnitsyn, 1980 – a subfamily of Pelecinidae Haliday, 1840.
  • Tribe †Angaridyelini Rasn., 1966 – a tribe of the subfamily Macroxyelinae Ashmead, 1898 of the family Xyelidae[31]
  • Tribe †Cretodinapsini Rasn., 1977 – a tribe of the subfamily Megalyrinae of the family Megalyridae[14]
  • Tribe †Gigantoxyelini Rasn., 1969 – a tribe of the subfamily Macroxyelinae Ashmead, 1898 of the family Xyelidae Newmann, 1834

A.P. Rasnitsyn has also described ca. 250 new genera and over 800 new species of arthropods, mainly fossil.

Animal names in honor of Alexandr Rasnitsyn

Over 50 species of animals have been named in honor of Rasnitsyn,[32] as well as some taxa of higher rank:

  • Rasnicynipidae Kovalev, 1996 (a replacement name for Rasnitsyniidae Kovalev, 1994)— a fossil family of Cynipoidea with the genus Rasnicynips Kovalev, 1996 (a replacement name for Rasnitsynia Kovalev 1994)
  • Alexarasniidae Gorochov, 2011[33] — a fossil family of Polyneoptera with the genus Alexarasnia Gorochov, 2011
  • Alexrasnitsyniidae Prokop & Nel, 2011[34] — a family of the Paleozoic order Diaphanopterodea with the genus Alexrasnitsynia Prokop & Nel, 2011
  • Plumalexiidae Brothers, 2011[35] — a fossil family of Hymenoptera with the species Plumalexius rasnitsyni Brothers, 2011
  • Rasnitsynaphididae Homan & Wegierek, 2011[36] — a fossil family of Aphidoidea with the species Rasnitsynaphis Homan & Wegierek, 2011
  • Rasnitsynitini Kasparyan, 1994 — a tribe of the fossil subfamily Townesitinae of the family Ichneumonidae with the genus Rasnitsynites Kasparyan, 1994
  • Rasnitsynella Krivolutzkii, 1976 — a fossil genus of Acarina[37]
  • Rasnitsynia Pagliano et Scaramozzino 1989 (a replacement name for Oligoneuroides Zhang 1985) — a fossil genus of Braconidae
  • Rasnitsynitilla Lelej, 2006 — a genus of Mutillidae[38]
  • Alicodoxa rasnitsyni Emeljanov et Shcherbakov, 2011[39] — fossil genus and species of Fulgoroidea of the family Dictyopharidae
  • Palerasnitsynus Wichard, Ross et Ross, 2011[40] — a fossil genus of Trichoptera of the family Psychomyiidae
  • Rasnitsynala Zessin, Brauckmann et Groening, 2011[41] — a genus of Odonata from the family Erasipteridae

Publications

A.P. Rasnitsyn is an author of more than 300 books and articles, including 17 monographs.

Major works

  • Rasnitsyn AP (1969) Origin and evolution of lower Hymenoptera. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 123: 1–196 [In Russian, with English translation by Amerind Co., New Delhi, 1979].
  • Rasnitsyn AP (1975) Hymenoptera Apocrita of the Mesozoic. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 147: 1–134 [In Russian].
  • Rasnitsyn AP (1980) Origin and evolution of Hymenoptera. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 174: 1–192 [In Russian].
  • Rohdendorf BB, Rasnitsyn AP, editors (1980) Historical development of the class Insecta. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 175: 1–269, +8 pls. [In Russian].
  • Rasnitsyn AP, Quicke DLJ, editors (2002) History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, xii+517 pp. ISBN 1-4020-0026-X.
  • Rasnitsyn AP (2005) Selected Works on Evolutionary Biology. KMK Scientific Press, Moscow, Russia, iv+347 pp [In Russian] [Collection of earlier papers, except for: “Dynamics of taxonomic diversity: An afterword of 2004”, pp. 247–248]. ISBN 978-5-87317-454-6
  • Zherikhin VV, Ponomarenko AG, Rasnitsyn AP (2008) Introduction to Palaeoentomology. KMK Scientific Press, Moscow, 371 pp. [In Russian].

References

  1. ^ RASNITSYN Александр Павлович (www.paleo.ru)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Denis J. Brothers (2011). "Alexandr Pavlovich Rasnitsyn, (palaeo)entomologist extraordinaire – a personal appreciation". In D.E. Shcherbakov; M.S. Engel; M.J. Sharkey (eds.). Advances in the Systematics of Fossil and Modern Insects: Honouring Alexandr Rasnitsyn. ZooKeys. 130. Pensoft. pp. 1–10. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1890.
  3. ^ Nomenclator Zoologicus
  4. ^ EDNA Database
  5. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1983) First record of a moth in the Jurassic. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 269(2): 467–471 [In Russian, with English translation in Doklady Biological Sciences [Transactions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Section], 1983].
  6. ^ Rasnitsyn A.P., Kozlov M.V. A new group of fossil insects: scorpions with cicada and butterfly adaptations // Trans. USSR Acad. Science: Earth Science Sect. 1991. V. 310. № 1–6. P. 233–236.
  7. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1963) The Late Jurassic Hymenoptera of Karatau. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1963(1): 86–99 [In Russian].
  8. ^ Rasnitsyn A.P., Ansorge J., Zhang Haichun. Ancestry of the orussoid wasps, with description of three new genera and species of Karatavitidae (Hymenoptera = Vespida: Karatavitoidea stat. nov.) // Insect Syst. Evol. 2006. V. 37. № 2. P. 179–190.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rasnitsyn AP (1975) Hymenoptera Apocrita of the Mesozoic. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 147: 1–134 [In Russian].
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rasnitsyn AP (1968) New Mesozoic sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). In: Rohdendorf BB (Ed) Jurassic Insects of Karatau. Nauka Press, Moscow, 190–236 [total pages 252 pp., +25 pls.] [In Russian].
  11. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1972) Praeaulacidae (Hymenoptera) from the Late Jurassic of Karatau. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1972(1): 70–87 [In Russian, with English translation in Paleontological Journal, 1972, 6(1): 62–77].
  12. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1991) Early Cretaceous members of the evaniomorphan hymenopteran families Stigmaphronidae, Cretevaniidae, and subfamily Kotujellitinae (Gasteruptiidae). Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1991(4): 128–132 [In Russian, with English translation in Paleontological Journal, 1991, 25(4): 172–179].
  13. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1980) On the system of the family Aulacidae (Hymenoptera) in connection with a new record in the Lower Cretaceous of Manlay. Trudy Sovmestnoy Sovetsko-Mongol’skoy Paleontologicheskoy Ekspeditsii 13: 65–67 [In Russian]. [Kalugina NS, editor (1980) The Early Cretaceous lake Manlay. Trudy Sovmestnoy Sovetsko-Mongol’skoy Paleontologicheskoy Ekspeditsii 13: 1–91].
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Rasnitsyn AP (1977) New Paleozoic and Mesozoic insects. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1977(1): 64–77 [In Russian, with English translation in Paleontological Journal, 1978, 11: 60–72].
  15. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1977) New Hymenoptera from the Jurassic and Cretaceous of Asia. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1977(3): 98–108 [In Russian, with English translation in Paleontological Journal, 1978, 11: 349–357].
  16. ^ a b Rasnitsyn AP (1977) A new family of sawflies (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinoidea, Electrotomidae) from the Baltic amber. Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal 56(9): 1304–1308 [In Russian, with English summary].
  17. ^ Rasnitsyn A.P. Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Mongolia // Contrib. Amer. Entomol. Inst. 1983. V. 20. P. 259–265.
  18. ^ Rasnitsyn A.P. Strashila incredibilis, a new enigmatic mecopteroid insect with possible siphonapteran affinities from the Upper Jurassic of Siberia // Psyche. 1992. V. 99. № 4. P. 323–333.
  19. ^ Rasnitsyn A.P., Zherikhin V.V. First fossil chewing louse from the Lower Cretaceous of Baissa, Transbaikalia (Insecta, Pediculida = Phthiriaptera, Saurodectidae fam. n.) // Rus. Entomol. J. 2000. V. 8. № 4. P. 253–255.
  20. ^ Rasnitsyn A.P., Martinez-Delclos X. Wasps (Insecta: Vespida = Hymenoptera) from the Early Cretaceous of Spain // Acta Geol. Hispanica. 2000. V. 35. № 1–2. P. 65–95.
  21. ^ Novokshonov V.G., Rasnitsyn A.P. A new enigmatic group of insects (Psocidea, Tshekarcephalidae) from Tshekarda (Lower Permian of the Middle Urals) // Paleontol. J. 2000. V. 34. Suppl. 3. P. S284–S287.
  22. ^ Rasnitsyn A.P., Zhang Haichun. A new family, Daohugoidae fam. n., of siricomorph hymenopteran (Hymenoptera = Vespida) from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou in Inner Mongolia (China) // Proc. Rus. Entomol. Soc. 2004. V. 75 № 1. P. 12–16.
  23. ^ Ortega-Blanco J, Rasnitsyn A.P., Delclos X. A new family of ceraphronoid wasps from Early Cretaceous Alava Amber, Spain // Acta Palaeontol. Polonica. 2010. V. 55. № 2. P. 265–276.
  24. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1964) New Triassic Hymenoptera of the middle Asia. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1964(1): 88–96 [In Russian].
  25. ^ a b Rasnitsyn AP (1969) The origin and evolution of lower Hymenoptera. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 123: 1–196 [In Russian, with English translation by Amerind Co., New Delhi, 1979].
  26. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1986) Vespida (= Hymenoptera). Trudy Sovmestnoy Sovetsko-Mongol’skoy Paleontologicheskoy Ekspeditsii 28: 154–164 [In Russian]. [Rasnitsyn AP, editor (1986) Insects in the Early Cretaceous ecosystems of the West Mongolia. Trudy Sovmestnoy Sovetsko-Mongol’skoy Paleontologicheskoy Ekspeditsii 28: 1–213, +24 pls.].
  27. ^ a b Rasnitsyn AP (1988) Sepulcidae and origin of Cephidae (Hymenoptera: Cephoidea). Transactions of the All-Union Entomological Society 70: 480–497 [In Russian]. [Tobias VI, editor (1988) Taxonomy of Insects and Mites. Nauka Press, Moscow].
  28. ^ Carpenter J.M., Rasnitsyn A.P. Mesozoic Vespidae // Psyche. 1990. V. 97. № 1–2. P. 1–20.
  29. ^ Rasnitsyn A.P. Archaeoscoliinae, an extinct subfamily of scoliid wasps (Insecta: Vespida = Hymenoptera: Scoliidae) // J. Hymenoptera Res. 1993. V. 2. № 1. P. 85–95.
  30. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1994) New Late Jurassic Mesoserphidae (Vespida, Proctotrupoidea). Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1994(2): 115–119 [In Russian, with English translation in Paleontological Journal, 1994, 28: 141–147].
  31. ^ Rasnitsyn AP (1966) New Xyelidae (Hymenoptera) from the Mesozoic of Asia. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1966(4): 69–85 [In Russian, with English translation in International Geology Review, 1967, 9(5): 723–737].
  32. ^ ION Database
  33. ^ A.V. Gorochov (2011). "A new, enigmatic family for new genus and species of Polyneoptera from the Upper Permian of Russia". ZooKeys. 130: 132. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1487. PMC 3260754. PMID 22259271.
  34. ^ J. Prokop & A. Nel (2011). "New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera)". ZooKeys. 130: 45. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1311. PMC 3260748. PMID 22259265.
  35. ^ D. Brothers (2011). "A new Late Cretaceous family of Hymenoptera, and phylogeny of the Plumariidae and Chrysidoidea (Aculeata)". ZooKeys. 130 (130): 515–42. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1591. PMC 3260779. PMID 22259297.
  36. ^ A. Homan & P. Wegierek (2011). "A new family of aphids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha) from the Lower Cretaceous of Baissa, Transbaikalia". ZooKeys. 130: 168. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1444. PMC 3260757. PMID 22259274.
  37. ^ Krivolutzkii & Ryabinin, Dokl.Akad.Nauk SSSR 230: 946.
  38. ^ A.S. Lelej & A. van Harten (2006). Zootaxa. 1226: 27.CS1 maint: untitled periodical (link)
  39. ^ A. Emeljanov & D. Shcherbakov (2011). "A new genus and species of Dictyopharidae (Homoptera) from Rovno and Baltic amber based on nymphs". ZooKeys. 130: 177. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1775. PMC 3260758. PMID 22259275.
  40. ^ W. Wichard, E. Ross & A. Ross (2011). "Palerasnitsynus gen. N. (Trichoptera, Psychomyiidae) from Burmese amber". ZooKeys. 130: 324. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1449. PMC 3260769. PMID 22259286.
  41. ^ W. Zessin, C. Brauckmann & E. Gröning (2011). "Rasnitsynala sigambrorum gen. et sp. n., a small odonatopterid ("Eomeganisoptera", "Erasipteridae") from the early Late Carboniferous of Hagen-Vorhalle (Germany)". ZooKeys. 130: 59. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1458. PMC 3260749. PMID 22259266.

External links

Media related to Alexandr Rasnitsyn at Wikimedia Commons

Afromyrma

Afromyrma is an extinct genus of ant in the formicid subfamily Myrmicinae, and is currently unplaced in any of the tribes of that subfamily. The genus contains a single described species, Afromyrma petrosa. Afromyrma is known from a single Upper Cretaceous fossil, which was found in Orapa in the Central District of Botswana.

Agastomyrma

Agastomyrma is an extinct genus of formicid in the ant subfamily Myrmicinae known from the fossil species Agastomyrma laticeps found in eastern Asia.

Archencyrtus

Archencyrtus is an extinct genus of wasp in the Chalcidoidea family Encyrtidae. The genus contains a single described species, Archencyrtus rasnitsyni known from a Middle Eocene fossil that was found in Eastern Asia.

Deinodryinus? aptianus

Deinodryinus? aptianus is an extinct species of Deinodryinus in the wasp family Dryinidae. The species is solely known from a Cretaceous fossil found in Mongolia.

Dolichoderus pinguis

Dolichoderus pinguis is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae known from a fossil found in Asia. The species is one of a number in the genus described from fossils.

Formica biamoensis

Formica biamoensis is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Formicinae known from fossils found in eastern Asia.

Formica paleosibirica

Formica paleosibirica is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Formicinae known from fossils found in eastern Asia.

Gesomyrmex incertus

Gesomyrmex incertus is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Formicinae known from a fossil found in eastern Asia.

Gesomyrmex macrops

Gesomyrmex macrops is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Formicinae known from a fossil found in eastern Asia.

Gesomyrmex magnus

Gesomyrmex magnus is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Formicinae known from a fossil found in eastern Asia.

Liometopum incognitum

Liometopum incognitum is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae known from fossils found in eastern Asia.

Myanmymar

Myanmymar is an extinct genus of fairyfly preserved in amber from Myanmar. It has only one species, Myanmymar aresconoides. It is dated to the Early Cretaceous, at least a hundred million years ago. As of 2011, it is the oldest known fossil mymarid.

Pachycondyla aberrans

Pachycondyla aberrans is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Ponerinae known from a single fossil found in Russia.

Pachycondyla oligocenica

Pachycondyla oligocenica is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Ponerinae known from a fossil found in eastern Asia.

Plumalexius

Plumalexius is a genus of wasps in the extinct monotypic family Plumalexiidae, containing a single species, Plumalexius rasnitsyni. The species is known only from the Late Cretaceous White Oaks Pit in Sayreville, New Jersey.

Proceratium petrosum

Proceratium petrosum is an extinct species of formicid in the ant subfamily Proceratiinae known from a fossil found in eastern Asia.

Prochita

Prochita is an extinct genus of caddisflies in the family Dysoneuridae. It contains only one species, Prochita rasnitsyni. The genus is known from the Upper Jurassic—Lower Cretaceous of the Transbaikal region of Russia.The genus is named after the city of Chita, and the species is named after the Russian paleoentomologist Alexandr Rasnitsyn.

Sepulcidae

Sepulcidae is an extinct family of stem sawflies in the order Hymenoptera. The family is known primarily from late Mesozoic fossils found in 1968 in Transbaikalia. The insects were distant relatives of modern sawflies and are part of the living superfamily Cephoidea.

The genus Sepulca was identified by Alexandr Pavlovich Rasnitsyn. It was named by his colleague and a science-fiction author Kirill Eskov after fictional entities called sepulki, found in Stanisław Lem's The Star Diaries and Observation on the Spot. The relation to Lem's sepulki is understandable in both Polish and Russian, but their English translation obscures their association with ancient insects as they are translated as Scrupts in English editions of Lem's novels.Sepulca includes two species, as well as a number of subspecies.

Serphitidae

Serphitidae is a family of fossil hymenopteran insects.

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