Aleutians East Borough, Alaska

Aleutians East Borough (/əˈljuːʃənz/)[3][4] is a 2nd class borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census the borough's population was 3,141.[5] The borough seat is Sand Point.[6]

Aleutians East Borough, Alaska
Aghileen Pinnacles Mountains
Aghileen Pinnacles Mountains in Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.
Map of Alaska highlighting Aleutians East Borough

Location within the U.S. state of Alaska
Map of the United States highlighting Alaska

Alaska's location within the U.S.
IncorporatedOctober 23, 1987[1][2]
Named forAleutian Islands
SeatSand Point
Largest cityAkutan
Area
 • Total15,010 sq mi (38,876 km2)
 • Land6,982 sq mi (18,083 km2)
 • Water8,028 sq mi (20,792 km2), 53.5%
Population (est.)
 • (2018)3,515
 • Density0.4/sq mi (0.2/km2)
Congressional districtAt-large
Time zoneAlaska: UTC−9/−8
Websitewww.aleutianseast.org

History

According to archaeological evidence, the area has been inhabited by the Unanga since the last ice age. Early contact was with Russian fur traders who sought sea otters in these islands. Whaling, fishing and cannery operations brought an influx of Scandinavian and European fishermen in the early 1900s. During World War II, the area was a strategic military site for the Aleutian Campaign, and many locals were evacuated to Ketchikan.

Geography

FalsePassAlaska
An area in the city of False Pass, Alaska, looking north.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 15,010 square miles (38,900 km2), of which 6,982 square miles (18,080 km2) is land and 8,028 square miles (20,790 km2) (53.5%) is water.[7]

Aleutians East Borough is located at 57° north latitude and 162° west longitude. It comprises the westernmost portion of the Alaska Peninsula, and a small number of the Aleutian Islands, from which the borough name derives. Also included are the Shumagin Islands, as well as the Pavlof Islands and the Sanak Islands. In all, about 63.9 percent of its land area comprises land on the Alaska Peninsula, while 36.1 percent is on the numerous islands. There are five incorporated cities and two unincorporated villages within the borough.

Temperatures range from -9 to 76 degrees Fahrenheit. Annual precipitation is 33 inches and annual snowfall is 52 inches.

National protected areas

Adjacent boroughs and census areas

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
19902,464
20002,6979.5%
20103,14116.5%
Est. 20183,515[8]11.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2018[5]

As of the census[11] of 2000, there were 2,697 people, 526 households, and 344 families residing in the borough. The population density was 0.386 people per square mile (0.149/km²). There were 724 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile (0/km²). The racial makeup of the borough was 23.95% White, 1.67% Black or African American, 37.26% Native American, 26.51% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander, 7.38% from other races, and 2.93% from two or more races. 12.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.25% reported speaking Tagalog at home, while 13.03% speak Spanish, 2.00% speak Ilokano, and 1.20% Aleut [1].

There were 526 households out of which 39.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.10% were married couples living together, 14.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.60% were non-families. 27.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.30.

In the borough, the population was spread out with 16.80% under the age of 18, 10.20% from 18 to 24, 42.30% from 25 to 44, 28.10% from 45 to 64, and 2.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 184.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 207.70 males.

A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Aleutians East Borough to be the 2nd most racially diverse county-equivalent in the United States, behind the Aleutians West Census Area.[12]

Government and infrastructure

This information is available on a community basis. Communities located within the borough include: Akutan, Belkofski, Cold Bay, False Pass, King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Pauloff Harbor, Sand Point, and Unga. There are 7 schools located in the borough, attended by 273 students. The Sand Point Clinic is managed by Eastern Aleutian Tribes, Inc. and inhabited a new facility in 2006. The clinic is staffed by low-level professionals and Community Health Aide/Practitioners or CHAs. The CHA role is unique to Alaska and Native Health Care.

Economy

The borough's economy is cash-based. Commercial fishing and fish processing dominate and occur almost year-round. 222 borough residents hold commercial fishing permits. Sand Point is home to the largest fishing fleet in the Aleutian Chain. Salmon and Pacific cod processing occur at Peter Pan Seafoods (Port Moller and King Cove), Trident Seafoods (Sand Point and Akutan), and Bering Pacific (False Pass). The Peter Pan cannery in King Cove is one of the largest operations under one roof in Alaska. Transportation and other services provide year-round employment.

Transportation

Several airports are accessible in the Borough, and float planes can land in many communities. Marine cargo vessels also provide transportation. The State Ferry operates during the summer. Local transportation is primarily by fishing boats or skiffs since there are no roads.

Communities

Cities

Census-designated place

Other places

See also

References

  1. ^ "Substantial Changes to Counties and County Equivalent Entities: 1970–Present". United States Census Bureau, Geography Division. 24 May 2002. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
  2. ^ 1996 Alaska Municipal Officials Directory. Juneau: Alaska Municipal League/Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs. January 1996. p. 1.
  3. ^ "Aleutian". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
  4. ^ "Aleutian". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
  5. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  6. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  8. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  11. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  12. ^ Narula, Svati Kirsten (April 29, 2014). "The 5 U.S. Counties Where Racial Diversity Is Highest—and Lowest". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-05-08.

External links

Coordinates: 55°14′N 161°55′W / 55.23°N 161.92°W

Aiktak Island

Aiktak Island (Aleut: Ugangax) is one of the Krenitzin Islands, a subgroup of the Fox Islands in the eastern Aleutian Islands in the U.S. state of Alaska. It is 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and is located 38 miles (61 km) east of Akutan Island. Aiktak is an Aleut name transcribed by Captain Tebenkov in 1852 as "Ostrov Aikhtak." R. H. Geoghegan suggested that the name is derived from the Aleut "aikhag", meaning "travel or going on a voyage."

It is also known as Ashmiak.

Akutan Island

Akutan Island (Aleut: Akutanax̂) is an island in the Fox Islands group of the eastern Aleutian Islands in the Aleutians East Borough of Alaska.

Aleutian Islands Wilderness

The Aleutian Islands Wilderness is a wilderness area in the Aleutian Islands of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is about 1,300,000 acres (5,300 km2) in area and was designated by the United States Congress in 1980. It is part of the Aleutian Islands unit of Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge.

Amak Island

Amak Island (Aleut: Amax) is an uninhabited island in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska, United States. The island lies north of the western tip of the Alaska Peninsula, and northwest of the mainland city of Cold Bay. The island's land area is 5.828 square miles (15.09 km2) and its maximum elevation is 1,601 feet (488 m). The island's volcano, Mount Amak, last erupted in 1796.

The local population of the song sparrow was last seen on the island around New Year's Eve, 1980/1981, and has not been seen since; devegetation of the island played a part in its demise. These birds were formerly considered a separate subspecies, Melospiza melodia amaka, but are now considered to fall into the range of variation of the Aleutian song sparrow (M. m. sanaka). Unconfirmed reports from the late 1980s suggest that the island, should habitat quality improve, would in time be recolonized by the species.

Avatanak Island

Avatanak Island (Aleut: Agutanax̂) is the second-largest (with a length of 10 mi) of the Krenitzin Islands, a subgroup of the Fox Islands in the eastern Aleutian Islands in the U.S. state of Alaska. It lies southeast of Akun Island, across the Avatanak Strait. Within the Krenitzin Islands, it lies between Rootok Island (Aayux̂tax̂) to the west, and Tigalda Island to the east.

Avatanak is an Aleut name transcribed by Russian explorers into various spellings and apparently identical with Aiaialgutak of Captain Lt. Krenitzin and Lt. Levashev (1768). The name Avatanak was published by Father Veniaminov (1840) and Captain Tebenkov (1852), whereas Captain Lutke and the Russian Hydrographic Department (1847) used the spelling Avatanok. Avatanak Strait separates Avatanak from Akun Island to the northwest, and Avatanak Bight is a bay on the southeastern coast of Avatanak.

Baby Islands

The Baby Islands are a group of small islands located about 1.2 miles (1.9 km) northeast of Unalga Island in the Fox Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska. The group consists of five islands ranging from 980 to 3280 feet (300 to 1000 m) long and several smaller islets. The islands are uninhabited and none of them rise more than a few metres above sea level. Large numbers of birds, notably the whiskered auklet, nest on the islands, making them a frequent stop for nature tours in the area (the group is located only 21 miles (34 km) from Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island). However, the ocean near the islands is extremely hazardous for ships because of the shallow water and numerous rocks that lie just below water's surface.

Derbin Island

Derbin Island is located in the Krenitzin Islands, a subgroup of the Fox Islands in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, United States. Derbin is a small island (at 0.5 mi across) and is situated near the southwestern shore of Tigalda Island. It is measuring 840 metres (0.52 mi) long and 204 metres (0.127 mi) wide. It was named in 1935 by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey because of its proximity to Derbin Strait, the channel between Avatanak and Tigalda islands. Derbin Strait, in turn, is derived from "Derbenskoy," the Russian name published by Father Veniaminov (1840).

Isanotski Peaks

Isanotski Peaks or Isanotski Volcano, known locally as "Ragged Jack", is a multipeaked mountain on Unimak Island, the easternmost Aleutian Island in Alaska, United States. It is an old, highly dissected stratovolcano, lying about 10 miles (16 km) east of Shishaldin Volcano, the highest peak in the Aleutian Islands. Its height is also often given as 8,025 feet (2446 m).

In contrast to many of the younger, symmetrical volcanoes of the region, Isanotski is topped by multiple rugged pinnacles. This makes climbing or skiing the peak much more challenging than Shishaldin, for example.

While eruptions from 1825 and the 1840s have been attributed to Isanotski, geologists were only able to find evidence of Holocene eruptions on Shishaldin, not on Isanotski. Because of this, the actual date of Isanotski's last eruption is unknown.

Krenitzin Islands

The Krenitzin Islands (centered at ca. 54°10′N 165°35′W) are a group of small islands located in the eastern portion of the Fox Islands group of the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The Krenitizins are situated between Unalaska Island to the southwest and Unimak Island to the northeast. Named islands in the Krenitzins group include Aiktak, Avatanak, Derbin, Kaligagan (Qisĝagan), Rootok (Aayux̂tax̂), Round, Tigalda, and Ugamak. All of these islands are managed as part of the Aleutian Islands Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. The Krenitzins have a total land area of 61.596 sq.mi. (159.533 km²) and have no population.

The Krenitzins were probably named by Captain Tebenkov in 1852 for Captain Lt. Peter Kuzmich Krenitzin (or Krenitsyn) who, with Lt. M. D. Levashev explored and mapped over 30 islands in the Aleutians 1768–69. Captain Tebenkov spelled the name "Ostrova Krinitsyna," which translates to Krenitzin Islands.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map.There are 4 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the borough.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted July 12, 2019.

Poa Island

Poa Island (also called Ostrov Tumannyi or Tumannoi; the native name in Aleut is Saduuĝinax̂) is an islet located about 0.99 miles (1.59 km) off the south coast of Akun Island in the Fox Islands group of the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The island is 0.62 miles (1.00 km) long and reaches a maximum elevation of about 200 feet (61 m) above sea level. It was named for a genus of grasses in 1888 by the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. Captain Tebenkov (1852) called it "Ostrov Tumannyi," meaning "foggy island."

Pogromni Volcano

Pogromni Volcano is a stratovolcano on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands. Near it are 5 cinder cones, and a mountain called Pogromni's Sister.

Pogromni is old and eroded with a single glacier on its flank and base. Eruptions have been attributed to it in 1795, 1796, 1826, 1827, and 1830, but historic eruptions attributed to it may have come from nearby Westdahl volcano.The volcano's name comes from the Russian Погромный, meaning "characterised by violent outbreak." This naming refers to a volcanic eruption, but shares the same etymology as pogrom, a Russian word referring to violent riots against an ethnic group.

Rootok Island

Rootok Island (also called Aektok, Aiaktak, Ouektock, Aiaiepta, Veniaminof, or Goloi (alt: Goly; Russian: родила – "bare") is the smallest member of the Krenitzin Islands, a subgroup of the Fox Islands in the eastern Aleutian Islands in Alaska, United States. The island's common spelling of Rooktok appears to have arisen from Aektok. Deviations in compass readings of up to 3 degrees from normal have been observed off the island's north-western side. The island was set aside to house a lighthouse on January 4, 1901; though no navigation aids were ever constructed. The island is uninhabited and it is 6.3 kilometres (3.9 mi) long and 6.2 kilometres (3.9 mi) wide.

Sanak Island

Sanak Island (Aleut: Sanaĝax) is an island in the Fox Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in the U.S. state of Alaska. It is located at 54°25′47″N 162°42′32″W.

Sanak Island and Caton Island are the largest islands in the Sanak Islands subgroup of the Fox Islands.

Travel to the island is currently done by fishing vessel. The trip takes about five hours to cross the roughly 40 mile distance from King Cove to Sanak.

Sanak Islands

The Sanak Islands are a subgroup of the Fox Islands group of islands, located in the Aleutians East Borough of Alaska.

Shumagin Islands

The Shumagin Islands (Unangan: Qagiiĝun) are a group of 20 islands in the Aleutians East Borough south of the mainland of Alaska, United States, at

54°54'–55°20' North 159°15'–160°45' West. The largest islands are Unga Island, Popof Island, Korovin Island, and Nagai Island. Other islands include Andronica, Big Koniuji, Little Koniuji, Simeonof, Chernabura, and Bird. The total land area is 1,192.369 km2 (460.376 sq mi) and their total population as of the 2000 census was 953 persons, almost entirely in the city of Sand Point, on Popof Island.

The Shumagin Islands were named after Nikita Shumagin, one of the sailors on Vitus Bering's 1741 expedition to North America who died of scurvy and was buried on Nagai Island.

Tigalda Island

Tigalda Island (Aleut: Qigalĝan) is one of the Krenitzin Islands, a subgroup of the Fox Islands in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Tigalda is located about 19 miles (31 km) east of Akutan Island, is 12 miles (19 km) long and has an area of about 35 square miles (91 km2). Tigalda is an Aleut name published by Captain Lutke (1836). It was called "Kagalga" by Captain Lt. Krenitzin and Lt. Levashev (1768). Tigalda Bay (Aleut: Udaĝax̂) is situated on the north side of Tigalda. Father Veniaminov (1840) reported the existence of an Aleut village, which he called "Tigaldinskoe" (Aleut: Qagalĝa), of 91 people in 1833. Tigalda is uninhabited.

Ugamak Island

Ugamak Island (Aleut: Ugangax̂) is one of the Krenitzin Islands, a subgroup of the Fox Islands group of the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Ugamak is an Aleut word transcribed by Father Veniaminov (1840) which, according to R. H. Geoghegan, may mean "ceremony island". It is 5.9 miles (9.5 km) long and is located 32 miles (51 km) east of Akutan Island. Ugamak Bay is situated on the southeast coast of Ugamak, and Ugamak Strait is a three-mile-wide channel that separates Ugamak from Kaligagan Island to the west.

Unalga Island

Unalga Island (Aleut: Unalĝa) is one of the Fox Islands subgroup of the Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska, United States. It lies just northeast of Unalaska Island and across Akutan Pass from Akutan Island to its northeast. It is the westernmost island in the Aleutians East Borough. Unalga Island has a land area of 11.004 square miles (28.50 square kilometres) and is unpopulated.

The island is 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) long and 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi) wide.

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