Aleurites moluccanus

Aleurites moluccanus (or moluccana[2]), the candlenut, is a flowering tree in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, also known as candleberry, Indian walnut, kemiri, varnish tree, nuez de la India, buah keras, or kukui nut tree, and Kekuna tree.

Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans, and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. It grows to a height of 15–25 m (49–82 ft), with wide spreading or pendulous branches. The leaves are pale green, simple, and ovate, or trilobed or rarely five-lobed, with an acute apex, 10–20 cm (3.9–7.9 in) long. The nut is round, 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) in diameter; the seed shell has white, oily, and fleshy kernel that contains a thin embryo surrounded by an endosperm. Its kernel serves as the source of oil, and is covered with a thin layer of secondary seed coat.[4]

Candlenut
Starr 020803-0119 Aleurites moluccana
Candlenut foliage, flowers, and nut
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Genus: Aleurites
Species:
A. moluccanus
Binomial name
Aleurites moluccanus
Synonyms

Aleurites javanicus Gand.
Aleurites moluccana[2]
Aleurites pentaphyllus Wall. ex Langeron
Aleurites remyi Sherff
Aleurites trilobus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
Jatropha moluccana L.[3]

History

The candlenut was first domesticated in island Southeast Asia. Remains of harvested candlenuts have been recovered from archaeological sites in Timor and Morotai in eastern Indonesia, dated to around 13,000 and 11,000 BP, respectively. [5] Archaeological evidence of candlenut cultivation is also found in Neolithic sites of the Toalean culture in southern Sulawesi dated to around 3,700 to 2,300 BP.[6][7] Candlenuts were widely introduced into the Pacific islands by early Austronesian voyagers and became naturalized to high volcanic islands.[8][9][10]

The Proto-Austronesian word for candlenut is reconstructed as *kamiri, with modern cognates including Hanunó'o, Iban, and Sundanese kamiri; Javanese and Malay kemiri; and Tetun kamii, but the Oceanian words for candlenut is believed to be derived, instead, from Proto-Austronesian *CuSuR which became Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *tuhuR, originally meaning "string together, as beads", referring to the construction of the candlenut torches. It became Proto-Eastern-Malayo-Polynesian and Proto-Oceanic *tuRi which is then reduplicated. Modern cognates including Fijian, Tongan, Rarotongan, and Niue tui-tui; and Hawaiian kui-kui or kukui.[11]

Uses

2015 Baha Liurai - candle nut sticks
Women in East Timor are preparing candlenut sticks to illuminate a local festival

The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine, where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. On the island of Java in Indonesia, it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice.

In the Philippines, the fruit and tree are traditionally known as lumbang[12] after which Lumban, a lakeshore town in Laguna is named. Before the intrusion of non-native species, it was frequently used as a property-line manager, because its silvery underleaf made the tree easy to distinguish from a distance.[13]

Outside of Southeast Asia, macadamia seeds are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available, as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. The flavor, however, is quite different, as the candlenut is much more bitter. At least one cultivar in Costa Rica has no bitterness, and an improvement program could likely produce an important food crop if nontoxic varieties can be selected and propagated. A Hawaiian condiment known as ʻinamona is made from roasted kukui (candlenuts) mixed into a paste with salt. ʻInamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke.

In ancient Hawaiʻi, kukui nuts were burned to provide light. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib, lit on one end, and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. This led to their use as a measure of time. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light, darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth.

Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree, including: leis from the shells, leaves, and flowers; ink for tattoos from charred nuts; a varnish with the oil; and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections, giving them greater underwater visibility. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). The nohona waʻa (seats), pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood.[14] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing.[15] Kukui was named the state tree of Hawaii on 1 May 1959[16] due to its multitude of uses.[17] It also represents the island of Molokaʻi, whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf.

As recently as 1993, candlenuts were chewed into sweet-scented emollient used during a traditional funerary ritual in the outlying islands of the kingdom of Tonga. Their scent was also used for making various sweet-smelling oils for the skin.[18]

In Australia, aborigines also used them for a variety of similar purposes.[19][20][21]

Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleopteran called Agrianome fairmairei.[22] This larva is eaten by some people.[23]

Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. In plantations, each tree produces 30–80 kg (66–176 lb) of nuts, and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade.

In Uganda, the seed is referred to as kabakanjagala, meaning "the king loves me"[24] and is traditionally used as an improvised toy to play a marbles game fondly called dool(oo).

In Fiji, this nut is called sikeci and its oil is used in cosmetic products.

Toxicity

Because the seeds contain saponin and phorbol, they are mildly toxic when raw.[25] However, the kukui seed oil has no known toxicity and is not an irritant, even to the eyes.[26]

Mythology

In Maui, the kukui is a symbol of enlightenment, protection, and peace. Kamapuaʻa, the hog-man fertility demigod, was said to be able to transform into a kukui tree.[27] One of the legends told of Kamapuaʻa: one day, a man beat his wife to death and buried her beneath Kamapuaʻa while he was in tree form.

Gallery

Candle nuts (kemiri)

Candlenuts (kemiri) from Indonesia

Aleurites moluccana flower4

Aleurites moluccanus flowers

The young leaves of Aleurites moluccana

Young leaves demonstrating their hairy character

See also

References

  1. ^ "Aleurites moluccanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b von,, Linné, Carl; Ludwig,, Willdenow, Karl (10 September 2018). "Caroli a Linné(1805); Species Plantarum Edn. 4, 4(1): 590". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  3. ^ "Aleurites moluccanus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-11-15.
  4. ^ Razal, Ramon; Palijon, Armando (2009). Non-Wood Forest Products of the Philippines. Calamba City, Laguna: El Guapo Printing Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-971-579-058-1.
  5. ^ Blench, Roger (2004). "Fruits and arboriculture in the Indo-Pacific region". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 24 (The Taipei Papers (Volume 2)): 31–50.
  6. ^ Simanjuntak, Truman (2006). "Advancement of Research on the Austronesian in Sulawesi". In Simanjuntak, Truman; Hisyam, M.; Prasetyo, Bagyo; Nastiti, Titi Surti (eds.). Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective : R.P. Soejono's Festschrift. Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). pp. 223–231. ISBN 9789792624991.
  7. ^ Hasanuddin (2018). "Prehistoric sites in Kabupaten Enrekang, South Sulawesi". In O'Connor, Sue; Bulbeck, David; Meyer, Juliet (eds.). The Archaeology of Sulawesi: Current Research on the Pleistocene to the Historic Period. terra australis. 48. ANU Press. pp. 171–189. doi:10.22459/TA48.11.2018.11. ISBN 9781760462574.
  8. ^ Larrue, Sébastien; Meyer, Jean-Yves; Chiron, Thomas (2010). "Anthropogenic Vegetation Contributions to Polynesia's Social Heritage: The Legacy of Candlenut Tree (Aleurites moluccana) Forests and Bamboo (Schizostachyum glaucifolium) Groves on the Island of Tahiti". Economic Botany. 64 (4): 329–339. doi:10.1007/s12231-010-9130-3.
  9. ^ Weisler, Marshall I.; Mendes, Walter P.; Hua, Quan (2015). "A prehistoric quarry/habitation site on Moloka'i and a discussion of an anomalous early date on the Polynesian introduced candlenut (kukui, Aleurites moluccana)". Journal of Pacific Archaeology. 6 (1): 37–57.
  10. ^ Kirch, Patrick V. (1989). "Second Millennium B.C. Arboriculture in Melanesia: Archaeological Evidence from the Mussau Islands". Economic Botany. 43 (2): 225–240. doi:10.1007/bf02859865.
  11. ^ Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (2013). "The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary: A Work in Progress". Oceanic Linguistics. 52 (2): 493–523. doi:10.1353/ol.2013.0016.
  12. ^ metscaper (Patrick Gozon) (12 November 2008). "Learning the Trees that Places were Named after". Our Philippine Trees. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  13. ^ Philippine Native Trees 101: Up Close and Personal. Green Convergence for Safe Food, Healthy Environment and Sustainable Economy. 2012-01-01. p. 337. ISBN 9789719546900.
  14. ^ Krauss, Beatrice H. (1993). "Chapter 4: Canoes". Plants in Hawaiian Culture. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 50–51.
  15. ^ Dunford, Betty; Lilinoe Andrews; Mikiala Ayau; Liana I. Honda; Julie Stewart Williams (2002). Hawaiians of Old (3 ed.). Bess Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-57306-137-7.
  16. ^ Kepler, Angela Kay (1998). Hawaiian Heritage Plants. University of Hawaii Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8248-1994-1.
  17. ^ Elevitch, Craig R.; Harley I. Manner (April 2006). "Aleurites moluccana (kukui)" (PDF). The Traditional Tree Initiative: 10. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ Morrison, R. Bruce and C. Roderick Wilson, eds. (2002) Ethnographic Essays in Cultural Anthropology. Bellmont, CA: Wadsworth. p. 18. ISBN 0-87581-445-X
  19. ^ "Candlenut tree: Aboriginal Use of Native Plants". science.uniserve.edu.au. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  20. ^ "Candle Nut". www.sgapqld.org.au. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  21. ^ J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.
  22. ^ "Catalogue of Life : Agrianome fairmairei (Montrouzier, 1861)". www.catalogueoflife.org.
  23. ^ "Fête du ver de bancoul (Evénements > Thèmes locaux)". www.lafoatourisme.nc.
  24. ^ Cultural Impressions Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Scott, Susan; Craig Thomas (2000). Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. University of Hawaii Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8248-2251-4.
  26. ^ Price, Len. Carrier Oils For Aromatherapy And Massage, 4th edition 2008 p 119. ISBN 1-874353-02-6
  27. ^ Mower, Nancy Alpert (2001). "Kamapuaʻa: A Hawaiian Trickster". In Jeanne Campbell Reesman (ed.). Trickster Lives: Culture and Myth in American Fiction. University of Georgia Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8203-2277-3.

External links

Aleurites

Aleurites is a small genus of arborescent flowering plants in the Euphorbiaceae, first described as a genus in 1776. It is native to China, the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Papuasia, and Queensland. It is also reportedly naturalized on various islands (Pacific and Indian Oceans, plus the Caribbean) as well as scattered locations in Africa, South America, and Florida.These monoecious, evergreen trees are perennials or semiperennials. These are large trees, 15–40 m (49–131 ft) tall, with spreading, drooping, and rising branches.

The leaves are alternate, lobate, ovate to ovate-lanceolate with minute stipules. They are pubescent on both sides when young, but in a later stage they become glabrous.

The inflorescence consists of terminal plumes of small, creamy white, bell-shaped, fragrant flowers, branching from the base. The flowers are usually bisexual, with a solitary pistillate flower at the end of each major axis. The lateral cymes are staminate. There are five or six imbricate petals. The staminate flowers are mostly longer and thinner than the pistillate flowers, with 17-32 glabrous stamens in four whorls. The pistillate flowers have a superior ovary.

The fruits are rather large drupes with a fleshy exocarp and a thin, woody endocarp. They vary in shape, according to the numbers of developed locules. They contain oleiferous, poisonous seeds.

The oil has been used as a paraffin and lubricant, and as a constituent of varnish, paint, and soap. Once poisonous substances are removed, it can be used as a cooking oil.

Some deciduous Chinese species are now classified under a separate genus Vernicia.

The name Aleurites is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἄλευρον meaning "wheaten flour" or "ground meal", because of the appearance of the lower surface of the leaf.

Aleurites rockinghamensis

Aleurites rockinghamensis, the candlenut, is a flowering tree in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae found in northeastern Australia.

Aleuritideae

Aleuritideae is a tribe of the subfamily Crotonoideae, under the family Euphorbiaceae. It comprises 6 subtribes and 14 genera.

Candlenut oil

Candlenut oil or kukui nut oil is extracted from the nut of Aleurites moluccanus (Aleurites triloba), the candlenut or kuku'i.

Coumarinolignoid

Coumarinolignoids are phenolic compounds formed from a lignan structure with a coumarin formed in place of one of the two phenylpropanoids.

Cyanea acuminata

Cyanea acuminata is a rare species of flowering plant known by the common names Honolulu cyanea. It is endemic to Oahu, where there are no more than 250 individuals remaining. It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States. Like other Cyanea it is known as haha in Hawaiian.This Hawaiian lobelioid is a shrub up to 2 meters tall. It grows in wet forests and on slopes and ridges in the Koʻolau and Waiʻanae Mountains of Oahu.The remaining plants are divided among 18 subpopulations which are threatened by damage to their habitat from feral pigs and goats, rats, and exotic plants such as Maui pamakani (Ageratina adenophora), kukui (Aleurites moluccanus), and ti plant (Cordyline fruticosa). Other threats to the plant and its habitat include fire and trampling by military personnel. Botanists are hopeful that there are many more than 250 plants remaining in unsurveyed areas of the island.

Cyanea superba

Cyanea superba is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common names Mt. Kaala cyanea and superb cyanea. It is endemic to the island of Oahu, but it is now extinct in the wild. It exists in cultivation and some individuals have been planted in appropriate habitat. It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States. Like other Cyanea it is known as haha in Hawaiian.This Hawaiian lobelioid was known from lowland forest habitat in the Waianae and Koʻolau Mountains of Oahu. There were two subspecies. The ssp. regina has not been seen since 1932 and is considered extinct. The ssp. superba was collected in the 19th century and then was not seen again until its 1971 rediscovery. In the 1970s there were about 60 plants counted. By the time the plant was listed as endangered in 1991 there were twenty individuals. These slowly disappeared and the last plant died in 2002.The plant is being propagated in a number of facilities in Hawaii. It has been planted in various parts of the island, often in fenced and otherwise protected areas. Many of the plants have survived, flowered, and produced viable seed, and seedlings have been observed. The U. S. Army has collected over 50,000 seeds from these plants and placed them in storage.This plant was driven to extinction by a number of forces, chiefly habitat destruction and degradation by feral pigs, rats, and introduced species of slugs. They faced competition from invasive plant species, including kukui (Aleurites moluccanus), silk oak (Grevillea robusta), and Christmas berry (Schinus terebinthifolius). Some factors continue to threaten the individuals that have been planted in the habitat, such as fires started during military exercises and through arson.

Cyanea truncata

Cyanea truncata is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name Punaluu cyanea. It is endemic to the islands of Oahu and Molokai in Hawaii, but it is now critically endangered. It exists in cultivation and some individuals have been planted in appropriate habitat. It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States. Like other Cyanea it is known as haha in Hawaiian.By the 1980s this Hawaiian lobelioid was known only from the Koʻolau Mountains of Oahu, and the last plants were seen in 1983. No more were found until 1998 when one plant was discovered; it died in 2001 but by then its offspring were being propagated. In 2004 three plants were discovered and these were still alive two years later. In the meantime, the offspring of the propagated individual had been planted in appropriate habitat. Some of these are still alive today, growing inside an enclosure along with another endangered plant, Schiedia kaalae, where they are protected from feral pigs that rove the area.The aforementioned pigs were a major force that drove the plant to near extinction. The animals are extremely destructive to the habitat, rooting the soil, tearing down larger vegetation, uprooting small plants and seedlings, and transporting the seeds of exotic plants into the area. Exotic plants that threaten this and other rare natives include kukui (Aleurites moluccanus), ti (Cordyline fruitcosa), and Christmas berry (Schinus terebinthifolius). Rats and slugs also damage the plants.

Erechthias zebrina

Erechthias zebrina is a fungus moth (family Tineidae). Initially, it was mistakenly believed to be an ermine moth (family Yponomeutidae) of genus Argyresthia.

This species has a wingspan of 8–10 mm. It was first described by Arthur Gardiner Butler in 1881 from Hawaii, but is a widespread species reported from Africa, the Seychelles, Réunion, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, India, Australia, China, Java, Borneo, Fiji, Samoa, Society Islands, South America (including Brazil) and the West Indies.The larvae have been collected amongst old books, in a mud dauber's abandoned nest, in houses, and on the trunk of Aleurites moluccanus. It is believed to feed upon arthropod remains and other detritus.

Euphorbia haeleeleana

Euphorbia haeleeleana, the Kauaʻi spurge, is a species of flowering plant in the croton family, Euphorbiaceae, that is endemic to the islands of Kauaʻi and Oaʻhu in Hawaii. Like other Hawaiian spurges it is known as `akoko.

It inhabits dry, coastal mesic, and mixed mesic forests from 205–670 m (673–2,198 ft). Associated plants include ʻōhiʻa lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), koa (Acacia koa), lama (Diospyros sandwicensis), kukui (Aleurites moluccanus), ʻaʻaliʻi (Dodonaea viscosa), wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis), hala pepe (Pleomele spp.), ʻohe kukuluāeʻo (Reynoldsia sandwicensis), and āulu (Sapindus oahuensis). Kauaʻi Spurge is a small tree, reaching a height of 3–14 metres (9.8–45.9 ft).It is threatened by habitat loss and disturbance. Feral pigs and goats damage the habitat and non-native plant species take hold there and compete for resources.

Flueggea neowawraea

Flueggea neowawraea, the mēhamehame, is a species of flowering tree in the family Phyllanthaceae, that is endemic to Hawaii. It can be found in dry, coastal mesic, and mixed mesic forests at elevations of 250 to 1,000 m (820 to 3,280 ft). Associated plants include kukui (Aleurites moluccanus), hame (Antidesma pulvinatum), ʻahakea (Bobea sp.), alaheʻe (Psydrax odorata), olopua (Nestegis sandwicensis), hao (Rauvolfia sandwicensis), and aʻiaʻi (Streblus pendulinus). Mēhamehame was one of the largest trees in Hawaiʻi, reaching a height of 30 m (98 ft) and trunk diameter of 2 m (6.6 ft). Native Hawaiians used the extremely hard wood of this tree to make weaponry.Although it had declined along with other dry and mesic forest plants, many large trees could still be found until the 1970s. At that point, the arrival of the black twig borer, (Xylosandrus compactus) caused a catastrophic collapse of the species. Today, populations only exist in the northwestern part of Kauaʻi, the Waiʻanae Range on Oʻahu, the southwestern slopes of Haleakalā on Maui, and the Big Island's Kona coast. Nearly all living individuals exist as basal shoots from older trees where the main trunk has died, or are outplanted saplings. Because of the extreme durability of the wood and its easily recognized fluted pattern, many dead trunks can still be found.

Hyposmocoma alliterata

Hyposmocoma alliterata is a species of moth of the family Cosmopterigidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii. This species is thought to range from the lowlands to the highlands, where it is most abundant.

The larvae feed amongst lichens on trees trunks of Acacia koa, Aleurites moluccanus, Boehmeria, Manihot glaziovii, Prosopis and Sophora. Its larvae are at times common on the trunks of living trees.

Larvae in a broad, flat, rounded-oval case coming to a point in front. The case really is not so broad, but has a broad extension on sides and rear made of a single layer of round bits of epidermis from the bark, forming a mosaic of the coloration of the bark of the tree on which it lives, and thus not seen by the casual observer

Hyposmocoma chilonella

Hyposmocoma chilonella is a species of moth of the family Cosmopterigidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui, Molokai and Hawaii.

The larvae of the nominate subspecies are whitish and feed on Acacia koa, Aleurites moluccanus, Cheirodendron gaudichaudii, Coprosma foliosa and other Coprosma species, Metrosideros, Pipturus, Rubus hawaiiensis and Smilax sandwicensis. They bore in dead wood or pith. The larvae of subspecies H. c. percondita probably feed on dead wood. Larvae of subspecies H. c. triocellata have been recorded boring in dead wood of Cheirodendron, Hibiscus, Pipturus, Pittosporum, Rubus hawaiiensis and Wikstroemia. Larvae of subspecies H. c. venosa bore in dead wood of Wikstroemia.

Hyposmocoma trimaculata

Hyposmocoma trimaculata is a species of moth of the family Cosmopterigidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Oahu. The type locality is the Waianae Range.

The larvae probably feed on lichen on and beneath the bark of Acacia koa and Aleurites moluccanus.

The larva forms a short subcylindrical case, constricted near each end and covered with minute bits of lichen.

Lumban, Laguna

Lumban, officially the Municipality of Lumban, (Tagalog: Bayan ng Lumban), is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 30,652 people.Lumban is one of Laguna's oldest towns, located 104 kilometres (65 mi) southeast of Manila. It got its name from Aleurites moluccanus, a tree locally named "lumbang". The province's capital town, Santa Cruz, as well as Cavinti and Pagsanjan, were once part of Lumban. The town is the location of the river, wherein the Laguna Copperplate Inscription was found. The copperplate is the oldest known document found in the Philippines, dating to 900AD.

Lumban is the home of Lake Caliraya, a man-made lake often visited by nature lovers and sports people. It is known as the "Embroidery Capital of the Philippines". Fine Jusi and Piña cloth are embroidered by hand, and the finished product is worn by males as Barong Tagalog and by females as Saya (Filipiñana). These are export-quality items. Lumban is also known for its many designs of shoes, sandals, slippers, and step-ins - all made from local materials. They are usually sold in shopping malls in Metro Manila, albeit at slightly higher prices than what can be found in Laguna.

Manihot

Manihot is a genus in the diverse milkspurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It was described as a genus in 1754.Species of Manihot are monecious trees, shrubs and a few herbs that are native to the Americas, from Arizona in the United States south to Argentina and Uruguay. The best known member of this genus is the widely cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta).Manihot species are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera including Endoclita sericeus and Hypercompe hambletoni.

Species

variety treated as a speciesManihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii = Manihot glaziovii (Müll.Arg.) Allemformerly includedmoved to Aleurites Cnidoscolus Jatropha

Peridroma cinctipennis

Peridroma cinctipennis is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It was first described by Arthur Gardiner Butler in 1881. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii.

The larvae feed on Aleurites moluccanus, Cheirodendron, various grasses, Lythrum, mango, Metrosideros, Pittosporum, Sonchus and Wikstroemia species.

Varnish tree

The name varnish tree may refer to numerous species of tree:

The candlenut, or kukui (Aleurites moluccanus)

The goldenrain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata)

The marking nut tree (Semecarpus anacardium)

The Chinese lacquer tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum)

Xylinophylla hypocausta

Xylinophylla hypocausta is a moth of the family Geometridae first described by William Warren in 1897. It is found in Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra and Borneo.

The species has been treated as a subspecies of Xylinophylla maculata for some time.

The larvae feed on Aleurites moluccanus.

True, or botanical nuts
Drupes
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms

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