Alexander Chavchavadze

Prince Alexander Chavchavadze (Georgian: ალექსანდრე ჭავჭავაძე; Russian: Александр Чавчавадзе) (1786 – November 6, 1846) was a notable Georgian poet, public benefactor and military figure. Regarded as the "father of Georgian romanticism", he was a pre-eminent Georgian aristocrat and a talented general in the Imperial Russian service.

ალექსანდრე ჭავჭავაძე
Alexander Chavchavadze
Chavchavadze 31-155 s
Prince Alexander Chavchavadze
Born1786
St Petersburg, Russia
Died6 November 1846
Allegiance Russian Empire
Service/branchImperial Russian army
Years of service1811–1846
RankLieutenant General
Battles/warsWar of the Sixth Coalition, Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828, Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829, Caucasus War
AwardsOrder of St. Anna, Order of St. Vladimir, Légion d'honneur

Early life

Alexander Chavchavadze was a member of the noble family elevated to the princely rank by the Georgian king Constantine II of Kakhetia in 1726. The family was of Khevsur origin but had intermarried with other Georgian military and noble families.

He was born in 1786, in St Petersburg, Russia, where his father, Prince Garsevan Chavchavadze, served as an ambassador of Heraclius II, king of Kartli and Kakheti in eastern Georgia. Tsarina Catherine II of Russia was a godmother at the baptism of infant Alexander, showing her benevolence to the Georgian diplomat.[1]

Alexander's early education was Russian. He first saw his native Georgia at the age of 13, when the family moved back to Tiflis after the Russian annexation of eastern Georgia (1801). At the age of 18, Alexander Chavchavadze joined Prince Parnaoz, a member of the dispossessed royal family, in the 1804 rebellion in the mountainous Georgian province of Mtiuleti against Russian rule. Following the suppression of the uprising, he was briefly put in prison where he composed his first literary works, including a radical poem written in Georgian, Woe to This World and Its Tenants (ვაჰ, სოფელსა ამას და მისთა მდგმურთა). The poem quickly gained popularity, and brought early fame to its young author. His manuscripts were widely circulated with his lyrics of love or protest, written in the spirit of the 18th-century Georgian poet Besiki or of the French Enlightenment philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, sung in Tiflis and elsewhere in Georgia.

Prince a g chavchavadze
Prince Alexander Chavchavadze in hussar uniform.

Following a year's exile in Tambov, Chavchavadze reconciled with the new regime and entered a hussar regiment. Ironically, he fought in the Russian ranks under Marquis Paulucci when the next anti-Russian rebellion broke out in 1812 in Kakheti and was wounded in the fighting. In the same year, he married a Georgian princess Salome Orbeliani, a prominent noble family with familial ties to the Bagrationi royal line.

During the War of the Sixth Coalition (1813-4) against Napoleon I of France, he served as an aide-de-camp to the Russian commander Barclay de Tolly and was wounded in his leg at the Battle of Paris on 31 March 1814. As an officer in the Russian expeditionary forces, he stayed in Paris for two years and the restored Bourbon dynasty awarded him for his service with a Légion d'honneur. Open to new ideas, in particular to the early French Romanticism, he was impressed by Lamartine and Victor Hugo, as well as Racine and Corneille, whose writing entered Georgian literature through Chavchavadze.

Military and political career

In 1817, Prince Chavchavadze became a colonel of the Russian army. Promoted to Major General in 1826, his military career advanced remarkably during the Russian wars against the Persian and Ottoman empires in the late 1820s. He was instrumental in the conquest of Iravan from Persia in 1827[2] and was appointed, in 1828, a military governor of the Armenian Military District. During the 1828-9 Russo-Turkish war, with a small detachment, he organised a successful defence of the Yerevan province against the marauding Kurds and his forces surged into Anatolia, taking control of the whole pashate of Bajazet from the Turkish forces from 25 August to 9 September 1828.[3] In 1829, he was dispatched as an administrator of the military board of Kakheti, where his patrimonial estates were located.

Back in Georgia, Alexander enjoyed overwhelming popularity among the Georgian nobility and people. He was highly respected by his fellow Russian and Georgian officers. At the same time, he was regarded as Georgia's most refined, educated and wealthy 19th-century aristocrat, fluent in several European and Asiatic languages and with extensive and friendly ties with the cream of Georgian and Russian society who frequented his famous salon in Tiflis. The prominent Russian diplomat and playwright Alexander Griboyedov married his 16-year-old daughter Nino, whom the famous Russian poet had tutored in music during his brief stay in Tiflis. Another daughter, Catherine, married David Dadiani, prince of Mingrelia, and inspired in Nicholas Baratashvili the hopeless love that made him the greatest poet of Georgian Romanticism.

At his Italianate summer mansion in Tsinandali, Kakheti, he frequently entertained foreign guests with music, wit, and – most especially – the fine vintages made at his estate winery (marani). Chavchavadze built Georgia's oldest and largest winery where he combined European and centuries-long Georgian wine-making traditions. The highly regarded dry white Tsinandali is still produced there.[4] According to his acquaintance, Juan Van Halen, Chavchavadze, "a Georgian prince, educated in Europe,... though serving in our regiment with the rank of colonel, had succeeded, without neglecting his military duties, in improving his valuable inheritance in such a manner that few Georgian nobles can compare with him in wealth."[5]

Salome chavchavadze
Alexander Chavchavadze's wife Salome, née Orbeliani

Despite his loyal service to the Russian crown, Chavchavadze's nostalgia for Georgia's lost independence, monarchy, and the Georgian Orthodox Church once again pushed him into rebellion, joining the 1832 conspiracy aimed at organising a large-scale uprising against the Russian hegemony. The failed coup plot turned into a disaster for the Georgian literature: most of his poetry written between 1820 and 1832, inspired by Romanticism and egalitarianism, was burned by the author as possible evidence against him. He was sentenced to the five-year exile to Tambov, but the tsar, who needed his military talents given the ongoing Caucasian War, forgave him. Chavchavadze joined the expedition against the rebellious mountain people of the North Caucasus. Like his many fellow Georgian nobles, he found a good opportunity to take revenge for the numerous past raids on the Georgian marches organised by North Caucasus tribes.

He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1841, and continued his service in the Caucasus, briefly as head of the civil administration of the region from 1842 to 1843. In 1843, he fought in his last war, commanding a successful punitive expedition against the rebellious Dagestani tribes. Later, he was appointed a member of the Council of the Chief Administration of Transcaucasus.

In 1846, Alexander Chavchavadze fell victim to an accident,[1] under somewhat mysterious circumstances: while returning to his palace in Tsinandali at night, somebody from the nearby woods approached him and splashed hot water while he was galloping on his horse. He lost the control of the horse and crashed into the ditch nearby. He died from the resultant severe head injuries. Although the tragedy was most likely an accident, it was rumoured that he was killed by Russian assassins. He was buried at the Shuamta Monastery in Kakheti, Georgia.

Chavchavadze was survived by a son, David, who was also a lieutenant general in the Russian service during the Caucasus Wars, and three daughters, Nino, Catherine, and Sophia.

Writings

Tsinandali Museum
Alexander Chavchavadze's house

Chavchavadze's influence over Georgian literature was immense. He moved the Georgian poetic language closer to the vernacular, combining the elements of the formal wealth and somewhat artificial antiquated "high" style inherited from the 18th-century Georgian Renaissance literature, melody of Persian lyrical poetry, particularly Hafiz and Saadi, bohemian language of the streets of Tiflis and the moods and themes of European Romanticism. The subject of his works varied from purely anacreontic in his early period to deeply philosophic in his maturity.

Chavchavadze's contradictory career – his participation in the struggle against the Russian control of Georgia, on one hand, and the loyal service to the tsar, including the suppression of Georgian peasant revolts, on the other hand – found a noticeable reflection in his writings. The year 1832, when the Georgian plot collapsed, divides his work into two principal periods. Prior to that event, his poetry was mostly impregnated with laments for the former grandeur of Georgia, the loss of national independence and his personal grievances connected with it; his native country under the Russian empire seemed to him a prison, and he pictured its present state in extremely gloomy colors. The death of his beloved friend and son-in-law, Griboyedov, also contributed to the depressive character of his writings of that time.

Alexander Chavchavadze residence
A corner of Chavchavadze's residence in Tsinandali where the still functioning famous winery serves today as a major tourist attraction in Kakheti.

In his Romantic poems, Chavchavadze dreamed of Georgia's glorious past, when "the breeze of life past" would "breathe sweetness" into his "dry soul." In poems Woe, time, time (ვაჰ, დრონი, დრონი), Listen, listener (ისმინეთ მსმენნო), and Caucasia (კავკასია), the "Golden Age" of medieval Georgia was contrasted with its unremarkable present.[6] As a social activist, however, he remained mostly a "cultural nationalist," defender of the native language, and an advocate of the interest of Georgian aristocratic and intellectual elites. In his letters, Alexander heavily criticized Russian treatment of Georgian national culture and even compared it with the pillaging by Ottomans and Persians who had invaded Georgia in the past.[3] In one of the letters he states: The damage which Russia has inflicted on our nation is disastrous. Even Persians and Turks could not abolish our Monarchy and deprive us of our statehood. We have exchanged one serpent for another.[2]

After 1832, his perception of the national problems became different. The poet unambiguously pointed out those positive results which had been brought about by the Russian annexation, though the liberation of his native land remained to be his most cherished dream.[7] Later, his poetry became less romantic, even sentimental, but he never abandoned his optimistic steak that makes his writings so different from those of his predecessors. Some of the most original of his late poems are, Oh, my dream, why have you appealed to me again (ეჰა, ჩემო ოცნებავ, კვლავ რად წარმომედგინე), and The Ploughman (გუთნის დედა) written in the 1840s. The former, a rather sad poem, surprisingly ends with hope for the future in contemplation of the poet. The latter combines Chavchavadze's elegy for his past years of youth with calm humorous farewell to lost sex-life and potency.[8]

Chavchavadze also composed a historic work, "The Short sketches of the history of Georgia from 1801 to 1831."

Honours and awards

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Kveselava, M (2002), Anthology of Georgian Poetry, The Minerva Group, Inc., ISBN 0-89875-672-3, p. 181
  2. ^ a b Allen, WED (1971), A History of the Georgian people: From the Beginning Down to the Russian Conquest in the Nineteenth Century, New York City: Barnes & Noble, p. 234.
  3. ^ a b Blanch, L (1995), Sabres of Paradise, Carroll & Graf Publishers, ISBN 0-88184-042-4 , p 54.
  4. ^ Goldstein, D (1999), The Georgian Feast: The Vibrant Culture and Savory Food of the Republic of Georgia, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21929-5, p. 53.
  5. ^ Van Halen, Don Juan. Narrative of Don Juan Van Halen's Imprisonment in the Dungeons of the Inquisition at Madrid: And His Escape in 1817 and 1818. New York: J & J Harper. p. 269.
  6. ^ Suny, RG (1994), The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-20915-3, p. 124
  7. ^ Gamezardashvili, DM (2001), Georgian Literature, The Minerva Group, Inc. ISBN 0-89875-570-0, p. 50
  8. ^ Rayfield, D (2000), The Literature of Georgia: A History, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0-7007-1163-5, p. 148

External links

1786 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

1846

1846 (MDCCCXLVI)

was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1846th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 846th year of the 2nd millennium, the 46th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1846, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Alexander Griboyedov

Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Грибое́дов, Aleksándr Sergeyevich Griboyedov or Sergéevich Griboédov; 15 January 1795 – 11 February 1829), formerly romanized as Alexander Sergueevich Griboyedoff, was a Russian diplomat, playwright, poet, and composer. He is recognized as homo unius libri, a writer of one book, whose fame rests on the verse comedy Woe from Wit or The Woes of Wit. He was Russia's ambassador to Qajar Persia, where he and all the embassy staff were massacred by an angry mob as a result of the rampant anti-Russian sentiment that existed through Russia's imposing of the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) and Treaty of Turkmenchay (1828), which had forcefully ratified for Persia's ceding of its northern territories comprising Transcaucasia and parts of the North Caucasus. Griboyedov had played a pivotal role in the ratification of the latter treaty.

Besiki

Besarion Zakarias dze Gabashvili (Georgian: ბესარიონ ზაქარიას ძე გაბაშვილი), commonly known by his pen name Besiki (Georgian: ბესიკი) (1750 – 25 January 1791), was a Georgian poet, politician and diplomat, known as an author of exquisite love songs and heroic odes as well as for his political and amorous adventures.

Chavchavadze

The Chavchavadze (Georgian: ჭავჭავაძე) is a Georgian noble family, formerly a princely one (tavadi).

The family is first attested in the 15th century, during the reign of Alexander I of Georgia. By the time of Leon of Kakheti they appear in the province of Kakheti (1529, according to Prince Ioann of Georgia), where they produced two lines: one in Telavi and Tsinandali; another in Qvareli and Shildi. Both these lines were elevated to a princely dignity under the kings Erekle I (1680s) and Constantine II (1726), respectively.

The Chavchavadze family, with its head Prince Garsevan, came to much prominence under the king Erekle II later in the 18th century, and continued to play an important role in Georgia during the Imperial Russian rule. They were confirmed in their rank by the Tsar’s decrees of 1825, 1828, 1829, and 1850.

On 4 July 1853, a small party under Ghazi Muhammad (the son of Murid leader, Imam Shamil) kidnapped Prince Chavchavadze's wife and sister-in-law, Princess Orbeliani, together with their children and some others. The princess was exchanged for Shamil's son, Jamalu'd-din and 40,000 roubles on 10 March 1855.

Constantine IV, Prince of Mukhrani

Constantine IV (Georgian: კონსტანტინე IV მუხრანბატონი, Konstantine IV Mukhranbatoni; Russian: Константин Иванович Багратион-Мухранский, Konstantin Ivanovich Bagration-Mukhransky) (1782 – 7 September 1842) was the head of the Mukhrani branch of the Bagrationi dynasty of Georgia and the last Prince (batoni) of Mukhrani and ex officio commander of the Banner of Shida Kartli and Grand Master of the Household (msakhurt-ukhutsesi) of Georgia in 1801. Afterwards, he was in the service of the Russian Empire, ending his career with the rank of general.

Ekaterine Dadiani, Princess of Mingrelia

Duchess Ekateriné Dadiani (Georgian: ეკატერინე დადიანი; née Chavchavadze; March 19, 1816 – August 13, 1882) was a prominent 19th-century Georgian aristocrat and the last ruling Duchess of the Western Georgian Duchy of Mingrelia. She played an important role in resisting Ottoman influence in her principality and was at the center of Georgian high society, both inside the country and abroad.

Grigol Maisuradze

Grigol (Giorgi) Maisuradze (Georgian: გრიგოლ [გიორგი] მაისურაძე) (1817 — 1885) was a Georgian painter and a founder of realistic school in the Georgian portraiture.

Maisuradze was born in Tsinandali into the family of serf of Prince Alexander Chavchavadze, a poet and general in the Imperial Russian service. In 1836, Chavchavadze emancipated Maisuradze and sponsored his education in St. Petersburg where he studied under guidance of Karl Bryullov. In the 1850s he returned to his native Georgia and taught painting in Kutaisi where he died in 1885. Most of his works have been lost.

Grigol Orbeliani

Prince Grigol Orbeliani or Jambakur-Orbeliani (Georgian: გრიგოლ ორბელიანი; ჯამბაკურ-ორბელიანი) (October 2, 1804 – March 21, 1883) was a Georgian Romanticist poet and general in Imperial Russian service. One of the most colorful figures in the 19th-century Georgian culture, Orbeliani is noted for his patriotic poetry, lamenting Georgia's lost past and independent monarchy. At the same time, he spent decades in the Russian military service, rising through ranks to highest positions in the imperial administration in the Caucasus.

List of Georgian writers

An alphabetic list of prose writers and poets from the nation of Georgia.

List of Georgians

This is a list of notable Georgians.

List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name (C)

The following is a list of some notable Légion d'honneur recipients by name. The Légion d'honneur is the highest order of France. A complete, chronological list of the members of the Legion of Honour nominated from the very first ceremony in 1803 to now does not exist. The number is estimated at one million including about 3,000 Grand Cross.

Alphonse de Cailleux

Frédéric Cailliaud (1787–1869), French Egyptologist and explorer.

René Caillié, French explorer.

Roger Caillois (1913–1978), French writer, member of the Académie Française

Rafael Caldera, (1916–2009), two time President of Venezuela.

Italo Calvino (1923–1985), Italian author.

Patrick de Cambourg

Francis Cammaerts (1916–2006), en Colombie SOE pour fonctionner Pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

Jacques Camou (1792–1868), French general.

Maxime Du Camp (1822–1894), French writer and photographer.

Gordon Campbell (1886–1953), British Admiral.

Iris Cantor

James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan

Carl XVI Gustaf de Suède

Erskine Nicolson, 3rd Baron Carnock

Alexis Carrel

Madeleine Carroll

Henry H. Carter

George Carter-Campbell

Paul Daniel Cartron

Mary Cassatt

Noël Édouard, vicomte de Curières de Castelnau

Raoul Castex, (1878–1968), French admiral

Jacques Jean Félix Casties, former airline pilot in an airline; 43 years of professional and military services.

Giuseppe Castiglione (1829–1908), Italian artist

Frédéric Walker Castle

Clifton B. Cates

Albertus W. Catlin

Marcel Caux

Nicolae Ceaușescu

Ivan Ceresnjes

Clifford Chadderton

Edgar Chahine

Cecile Chaminade (1857–1944), French composer, noted female recipient

Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois

Jean-Pierre Changeux

André Chapelon (1892–1978), French engineer

Jean-Antoine Chaptal

Jean-Martin Charcot, physician, founding father of modern neurology

Jean Charest

Émilie Charmy

Martin Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield

Ngô Bảo Châu

Alexander Chavchavadze

Georges Chedid, Brigadier General

Jean Cherqui

René Cheruy

Ferdinand J. Chesarek

Louis Chevalier (1911–2001), French historian

Gabriel Chevallier

Julia Child

Dezydery Chlapowski

Józef Chlopicki

Choong Hoon Cho (1920–2002) Founding Chairman, Hanjin Group, South Korea

Yang Ho Cho (1949) Chairman, Hanjin Group, South Korea

Yash Chopra

Charles-Joseph Christiani (1772–1840), French maréchal de camp

Michel Ciment

Dusan Ckrebic, Grand Officier, former President of Serbian Presidency

Jean-Pierre Clamadieu

Ray Clark, U. S. Army veteran WWII

Wesley Clark, 4-star General (ret.) U.S. Army.

Eugent Clarke, Jamaican British West Indies Regiment veteran of WWI

Adolphe Clément-Bayard – industrialist – 1912

Laura Clifford Barney (1879–1974), American Bahá'í teacher and philanthropist.

Pierre Clostermann

Jacqueline Cochran

Jean Cocteau

Grégoire Coffinières de Nordeck French general

William Anderson Coffin, painter

Isidore Noel Cohard

Daniel Cohen, French economist

Colette

Jean-Philippe Collard

Eileen Collins

J. Lawton Collins

Charles Combes, engineer

Yves Congar (1904–1995), French priest and theologian

Sean Connery

Cyril Connolly

Jacinto Convit, Venezuela physician

James T. Conway, U.S. 4-star General, 34th Commandant of the Marine Corps

Charles H. Coolidge

Julian Coolidge

Corneliu Coposu

William Corbet

Charles H. Corlett

Doina Cornea, Romanian human rights activist.

Peter Cosgrove, Australian General, former Chief of the Defence Force

Gérard Coste

Pierre Auguste Cot

Jean Cottier (1912–2003), French civil servant, diplomat in Washington D.C. and in London, Chairman of the BFCE (Banque Française du Commerce Extérieur),

Henri du Couëdic de Kerérant (1868-1947), Amiral, Commandeur

Michel du Couëdic de Kerérant (1931-2006), Capitaine de Vaisseau, Officier

Georges Courteline

Jacques-Yves Cousteau

Joëlle Coutaz

Léon Couturier, Peintre de la Marine

Edgar William Cox, (1882–1918) British general and intelligence officer.

Paul Coze, (1903–1974) French-American anthropologist and artist.

Austen Crehore

David Cronenberg, Canadian film director.

Carlos Cruz-Diez, (1923) Venezuelan painter.

Kenneth Cummins

Andrew Cunningham, 1er vicomte Cunningham de Hyndhope

Ève Curie

Ivan Curkovic

Arthur Currie

Piotr Cywiński

Walerian Czuma

Marion Cotillard

List of Romantic poets

The six best-known English authors are, in order of birth and with an example of their work:

William Blake – The Marriage of Heaven and Hell

William Wordsworth – The Prelude

Samuel Taylor Coleridge – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

George Gordon, Lord Byron – Don Juan, "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"

Percy Bysshe Shelley – Prometheus Unbound, "Adonaïs", "Ode to the West Wind", "Ozymandias"

John Keats – Great Odes, "Hyperion", "Endymion"

Notable female poets include Felicia Dorothea Hemans, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Charlotte Turner Smith, Mary Robinson, Hannah More, and Joanna Baillie.

List of museums in Georgia (country)

Museums in Georgia listed by the principal subdivisions of the country.

Nino Chavchavadze

Princess Nino Chavchavadze (Georgian: ნინო ჭავჭავაძე; also known as Nina Alexandrovna Griboyedova in a Russian manner) (November 4, 1812 – June 28, 1857) was a daughter of the famous Georgian knyaz (prince) and poet Alexander Chavchavadze and wife of Russian diplomat and playwright Alexander Griboyedov.

Nino was raised in the Tsinandali palace, eastern Georgia, where her father was writing his historical novels and poetry. When Nino turned sixteen, she met Russian poet and novelist Alexander Griboyedov during one of her father's parties in Tiflis. Griboyedov proposed to her soon after the meeting and they married at Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral on August 22, 1828. Later in the same year, she accompanied her husband on his fatal mission to Persia, but Nino became ill and Griboyedov chose to leave her in Tabriz. After hearing of her husband’s death in Teheran (January 30, 1829), Nino gave birth to a premature child, who died soon after. Pursuant to Griboyedov's will, Nino reburied him to Mount Mtatsminda, Tbilisi, and ordered a grave stone with the inscription in Russian: "Your spirit and achievements will be remembered for ever. Why still does my love outlive you?" This epitaph also figures in the novel Ali and Nino by Kurban Said when the couple visits the gravesite in Tbilisi.She never remarried, rejecting her numerous suitors (including the prominent Georgian poet and military commander, Grigol Orbeliani, who, inspired with hopeless passion towards Nino for thirty years, also never married) and winning universal admiration for her fidelity to his memory. She spent most of her unhappy life in the Tsinandali residence, frequently visiting Tiflis and her sister, Ekaterine, in Mingrelia.

Nino died in 1857, and was buried next to Griboyedov. On the burial stone of Alexandr Griboyedov at the Mtatsminda Pantheon in Tbilisi, the statue of Nino is depicted weeping over the death of her beloved husband.

November 6

November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 55 days remain until the end of the year.

Prince Okropir of Georgia

Okropir (Georgian: ოქროპირი) known in Russia as Tsarevich Okropir Georgievich Gruzinsky (Russian: Окропир Георгиевич Грузинский), (June 24, 1795 – October 30, 1857) was a Georgian prince royal (batonishvili) of the Bagrationi Dynasty.

Tetri Giorgi (organization)

The Patriotic Union Tetri Giorgi (Georgian: ეროვნული ერთობის დარაზმულობა "თეთრი გიორგი" erovnuli ertobis darazmuloba "tetri giorgi") was the Georgian national political, anti-Soviet organization operating by Georgian political figures abroad. Tetri Giorgi worked in 1924-1954. The name of the organization is derived from the cult of Tetri Giorgi, one of the Georgian identities of St. George, whose equestrian image was used in the national heraldry in pre- and post-Soviet Georgia.

The political organization Tetri Giorgi was formed in 1925 by Georgian émigrés in France who had left their homeland after its forcible Sovietization in 1921. This organization, at times tilting towards right-wing nationalism, was led by General Leo Keresselidze, a World War I veteran, and Professor Mikheil (Mikhako) Tsereteli, a prominent scholar of the Middle East. Among notable members were General Shalva Maglakelidze and intellectuals such as Dr. Alexander Manvelishvili, Dr. Grigol Robakidze, Dr. Viktor Nozadze, and Dr. Kalistrate Salia. The party sought to secure European support for Georgia’s independence cause. During World War II, the organization obtained a German patronage. It absorbed, in 1942, a Georgian National-Socialist group led by Guiorgui Magalachvili and was renamed into the Georgian National-Socialist Party of Tetri Giorgi. Driven by practical consideration and cooperating with the Wehrmacht, the party did not share ideology with the German National Socialist Party. Its leader, Professor Tsereteli, resolutely opposed to adoption of the party’s statute in emigration, calling for taking local Caucasian peculiarities into account once the party was moved in Georgia freed from the Soviet control.With the German defeat in the war, the Georgian émigré activities waned and Tetri Giorgi went in obscurity. Under its influence, 3 homonymous conspiracy groups were formed in Soviet Georgia, one – led by the lawyer Evgen Gvaladze – in 1926-1937; 2nd - led by the Colonel of the Georgian National Army (1918-1921) Alexander Chavchavadze - in 1928-1930 and the 3rd – of which the subsequently conspicuous writer Chabua Amirejibi was a member – in the 1940s. Both of these were promptly neutralized and their members were repressed by the Soviet secret police.

Tsinandali

Tsinandali (Georgian: წინანდალი) is a village in Kakheti, Georgia, noted for the estate and its historic winery which once belonged to the 19th-century aristocratic poet Alexander Chavchavadze (1786–1846). It is situated in the district of Telavi, 79 km east of Tbilisi.

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