Aleksey Khomyakov

Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov (Russian: Алексе́й Степа́нович Хомяко́в) (May 13 (O.S. May 1) 1804 in Moscow – October 5 (O.S. September 23), 1860 in Moscow) was a Russian theologian, philosopher, poet and amateur artist. He co-founded the Slavophile movement along with Ivan Kireyevsky, and he became one of its most distinguished theoreticians. His son Nikolay Khomyakov was a speaker of the State Duma.

KhomyakovA AvtoportretABR
Self-portrait (1842)


Khomyakov's whole life was centred on Moscow. He viewed this "thousand-domed city" as the epitome of the Russian way of life. Equally successful as a landlord and conversationalist, he published very little during his lifetime. His writings, printed posthumously by his friends and disciples, exerted a profound influence on the Russian Orthodox Church and Russian lay philosophers, such as Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Konstantin Pobedonostsev, and Vladimir Solovyov. Alexander Herzen's My Past and Thoughts contains a delightful characterisation of Khomyakov.

For Khomyakov, socialism and capitalism were equally repugnant offspring of Western decadence. The West failed to solve human spiritual problems, as it stressed competition at the expense of co-operation. In his own words, "Rome kept unity at the expense of freedom, while Protestants had freedom but lost unity".[1]

Khomyakov's own ideals revolved around the term sobornost, the Slavonic equivalent of catholicity found in the Nicene Creed; it can be loosely translated as "togetherness" or "symphony". Khomyakov viewed the Russian obshchina as a perfect example of sobornost and extolled the Russian peasants for their humility.

Khomyakov died from cholera, infected by a peasant he had attempted to treat. He was buried next to his brother-in-law, Nikolai Yazykov, and another disciple, Nikolai Gogol, in the Danilov Monastery. The Soviets arranged for their disinterment and had them reburied at the new Novodevichy Cemetery.


  • Полное собранiе сочиненiй. Томъ I-VIII. Москва, 1900-1914.


  • Lea B.Virághalmy: A homjakovi ekkléziológia szókincsének szemantikai elemzése. Budapest, 2002.
  • Antonella Cavazza: A. S. Chomjakov. Opinione di un russo sugli stranieri. Bologna, 1997.
  • Albert Gratieux: A.S. Khomiakov et le Mouvement Slavophile (In: Unam Sanctam 5-6) Paris, 1939.
  • Georgio Paša: Homjakovi doctrina de Ecclesia. Excerpta ex dissertatione ad lauream in facultate Theologica Pontificiae Universitatis Gregorianae. Zagrebiae, 1943. 38 p.
  • Peter Plank: Parapolimena zur Ekklesiologie A. S. Chomjakovs (In: Ostkirchliche Studien, Würzburg, 1980. pp. 3–29)
  • John S. Romanides: Orthodox Ecclesiology According to Alexis Khomiakov (In: The Greek Orthodox Theological Review 1956/II.1 pp. 57–73.)
  • Bernhard Schultze S.J.: Chomjakows Lehre über die Eucharistie (In: Orientalia Christiana Periodica. Vol.XIV. N0 I-II) Roma, 1948. pp. 138–161.
  • Ernst Christoph Suttner: Offenbarung, Gnade und Kirche bei A.S. Chomjakov. (In: Das östliche Christentum. Neue Folge 20) Würzburg, 1967. 200 p.
  • Jurij Samarin: Préface aux oeuvres théologiques de A.S. Khomiakov. (In: Unam Sanctam 7) Paris, 1939. 95 p.
  • Marcin Ks. Wojciechowski: Nieomylosc Kosciola Chrystusowego wedlug A. Chomiakowa i jego zwolenników. Lublin, 1938. 187 p.
  • ed. Vladimir Tsurikov, A.S. Khomiakov: Poet, Philosopher, Theologian, Jordanville, 2004. 206 p.
  • E. Skobtsova (Mother Maria). The Crucible of Doubts -- Khomyakov, Dostoevsky, Solov'ev, In Search of Synthesis, Four 1929 Works, frsj Publications, 2016, 166 p. ISBN 9780996399234
  • Nicholas Berdyaev. Aleksei Stepanovich Khomyakov, frsj Publications, 2017, 224 p. ISBN 9780996399258

See also


  1. ^ History of Russian Philosophy by Nikolai Lossky ISBN 978-0-8236-8074-0 p. 87

External links

Antonina Bludova

Countess Antonina Dmitrievna Bludova (Антонина Дмитриевна Блудова; 25 April 1813 – 9 April 1891) was a Russian philanthropist, salonist, memoirist and lady-in-waiting.

Antonina Bludova was the eldest child of Count Dmitry Bludov, one of Nicholas I's trusted ministers and advisors. She was born in Stockholm, where her father was on the Russian embassy staff. From an early age, she met Alexander Pushkin, Vasily Zhukovsky, Nikolai Gogol, Mikhail Lermontov, Aleksey Khomyakov and other luminaries of the literary world. Her salon was one of the most fashionable in Saint Petersburg, serving as a vital link between the imperial court and the Slavophile (or Pan-Slavist) circles. She was made a senior lady-in-waiting in 1863.After her father's death in 1864, this influential spinster decided to leave the capital in order to devote herself to Christian causes. She founded an Orthodox bratstvo in Ostrog which included an elementary school, a school for girls, a public library, a hospital, a drug store and a home for pilgrims travelling to the Pochayev Monastery. She died in Moscow at the age of 77 and was buried in the Novodevichy Convent. Her memoirs were published in 1889.

Ecclesiastical differences between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church

Catholic–Orthodox ecclesiastical differences are differences between the organizational structure and governance of the Eastern Orthodox Church and that of the Catholic Church. These are distinguished from theological differences which are differences in dogma and doctrine.

A number of disagreements over matters of Ecclesiology developed slowly between the Western and Eastern wings of the State church of the Roman Empire centred upon the cities of Rome (considered to have "fallen" in 476) and New Rome/Constantinople (c.330-1453) respectively. The disputes were a major factor in the formal East-West Schism between Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael I in 1054 and are largely still unresolved between the churches today.

Emmanuil Dmitriev-Mamonov

Emmanuil Aleksandrovich Dmitriev-Mamonov (Russian: Эммануил Александрович Дмитриев-Мамонов; 19 January 1824 in Moscow – 30 December 1883 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian portrait painter and graphic artist. He also worked as a book designer and caricaturist and was a respected art historian who supported the Slavophile movement.

Ivan Kireyevsky

Ivan Vasilyevich Kireyevsky (Russian: Ива́н Васи́льевич Кире́евский; 3 April 1806 in Moscow – 23 June 1856 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian literary critic and philosopher who, together with Aleksey Khomyakov, is credited as a co-founder of the Slavophile movement.

List of 19th-century Russian Slavophiles

This is a list of 19th-century Russian Slavophiles:

Slavophilia is an intellectual movement originating from the 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history. Slavophiles were especially opposed to the influences of Western Europe in Russia. There were also similar movements in Poland, Hungary and Greece.

Maxim Gorky Literature Institute

The Maxim Gorky Literature Institute (Russian: Литературный институт им. А. М. Горького) is an institution of higher education in Moscow. It is located at 25 Tverskoy Boulevard in central Moscow.


Mnemozina (Russian: Мнемозина, IPA: [mnʲɪmɐˈzʲinə]) was a quarterly literary almanac, published in Moscow from 1824 to 1825. The full title in the Russian language is Мнемозина, собрание сочинений в стихах и прозе (Mnemozina, collected works in verse and prose) and was a reference to Mnemosyne, a persona in Greek mythology embodying memory. The main editors were Wilhelm Küchelbecker, and Vladimir Odoevsky.

Nikolay Khomyakov

Nikolay Alekseevich Khomyakov (Russian: Никола́й Алексе́евич Хомяко́в; January 19, 1850, Moscow – June 28, 1925, Dubrovnik) was a Russian politician.

Platon Karsavin

Platon Constantinovich Karsavin (Russian: Платон Константинович Карсавин; November 17, 1854, Saint Petersburg – 1922, Saint Petersburg) was a dancer with the Russian Imperial Ballet in St Petersburg, and afterwards a teacher of dance.

Russkaya Beseda

Russkaya Beseda (Russian: Ру′сская бесе′да, English: The Russian Colloquy) was a Russian literary magazine founded in Moscow, Russian Empire, in 1856 by Alexander Koshelev who remained its editor-in-chief until 1858, when Ivan Aksakov joined in as co-editor. The magazine was published on a bi-monthly basis and was belonged to the Slavophile movement; most prominent in it were the literature, science and criticism sections. Selskoye Blagoustroistvo (Agrarian landscaping) was added as a supplement in 1858–1859. Russkaya Beseda targeted for broad and mixed readership and but, frequently covered articles about the future of the Slavic peoples. Among the authors who regularly contributed to the magazine, were Sergei Aksakov, Vladimir Dal, Aleksey K. Tolstoy, Alexander Ostrovsky, Aleksey Khomyakov, Fyodor Tyutchev, Ivan Nikitin, Taras Shevchenko. It ceased publication in 1860.

Sergei Nikolaevich Trubetskoy

For other people named Trubetskoy, see: Trubetskoy

Prince Sergei Nikolaevich Trubetskoy (1862–1905) was a Russian religious philosopher. He was the son of Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Trubetskoy, co-founder of the Moscow Conservatory, and Sophia Alekseievna Lopouchina. His mother was a big influence on his religious thought. He and his brother, Evgenii Nikolaevitch Troubetzkoy (1863-1920), continued Vladimir Solovyov's work on developing a modern Christian philosophy of the world. He was a Professor of Philosophy at Moscow University.

He was also a founding members Beseda.


Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from the 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history. Slavophiles opposed the influences of Western Europe in Russia. There were also similar movements in Poland, Serbia and Croatia, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia. Depending on the historical context, its opposite could be termed Slavophobia, a fear of Slavic culture, or even what some Russian intellectuals called zapadnichestvo (westernism).


Sobornost (Russian: Собо́рность, IPA: [sɐˈbornəstʲ] "Spiritual community of many jointly living people") is a term coined by the early Slavophiles, Ivan Kireyevsky and Aleksey Khomyakov, to underline the need for co-operation between people, at the expense of individualism, on the basis that the opposing groups focus on what is common between them. Khomyakov believed the West was progressively losing its unity because it was embracing Aristotle and his defining individualism. Kireyevsky believed that Hegel and Aristotle represented the same ideal of unity.

Khomyakov and Kireyevsky originally used the term sobor to designate co-operation within the Russian obshchina, united by a set of common convictions and Eastern Orthodox values, as opposed to the cult of individualism in the West. The term "sobor" in Russian has multiple co-related meanings: a "sobor" is the diocesan bishop's "cathedral church"; a "sobor" is also a churchly "gathering" or "assemblage" or "council" reflecting the concept of the Church as an "ecclesium" (ἐκκλησία); in secular civil Russian historical usage is the national "Zemsky Sobor" and various "local/местное" landed or urban "sobors". Khomyakov's concept of the "catholicity" of the Church as "universality", in contrast to that of Rome, reflects the perspective from the root-meaning of the word "liturgy" (λειτουργία), meaning "work of the gathered people".

Spiritual direction

Spiritual direction is the practice of being with people as they attempt to deepen their relationship with the divine, or to learn and grow in their own personal spirituality. The person seeking direction shares stories of his or her encounters of the divine, or how he or she is cultivating a life attuned to spiritual things. The director listens and asks questions to assist the directee in his or her process of reflection and spiritual growth. Spiritual direction advocates claim that it develops a deeper awareness with the spiritual aspect of being human, and that it is not psychotherapy, counseling, or financial planning.


A starets (Russian: стáрец, IPA: [ˈstarʲɪt͡s]; fem. стáрица) is an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery who functions as venerated adviser and teacher. Elders or spiritual fathers are charismatic spiritual leaders whose wisdom stems from God as obtained from ascetic experience. It is believed that through ascetic struggle, prayer and Hesychasm (seclusion or withdrawal), the Holy Spirit bestows special gifts onto the elder including the ability to heal, prophesy, and most importantly, give effective spiritual guidance and direction. Elders are looked upon as being an inspiration to believers and an example of saintly virtue, steadfast faith, and spiritual peace.

Elders are not appointed by any authority; they are simply recognized by the faithful as being people "of the Spirit". An elder, when not in prayer or in voluntary seclusion, receives visitors (some who travel very far) and spends time conversing with them, offering a blessing (if the elder is an ordained cleric) and confession, and praying. People often petition the elder for intercessionary prayers, believing that the prayer of an elder is particularly effective.

Personal confessions to elders are encouraged, although not all of them are ordained to the priesthood. Many of them have a reputation among believers of being able to know the secrets of a person's heart without having ever previously met the visitor, and having the ability to discern God's plan for a person's life. This, as all of the elder's gifts, is believed to come from the Holy Spirit acting through the elder.

Stepan Shevyryov

Stepan Petrovich Shevyryov (Степа′н Петро′вич Шевырё′в, 30 (18) October 1806 in Saratov, Russian Empire – 20 (8) May 1864 in Paris, France) was a conservative Russian literary historian and poet, a virulent critic of "the rotting West", and leading representative of the Official Nationality theory.

Suite No. 1 (Rachmaninoff)

Suite No. 1 (or Fantaisie-Tableaux for two pianos), Op. 5, is a composition for two pianos by Sergei Rachmaninoff. Composed in the summer of 1893 at the Lysikofs estate in Lebeden, Kharkov, this suite was initially titled Fantaisie (Tableaux) since Rachmaninoff intended it, as he explained in a letter to his cousin Sofia Satin, to consist "of a series of musical pictures." While François-René Tranchefort asserts that the music illustrates four extracts of poems (written by Mikhail Lermontov, Lord Byron, Fyodor Tyutchev and Aleksey Khomyakov), Rachmaninoff biographer Max Harrison counters that while the poems "convey something of the emotional tone of the music," the music itself is not programmatic.This work was first performed on November 30, 1893, by Rachmaninoff and Pavel Pabst in Moscow, and is dedicated to Tchaikovsky. Rachmaninoff composed a second suite in 1901.

The four movements are:

Barcarolle. Allegretto, in G minor.

La nuit... L'amour... Adagio sostenuto, in D major. (The night...the love...)

Les Larmes. Largo di molto, in G minor. (The Tears)

Pâques. Allegro maestoso, in G minor. (Easter)Perhaps surprisingly, given that Rachmaninoff wrote orchestral and two-piano versions of his Symphonic Dances, which is effectively a three-movement symphony, no one has orchestrated this Suite as a possible symphony.

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