Alexander Dutov

Alexander Ilyich Dutov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Ду́тов) (1879–1921) was one of the leaders of the Cossack counterrevolution in the Urals, lieutenant general (1919).

Dutov was born in Kazalinsk in Syr-Darya Oblast (now Kazaly in Kazakhstan). He graduated from Nikolayev Cavalry School and Nikolayev Engineering Institute, now Military engineering-technical university (Russian Военный инженерно-технический университет), and General Staff Academy (1908). He was assistant commander of the Cossack regiment during World War I. After the February Revolution, Dutov was appointed head of the All-Russian Cossack Army Union, then chairman of the counterrevolutionary All-Russian Cossack Congress (June, 1917), and then Chief of the Army Administration and ataman of the Orenburg Cossack Army (September).

In November 1917, Dutov raised a revolt against the Soviet authorities in Orenburg. In June 1918, Dutov, with the help of the Czech Legion, organized a struggle for complete termination of the Soviet authority in the Urals. He was in charge of the Orenburg Independent Army in Aleksandr Kolchak's army.

In 1919, he tried to convince General Grigory Semyonov to join him as a stronger force to fight the Red Army. Semyonov refused despite a significant diplomatic effort from Governor Vasile Balabanov claiming he was governor only since the provisional government in Saint Petersburg collapsed in the revolution.

After his army's defeat by Red Army, Dutov led his Orenburg Army in the Starving March during winter of 1919–1920 to Semirechye, and from there in March–May 1920 to China. At that time, General Dutov also helped a number of Russian leaders, including Vasile Balabanov, the administrator of Semirechye, to escape to China.

Dutov was assassinated in Suiding, China, by the Bolshevik agent Мahmud Khadzhamirov (Махмуд Хаджамиров) in February 1921.

Alexander Dutov

See also

38th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 38th Rifle Division (38-я стрелковая дивизия) was an infantry division of the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II.

Formed in 1918 as the 2nd Don Infantry Division. In February 1919, as part of the 1st Army, the Division took part in the fighting in the Urals and Bashkiria against the troops of Ataman Alexander Dutov. In 1920, it ensured the delivery of its troops from the Caucasus forest in Donbass. Then, as part of the 13th Army it led the fighting against the army of General Wrangel. Since October 1920 Division was fighting against Makhno gangs.

In June 1941 it became part of the 19th Army, formed in the North Caucasus Military District under General Lieutenant Ivan Koniev. It was wiped out at Vyazma in October 1941. Recreated at Alma Ata in January 1942, fought at Stalingrad and became 73rd Guards Rifle Division in March 1943. Created again at Kutaisi 4.43, fought on the Dnieper River and at Targul Frumos. While with 40th Army, took part in the Battle of Debrecen in October 1944. With 2nd Ukrainian Front 5.45.

The division was disbanded in the summer of 1945 in the Southern Group of Forces.

Alexander J. Kravtsov

Alexander J. Kravtsov (October 11, 1893 – 1920) was a Russian Imperial Army Yesaul during the First World War and a Commander of the Northern Group of the Orenburg Independent Army in the White movement during the Ataman Alexander Dutovs revolt against the Soviet authorities in Orenburg in 1918. He was also one of the Orenburg Army officers who participated in the march across the Turgaj steppe.

Anatoly Ionov (Romanov claimant)

Anatoly Ionov (born 1936) is a Russian man who claims to be the son of Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia.

Eastern Front of the Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War spread to the east in May 1918, with a series of revolts along the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway, on the part of the Czechoslovak Legion and officers of the Russian Army. Provisional anti-Bolshevik local governments were formed in many parts of Siberia and other eastern regions during that summer. The Red Army mounted a counter-offensive in the autumn, and in 1919 defeated the White commander Aleksandr Kolchak in Siberia. Smaller-scale conflicts in the region went on until 1923.

Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia

The Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia (Russian: Группа войск по борьбе с контрреволюцией на Юге России) was a military formation of the Soviet Russian government created in the beginning of December 1917 to fight against various autonomous state formations (the Don Host Oblast and Ukrainian People's Republic) with a goal of establishing the Soviet government


The formation mainly consisted of Red Guard troops from Petrograd and Moscow under the command of Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko and Mikhail Muravyov as the chief of staff. The group consisted of some 20,000 troops.

Jonah of Hankou

Bishop Jonah (secular name Vladimir Pokrovsky, Russian: Владимир Покровский; April 17, 1888 – October 20, 1925), was a bishop of Hankou of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR). He served in Northern China in the years immediately following the Bolshevik Revolution.

He was officially glorified by the ROCOR on October 20, 1996. The Bishop's Council of the Russian Orthodox Church canonized Jonah as Enlightener Jonah of Hankou on 3 February 2016.

List of Soviet and Russian assassinations

This is a list of people assassinated by Soviet Union (1918–1991) and Russian federation (1992–present). Some assassinations took place overseas.

Orenburg Cossacks

The Orenburg Cossack Host (Russian: Оренбургское казачье войско) was a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province (today's Orenburg Oblast, part of the Chelyabinsk Oblast and Bashkortostan).

After having constructed fortifications around the future town of Orenburg in 1734, they officially founded it in 1735. For the purpose of defending the city and colonizing the region, The Russian government relocated the Cossacks from Ufa, Iset, Samara and other places and created the Orenburg non-regular corps in 1748. In 1755, a part of it was transformed into the Orenburg Cossack Host (or Voisko) with 2,000 men.

In 1773—1774, the Orenburg Cossacks took part in Yemelyan Pugachev's insurrection. In 1798, all of the Cossack settlements in the Southern Urals were incorporated into the Orenburg Cossack Host (except for the Ural Cossacks). A decree of 1840 established the borders of the Host and its composition (10 cavalry regiments and 3 artillery battalions). In the mid-19th century, the Cossack population of this region equaled 200,000 people.

The Orenburg Host participated in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–1790, and later in the campaigns that Russia waged in order to conquer Central Asia.

The Orenburg Host consisted of 2 districts, or okrugs (after 1878 - 3 departments, or otdels). By 1916, the Cossack population of this region had grown to 533,000 people occupying a territory of 7,45 million desyatinas. One desyatina equaled 2,7 acres (11,000 m²). In the early 19th century, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 6 cavalry regiments, 3 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya (100 men) of guards and 2 detached sotnyas. During World War I, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 18 cavalry regiments, 9,5 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya of guards, 9 unmounted sotnyas, 7,5 reserve sotnyas and 39 detached and special sotnyas (to a total of about 27,000 men).

After the October Revolution of 1917, the leadership of the Orenburg Cossack Host, under the command of Ataman Alexander Dutov, fought against the Soviets. The poorer Cossacks joined the ranks of the Red Army. The 1st Orenburg Cossack Socialist Regiment took part in the Ural Army Campaign of 1918.

In 1920, the Orenburg Cossack Host ceased to exist.

Orenburg Independent Army

The Orenburg Independent Army (Russian: Оренбургская отдельная армия) was an anti-Bolshevik Army on the Eastern Front during the Russian Civil War.

Pavel Pappengut

Pavel Petrovich Pappengut (also Papengut; Russian: Па́вел Петро́вич Папенгут; 27 May 1894 – December 1933) was a colonel of the Russian Empire, later officer of the White Russian forces, member of the underground Turkestan Military Organization, comrade-in-arms of Alexander Dutov.

After the defeat of the White movement in the Russian Civil War, Pappengut settled in the Ili region in northern Xinjiang. There he commanded the White Russian forces, who were known to be the most competent military force in Xinjiang due to their experience. Pappengut fought against Ma Zhongying in Kumul Rebellion in 1931. In late September or early October 1931, Pappengut commanded some 250 White Russians who headed the forces of Zhang Peiyuan moving from Ili towards the besieged garrison in Kumul Old City. Ma's Dungan forces retreated westwards towards Qijiaojingzhen and the advancing White Russians. There were no serious battles between them. However, in one of the initial skirmishes in the village of Liao-tun, some 150km east from Qijiaojingzhen, the White Russian fources seriously wounded Ma, while the White Russians had one dead and two wounded. As a result of that injury, large portion of the Dungan forces retreated towards Gansu in northwest. The garrison in Kumul Old City was finally relived on or around 1 November 1931.In the winter of 1932, Ma Shiming and his Dungan forces, joined by Ma Fuming and a large number of Turkic rebels, started advancing towards the provincial capital of Ürümqi. Soon, a full scale revolt occurred in Kucha and Khotan. Jin Shuren, Xinjiang's Governor, responded by expanding Pappengut's White Russian force from 250 to 1,500 men. The White Russian emigrants had no other choice but to enlist, since Jin threatended them with deportation to the Soviet Union and even arrest of their women to force them to recruit. The Dungan forces reached the citiy defended by only 700 men on 21 February 1933. The city was closed and suffered food shortages, while tensions between the Han Chinese and Muslims were high. The fall of Ürümqi was seemingly eminent, but the arrival of some 300 White Russians changed the tide and the Dungan forces were driven back some 1 km northwestwards after two days of fighting.Sheng Shicai, Chief of Staff of the Xinjiang's Frontier Army, arrived with the strong and capable force from Turpan to help the besieged Ürümqi, forcing the Dungan insurgents to retreat to the countryside. The countryside fell to the hands of the insurgents and the Kazakh uprising also occurred in Shara Sume. Soviet Union sent additional reinforcement of some 2,000 Chinese expirienced soldiers forced by the Japanese across the Soviet border who were interned by the Soviets. These soldiers were known as the North-East National Salvation Army. They arrived in Ürümqi on 27 March 1933 and strengthen the position of the provincial administration as well as Sheng Shicai's, who was their fellow Northeasterner. At the same time, Jin's authority was undermined.Even though the White Russian forces gave significant contribution to the Xinjiang's war efforts, they were irregularly paid and provided with the word horses and ammunition. Pappengut and other White Russian officers approached the leaders of the National Salvation Army, and having been assured of their backing, mounted a coup against Jin on the night of 12 April. Jin escaped to the Soviet Union via Chuguchak and returned to China. His younger brother and a military commander Jin Shu-hsin was captured and executed. Sheng, who was at the time in Uruba was appointed as Duban or Military Governor, while Liu Wenlong took the position of Provincial Chairman.Pappengut was executed in December 1933 or January 1934 under the orders of Sheng Shicai, Military Governor of Xinjiang by the request of Garegin Apresov, Soviet Consul General in Ürümqi.

Red Guards (Russia)

Red Guards (Russian: Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power". Red Guards were a transitional military force of the collapsing Imperial Russian Army and the base formations of Bolsheviks during the October Revolution and the first months of the Russian Civil War. Most of them were formed in the time frame of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and some of the units were reorganized into the Red Army during 1918. The Red Guards formations were organized across most of the former Russian Empire, including territories outside the contemporary Russian Federation such as Finland, Estonia, Ukraine, and others. They were not centralized and were formed by decision of a local political party and local soviet members. By fighting to protect and extend the power of the soviets, they aided the creation of a new state that (according to its original conception) would give "all power to the soviets": the Soviet Union.

Shivtzov family (Orenburg)

Shivtzov (Russian: Шивцовы) was the name of noble family of Orenburg Cossacks origin. Ivan Ilijich Shivtzov was a Ataman of stanitsa Vozdvízhenskaya and a member of an Orenburg Cossack rada in time of ataman Alexander Dutov revolt against the Soviet authorities in Orenburg Host in 1918.

Sergey Ivanovich Shivtzov

Siberian Army

The Siberian Army (Russian: Сибирская армия, romanized: Sibirskaya Armiya) was an anti-Bolshevik army during the Russian Civil War, which fought from June 1918 – July 1919 in Siberia – Ural Region.

Spring Offensive of the Russian Army (1919)

The Spring Offensive of the Russian Army was an offensive of the White Army of the White movement led by Alexander Kolchak on the Eastern Front of the Russian Civil War, between March and April 1919.

Starving March

The Starving March (in Russian Голодный поход) was the retreat of the Orenburg Independent Army under command of generals Alexander Dutov and Andrei Bakic in the winter of 1919–1920 from the area around Kokchetav over Sergiopol, through Kazakhstan towards Semirechye on the Kazakh-Chinese border.

Vassily Balabanov

Vassily Vassilievich Balabanov (January 30, 1873 in Bakhmut, Yekaterinoslav Governorate – January 27, 1947 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) was an administrator and Provincial Governor of Imperial Russia.

Vassily (also Vasile Vasilivich) Balabanov was the third of five children of Vassily Stephanovich Balabanov and Maria Muravskaya.

Wozdwizhenskaya Fortress

Wozdwizhenskaya Fortress (1742) on the Sakmara River was the second fort built as a part of Sakmara Distance by Ivan Neplyuyev during his governance of the Orenburg Commission. It was located on the Sakmara River, southeast of Orenburg, 100 miles (160 km) west of Orsk and 30 miles (48 km) north of Werneozernaya Fortress. It was built for protection against raids of nomadic Kyrgyz tribes for capturing of slaves from the Russian frontiers on the Caspian Sea and slave trading to Khiva.

The Wozdwizhenskaya Cossacks supported the Imperial government during the Pugachev's Rebellion in 1773—1775. The Fortress was completely destroyed by the bombardment of the Red Guards units in May 1918 for supporting the counterrevolution of Alexander Dutov against the Soviet authorities.

Zeki Velidi Togan

Zeki Velidi Togan (Bashkir: Әхмәтзәки Әхмәтшаһ улы Вәлиди, Äxmätzäki Äxmätşah ulı Wälidi, ﺋﻪحمەتزەكى ئەجمەتشاه ئولئ وەلىدﯘو; Russian: Ахмет-Заки Ахметшахович Валидов, Ahmet-Zaki Ahmetšachovič Validov, sometimes spelled as Validi) (1890–1970 Istanbul), Bashkir, was a Turkic historian, Turkologist, and leader of the Bashkir revolutionary and liberation movement.


Zhetysu or Semirechye (Kazakh: Jetisý, Жетісу, pronounced [ʑjɪtɪsə] meaning "seven rivers"; also transcribed Zhetisu, Jetisuw, Jetysu, Jeti-su, Jity-su, Жетысу, Джетысу etc. and Yedi-su in Turkish, هفت‌آب Haft-āb in Persian) is a historical name of a part of Central Asia, corresponding to the southeastern part of modern Kazakhstan. It owes its name, meaning "seven rivers" (literally "seven waters") in Kazakh and Persian, to the rivers which flow from the south-east into Lake Balkhash.

When the region was incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 19th century, it became known in Russian (and, to an extent, in European languages) as Semirechye (Russian: Семиречье), which is a Russian calque of the Kazakh "Zhetysu". The name has also been transcribed as Semiryechye, Semirech'e, Semirechiye, Semirechie, Semirechensk or Semireche.

Zhetysu falls into today's Almaty Region, which is part of Kazakhstan. However, the Semirechye Oblast, as an administrative unit of the Russian Empire, included not only Zhetysu proper but also lands that now constitute parts of northern Kyrgyzstan and adjacent provinces of Kazakhstan as well.

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