Alexander II (Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Uilleim; 24 August 1198 – 6 July 1249) was King of Scotland from 1214 until his death. He concluded the Treaty of York (1237) which defined the boundary between England and Scotland, virtually unchanged today.
|King of Scotland|
|Reign||4 December 1214 – 6 July 1249|
|Coronation||6 December 1214|
|Born||24 August 1198|
Haddington, East Lothian
|Died||6 July 1249 (aged 50)|
Kerrera, Inner Hebrides
Joan of England
(m. 1221; died 1238)
Marie de Coucy (m. 1239)
|Issue||Alexander III of Scotland|
|Father||William the Lion|
|Mother||Ermengarde de Beaumont|
He was born at Haddington, East Lothian, the only son of the Scottish king William the Lion and Ermengarde of Beaumont. He spent time in England (John of England knighted him at Clerkenwell Priory in 1213) before succeeding to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214, being crowned at Scone on 6 December the same year.
In 1215, the year after his accession, the clans Meic Uilleim and MacHeths, inveterate enemies of the Scottish crown, broke into revolt; but loyalist forces speedily quelled the insurrection. In the same year Alexander joined the English barons in their struggle against John of England, and led an army into the Kingdom of England in support of their cause. This action led to the sacking of Berwick-upon-Tweed as John's forces ravaged the north.
The Scottish forces reached the south coast of England at the port of Dover where in September 1216, Alexander paid homage to the pretender Prince Louis of France for his lands in England, chosen by the barons to replace King John. But John having died, the Pope and the English aristocracy changed their allegiance to his nine-year-old son, Henry, forcing the French and the Scots armies to return home.
Peace between Henry III, Louis of France, and Alexander followed on 12 September 1217 with the treaty of Kingston. Diplomacy further strengthened the reconciliation by the marriage of Alexander to Henry's sister Joan of England on 18 June or 25 June 1221.
In 1222 Jon Haraldsson, the last native Scandinavian to be Jarl of Orkney, was indirectly implicated in the burning of Bishop Adam at his hall at Halkirk by local farmers when this part of Caithness was still part of the Kingdom of Norway. A contemporary chronicler, Boethius the Dane blamed Haraldsson for the bishop's death. After the Jarl swore oaths to his own innocence, Alexander took the opportunity to assert his claims to the mainland part of the Orkney jarldom. He visited Caithness in person, and hanged the majority of the farmers while mutilating the rest. His actions were applauded by Pope Honorius III, and a quarter of a century later, he was continuing to receive commendation from the Vatican, as in the reward of a bull from Celestine IV.
During the same period, Alexander subjugated the hitherto semi-independent district of Argyll (much smaller than the modern area by that name, it only comprised Craignish, Ardscotnish, Glassary, Glenary, and Cowal; Lorn was a separate province, while Kintyre and Knapdale were part of Suðreyar). Royal forces crushed a revolt in Galloway in 1235 without difficulty; nor did an invasion attempted soon afterwards by its exiled leaders meet with success. Soon afterwards a claim for homage from Henry of England drew forth from Alexander a counter-claim to the northern English counties. The two kingdoms, however, settled this dispute by a compromise in 1237. This was the Treaty of York, which defined the boundary between the two kingdoms as running between the Solway Firth (in the west) and the mouth of the River Tweed (in the east).
A threat of invasion by Henry in 1243 for a time interrupted the friendly relations between the two countries; but the prompt action of Alexander in anticipating his attack, and the disinclination of the English barons for war, compelled him to make peace next year at Newcastle.
Alexander now turned his attention to securing the Western Isles, which were still part of the Norwegian domain of Suðreyjar. He repeatedly attempted negotiations and purchase, but without success. Alexander set out to conquer these islands but died on the way in 1249. This dispute over the Western Isles, also known as the Hebrides, was not resolved until 1266 when Magnus VI of Norway ceded them to Scotland along with the Isle of Man.
[King John] taunted King Alexander, and because he was red-headed, sent word to him, saying, 'so shall we hunt the red fox-cub from his lairs.
Alexander attempted to persuade Ewen, the son of Duncan, Lord of Argyll, to sever his allegiance to Haakon IV of Norway. When Ewen rejected these attempts, Alexander sailed forth to compel him, but on the way he suffered a fever at the Isle of Kerrera in the Inner Hebrides. He died there in 1249 and was buried at Melrose Abbey
He had two wives:
1. Joan of England, (22 July 1210 – 4 March 1238), was the eldest legitimate daughter and third child of John of England and Isabella of Angoulême. She and Alexander II married on 21 June 1221, at York Minster. Alexander was 23. Joan was 11. They had no children. Joan was Alexander's 3rd cousin, their closest common ancestor being Henry I of England. Joan died in Essex in 1238, and was buried at Tarant Crawford Abbey in Dorset.
He also had an illegitimate daughter Marjorie, who married Alan Durward.
Alexander II has been depicted in historical novels:
Alexander II of ScotlandBorn: 24 August 1198 Died: 6 July 1249
| King of Scotland
Events from the year 1221 in the Kingdom of Scotland.1249 in Scotland
Events from the year 1249 in the Kingdom of Scotland.Abbot of Balmerino
The Abbot of Balmerino (later Commendator of Balmerino) was the head of the Cistercian monastic community and lands of Balmerino Abbey, Fife, founded in 1227 x 1229 by monks from Melrose Abbey with the patronage of Ermengarde de Beaumont and King Alexander II of Scotland. The following are a list of abbots and commendators.Alexander II
Alexander II may refer to:
Alexander II of Macedon, King of Macedon from 370 to 368 BC
Alexander II of Epirus (died 260 BC), King of Epirus in 272 BC
Alexander II Zabinas, king of the Greek Seleucid kingdom in 128–123 BC
Pope Alexander II of Alexandria, ruled in 702–729
Pope Alexander II (died 1073), Pope from 1061 to 1073
Alexander II of Scotland (1198–1249), King of Scots
Alexander II of Imereti (died 1510, 1483–1510), King of Georgia and of Imereti
Alexander II of Kakheti (1527–1605), King of Kakheti
Alexander II of Russia (1818–1881), Emperor of Russia
Alexander II of Yugoslavia (born 1945), Crown Prince of SerbiaClan Innes
Clan Innes is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan is without a chief that is recognized by the Lord Lyon King of Arms; therefore it can be considered an armigerous clan. The clan takes its name from the lands of Innes in Moray, Scotland. Additionally, to avoid confusion - Clan Innes is not associated with Clan MacInnes which hails from Argyle and the western Isles.
Clan Innes claims descent from a Berowald, a Flemish knight, who was given the lands of Innes by Malcolm IV of Scotland in 1160. Berowald's grandson, Walter, assumed the surname Innes and was granted a charter of confirmation by Alexander II of Scotland in 1226. In 1452, Robert Innes, the eleventh laird, fought under the Earl of Huntly at the Battle of Brechin. He later founded the Greyfriars of Elgin in an attempt to repay for his sins. The twentieth chief of Clan Innes, Sir Robert, was a Member of Parliament for Moray and was made a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1625. The third baronet, Sir James, married Lady Margaret Ker (whom through the sixth baronet inherited the Ker dukedom of Roxburghe. The twenty-fifth chief (and sixth baronet), Sir James Innes, claimed the dukedom of Roxburghe in 1805 when the previous duke died without a direct heir. Later, in 1812 the House of Lords ruled in favour of Sir James, rejecting claims by the heir female of the second earl and heir male whatsoever of the first earl. Because of the ruling Sir James took the surname Innes-Ker and was titled James Innes-Ker, 5th Duke of Roxburghe. The present duke of Roxburghe is heir to the chiefship of the clan, however since he bears the surname Innes-Ker the Lord Lyon King of Arms will not recognise him as chief of the name Innes.The crest badge suitable for clan members to wear contains the heraldic crest of a boar's head erased Proper, and the heraldic motto of BE TRAIST.David de Bernham
David de Bernham (died 1253) was Chamberlain of King Alexander II of Scotland and subsequently, Bishop of St. Andrews. He was elected to the see in June 1239, and finally consecrated, after some difficulties, in January, 1240. He died in 1253, and was buried at Nenthorn, near Kelso.
One interesting feature of his life which has left a written record is the fact that as bishop of St Andrews he consecrated a long list of churches in his diocese. These churches are listed by name, together with the dates on which they were consecrated, in the 1240s, in a thirteenth-century Pontifical now in the Bibliotheque National, Paris (B.N. Latin 1218).Earl of Northumbria
Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. The earldom of Northumbria was the successor of the earldom of Bamburgh. In the seventh century, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira were united in the kingdom of Northumbria, but this was destroyed by the Vikings in 867. Southern Northumbria, the former Deira, then became the Viking kingdom of York, while English earls ruled the former northern kingdom of Bernicia from their base at Bamburgh. The northern part of Bernicia was lost to the Scots, probably in the late tenth century. In 1006 Uhtred the Bold was earl of Bamburgh, and Æthelred the Unready appointed him earl of York as well, re-uniting the area of Northumbria still under English control into a single earldom. Uhtred was murdered in 1016, and Cnut then appointed Eric of Hlathir earl of Northumbria at York, but Uhtred's dynasty held onto Bernicia until 1041, when the earldom was again united. A descendant of Uhtred, Gospatric, was appointed earl by William the Conqueror in 1067, but William expelled him in 1072. Gospatric was then given lands in Scotland, and his descendants became earls of Dunbar. The earldom of Northumbria was broken up in the early Norman period and dissolved into the earldoms of York and Northumberland, with much land going to the prince-bishopric of Durham.
The earls were:
Uhtred the Bold (1006–1016), ealdorman of all Northumbria
Eric of Hlathir (1016–1023), Earl of York only
Siward (1031–1055), without underlings in Bernicia from 1041
Osulf II (1067)
Robert Comine (1068–1069)Vacant during the Harrying of the North until...
Gospatric (1070–1072, again
Waltheof II (1072–1075)
William Walcher (1075–1080), also prince-bishop of Durham
Aubrey de Coucy (1080–1086)
Robert de Mowbray (1086–1095)Vacant until Stephen was pressured by David of Scotland to grant to ...
Henry of Scotland, 1139–1152
William of Scotland, 1152–1157
Deprived of title and lands by Henry II of England, 1157Purchased by Hugh de Puiset, the Bishop of Durham in 1189, and held until 1191 or so.
Vacant until the First Barons' War, when the barons of Northumberland and York did homage to ...
Alexander II of Scotland, 1215–1217
Surrendered to Henry III of England, 1217Eustace de Vesci
Eustace de Vesci (1169–1216) was an English lord of Alnwick Castle, and a Magna Carta surety. He also held lands in Sprouston, Roxburghshire, Scotland as brother in-law to King Alexander II of Scotland. Eustace was a leader during the Barons' War in 1215 and was killed while undertaking a siege of Barnard Castle in 1216.Geoffrey de Liberatione
Galfredus, Galfred or Geoffrey de Liberatione was Bishop of Dunkeld and Bishop-postulate of St Andrews. He was a clerk to King Alexander II of Scotland as early as 1219, as well as being a canon of Dunkeld and precentor of Glasgow. He was elected to the bishopric of Dunkeld in 1236. After an investigation by Pope Gregory IX regarding a defect of birth possessed by Galfred, he was confirmed as bishop in sometime in 1237.
In 1238, after the death of William de Malveisin, bishop of St Andrews, Geoffrey was postulated to that see. However, this postulation was disallowed by the Pope, and Geoffrey remained bishop of Dunkeld. Geoffrey was one of the bishops present at the coronation of King Alexander III in 1249. He died at Tippermuir on St Cecilia's Day (22 November) 1249. He was buried in the cathedral of Dunkeld.Gille Ruadh
Gille Ruadh was the Galwegian leader who led the revolt against King Alexander II of Scotland. His birth, death date and origins are all unknown.
Upon Alan, Lord of Galloway's death in 1234, Galloway was left without a legitimate feudal heir. Alexander II had decided to partition the lordship between the Anglo-Norman husbands of Alan's three living daughters, Roger de Quincy (married to Ela), John de Balliol (married to Derborgaill) and William de Forz (married to Cairistiona).
However, Alan had left an illegitimate son, Thomas. In Gaelic succession law, Thomas was a perfectly acceptable heir. Thus the native Galwegians and the Gaelic clergy of the province rose in revolt against the Scottish king.Maol Domhnaich, Earl of Lennox
Mormaer Maol Domhnaich (sometimes anglicized as Maldoven) was the son of Mormaer Ailín II, and ruled Lennox 1217–1250.
Like his predecessor Ailín II, he showed absolutely no interest in extending an inviting hand to oncoming French or English settlers. He has, moreover, gained a reputation amongst modern scholars as being one of the more conservative Gaelic rulers in thirteenth century Scotland.
Despite that, he seems to have remained loyal to his royal overlord. There is no evidence that he participated in any of the western-oriented rebellions which were so frequent in the era. The Mormaer even sent his son Maol Choluim with the king's expedition to Moray in 1232. He was also a witness to the treaty between King Alexander II of Scotland and his brother-in-law Henry III of England at Newcastle in 1237, concerning the much disputed northern counties of England.Nevertheless, in 1238 Alexander distrusted him sufficiently to remove the Castle of Dumbarton from his control, giving the Scottish king an important foothold in the Mormaerdom. As part of the same act, Alexander II regranted the Mormaerdom to Maol Domhnaich as a military fief, indicating perhaps that the Mormaerdom's prior status was ambiguous.
He married Beatrix, the daughter of the High Steward of Scotland and had two known sons (Maol Choluim and Donnchadh), and one daughter.
Maol Domhnaich's reign came to an end with his death in 1250.Marie de Coucy
Marie de Coucy (c. 1218 – 1285) was a Queen consort of the Kingdom of Scotland by marriage to Alexander II of Scotland, King of Scots. She was a member of the royal council during the two last years of the minority of her son, Alexander III, in 1260-1262.Muireadhach II, Earl of Menteith
Muireadach II of Menteith (also written as Murethach, Murdoch or Maurice), ruled 1213-1231, is the son of Gille Críst and the third known Mormaer of Menteith. Muireadach gained the Mormaerdom by challenging the rights of the current Mormaer, his elder brother, also called Muireadhach, hence Muireadhch Mór (in English, "the elder"). The case apparently went to arbitration, and the king decided on the right of Muireadhch Óg. On 13 December 1213, Muireadhach Mór resigned the Mormaerdom, taking lesser lands and titles in compensation.
Muireadhach Óg was one of the seven mormaers present at the coronation of King Alexander II of Scotland in 1214, and Muireadhach accompanied the king in the funeral cortège of his father and predecessor, King William of Scotland. Muireadhach Óg appears again in the company of the king in 1224, when he appears on a charter issued at Stirling granting rights to Paisley Abbey. In a document dating to 1226, Muireadach is referred to as "Sheriff of Stirling". He had no legitimate sons, but two daughters, Isabella (Iosbail), who married a Comyn, and Maria (Màire), who married a Stewart; both became countesses in their own right.
Muireadach died before January 1234, when his successor appears with the comital title for the first time.Nicholas Farnham
Nicholas Farnham (or Nicholas of Farnham; died 1257) was a medieval Bishop of Durham.
Farnham was probably a native of Farnham, Surrey. He studied at Oxford University before moving on to study at Paris and Bologna. At Paris he first studied theology, but later moved to medicine. He taught at the University of Bologna as a teacher of medicine before moving to England. He was at Paris when the riots of 1229 drove many teachers out of Paris. Farnham came to England because of King Henry III's offers of teaching chairs at Oxford to those displaced by the riots.Farnham was a royal physician before he became confessor to the king and queen in 1237. In 1239, the cathedral chapter of Coventry elected him Bishop of Coventry, but Farnham refused the office. He was elected to the see of Durham on 2 January 1241 and at first he wanted to decline the office, but Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln persuaded him to accept. Farnham was consecrated as bishop on either 26 May or 9 June 1241.While bishop, Farnham continued to work for the king. In 1241 he was mediating with King Alexander II of Scotland, and in 1242 he was involved in the negotiations over the marriage of King Henry's daughter Margaret to the future Alexander III of Scotland. As a bishop, he became embroiled in a dispute with a dependency of St Alban's Priory, which was finally settled in 1248 in the priory's favour. The set of constitutions, or laws, he issued for the clergy of his diocese were heavily based on his predecessor's constitutions as well as Grosseteste's for Lincoln.Farnham was often ill. In 1244 he almost died, and had to go to the south of England where he received a miraculous cure from drinking water which had had bristles from the beard of Saint Edmund of Abingdon soaked in it. Once more in 1248, his health declined, and it was this illness that caused Farnham to seek a licence to resign his see from the pope. He resigned on 2 February 1249 and died in 1257. On his resignation, he had three manors assigned to him for his support, and it was at one of these, Stockton in County Durham, that he died, possibly on 31 July, which was the date his death was commemorated at Durham. He was buried in Durham Cathedral.Patrick I, Earl of Dunbar
Patrick I (c.1152 – 1232), Earl of Dunbar and lord of Beanley, was a 13th-century Anglo-Scottish noble.
He was the eldest son of Waltheof, Earl of Dunbar and Alina, and succeeded to his father's titles upon the latter's death in 1182.
Patrick was one of the most important magnates to Kings William and Alexander II of Scotland, frequently witnessing their charters and traveling in their entourages whenever they went to the south of England to perform homage to the King of England for the properties in that realm.
Patrick also served as Justiciar of Lothian as well as Warden of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Patrick held, like his predecessors (who were originally of the kindred of the native English earls of Northumberland), some of his most important lands were in northern England. Patrick's close association with the Scottish kings in fact got him in trouble, and perhaps because of Alexander II's pursuit of claims to the earldom of Northumberland, Waltheof found himself temporarily deprived of some of his lands by King John of England.
Patrick married (1) Ada (died 1200), an illegitimate daughter of King William the Lion, by whom he had four sons and a daughter:
Patrick (his successor),
William, who witnessed a charter as "fratre Comitis" c. 1240 – 1248
Ada, who married her cousin William de Greenlaw, and was ancestor of the Home family.His first wife predeceasing him, Patrick married again: (2) Christina, widow of William de Brus, 3rd Lord of Annandale. No children are known by this marriage.
The Earl of Dunbar died on 31 December 1232. He was buried at the Cistercian nunnery of Eccles, Berwickshire.Patrick II, Earl of Dunbar
Patrick II (1185–1249), called "5th Earl of Dunbar", lord of Beanley, was a 13th-century Anglo-Scottish noble, and one of the leading figures during the reign of King Alexander II of Scotland.
Said to be aged forty-six at the time of his father's death, this Patrick was the eldest son of Patrick I, Earl of Dunbar and Ada, daughter of King William I of Scotland. He probably succeeded to his father's lands some time before the latter's death on 31 December 1232, as his father was elderly and had been ill for some time.
He renounced his claim to some disputed Marches in lower Lauderdale to the monks of Melrose, and in 1235 he, with Adam, Abbot of Melrose, and Gilbert, Bishop of Galloway, led an expedition against an uprising in Galloway. He accompanied King Alexander II of Scotland to York and was a witness and guarantor to the treaty with King Henry III of England, in 1237.
Shortly after 1242 the Earl of Dunbar was sent to subdue the rebellious Thane of Argyll. The Earl held first rank among the twenty-four barons who guaranteed the Treaty of Peace with England in 1244.
Holinshed relates, he accompanied Lindsay of Glenesk, and Stewart of Dundonald to crusade, where he died in 1249 at the siege of Damietta in Egypt.
Before 1213, he married Euphemia (d. 1267 at Whittingehame), whom historians had previously believed to be daughter of Walter FitzAlan, 3rd High Steward of Scotland and lord of Kyle (i.e. Kyle Stewart), Strathgryfe and Bute.Euphemia's father was, however, certainly not Walter FitzAlan.Issue by Euphemia:
Patrick, 7th Earl of Dunbar.
Isabel de Dunbar, who married Roger FitzJohn, of Warkworth, Northumberland son of John FitzRobert (died before 22 June 1249 in Normandy).Richard de Inverkeithing
Richard de Inverkeithing was a 13th-century cleric from Scotland, probably from Inverkeithing in Fife. He was a Chamberlain of King Alexander II of Scotland and bishop of Dunkeld.
He was King Alexander's chamberlain in the last year of that king's life. The death of Alexander in 1249 happened to coincide with the death of Galfred de Liberatione, bishop of Dunkeld, in the same year. So instead of falling from a high-profile job into obscurity, Richard was elected to the diocese of Dunkeld sometime in the year 1250. The exact date of his consecration is not known, but we do know that he was consecrated between 2 August 1251 and 2 August 1252. In 1255 Richard was one of the figures chosen to act as guardian to the young Alexander III, making Richard one of the most important men in the Kingdom of Scotland. In 1262, Bishop Richard founded Whitefriars' monastery, Perth, the first friary of the Carmelite Order in Scotland. In 1265 he used his own wealth to build a new choir in the church of Inchcolm Abbey (which was part of the diocese of Dunkeld), and the following year moved the bones of previous bishops of Dunkeld into the new choir. Shortly after the Easter of 1168, along with the bishop of Dunblane, he attended a church council in the English town of London, organized by the papal legate, Ottobone.
He died on 16 April 1272. He was buried in Dunkeld Cathedral, but his heart was taken to be buried in the new choir at Inchcolm. The Lanercost Chronicle (97) alleges that he was poisoned by King Alexander III with the aim of gaining Richard's movable assets, but this allegation is usually thought to be "credulous gossip". Richard was succeeded by Robert de Stuteville.Walter of Whithorn
Walter (died 1235) was Chamberlain of Alan, Lord of Galloway and later Bishop of Galloway. As Alan's chamberlain, he succeeded Bishop John after the latter's death, in 1209. His election coincided with the northern expedition of King John of England to secure the submission of King William of Scotland; Alan enjoyed friendly relations with the English king, the latter wishing to make use of Alan's manpower and naval resources, and so the election of Walter may have had something to do with King John.Walter was consecrated by 2 November 1214. He appears in some records in England, as a suffragan of the Archbishop of York, witnesses a grant to Melrose Abbey during the reign of Alexander II of Scotland and granted to Dryburgh Abbey the parish church of Sorbie. His obituary in 1235 is noted in the Melrose Chronicle; he seems to have died in either January or February of that year.An excavation of Whithorn Priory during 1957-67 uncovered the remains of various senior ecclesiastical figures whose identities were not known at the time. Research funded by Historic Scotland in 2007 led to the identification of six bishops from the bones and artefacts in the graves, Bishop Walter amongst them. The techniques employed allowed the researchers to conclude that the clerics enjoyed a diet of quality meat and fish.
|Monarchs of the Picts |
|Monarchs of the Scots|