Alcaeus of Mytilene

Alcaeus of Mytilene (/ælˈsiːəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἀλκαῖος ὁ Μυτιληναῖος, Alkaios ho Mutilēnaios; c. 620 – 6th century BC) was a lyric poet from the Greek island of Lesbos who is credited with inventing the Alcaic stanza. He was included in the canonical list of nine lyric poets by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria. He was an older contemporary and an alleged lover of Sappho, with whom he may have exchanged poems. He was born into the aristocratic governing class of Mytilene, the main city of Lesbos, where he was involved in political disputes and feuds.

Alkaios Sappho Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2416 n1
Alcaeus and Sappho, Attic red-figure calathus, c. 470 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 2416)

Biography

Alcaeus (poet) - Project Gutenberg eText 12369
Alcaeus
"A probably authentic Lesbian coin has been preserved, bearing upon the obverse ... a profile head of Alcaeus, and upon the reverse ...a profile head of Pittacus. This coin is said to have belonged to Fulvius Ursinus. It passed through various hands and collections into the Royal Museum at Paris, and was engraved by the Chevalier Visconti." — J. Easby-Smith[1]
Pittakos
Pittacus

The broad outlines of the poet's life are well known.[2][3][4] He was born into the aristocratic, warrior class that dominated Mytilene, the strongest city-state on the island of Lesbos and, by the end of the seventh century BC, the most influential of all the North Aegean Greek cities, with a strong navy and colonies securing its trade-routes in the Hellespont. The city had long been ruled by kings born to the Penthilid clan but, during the poet's life, the Penthilids were a spent force and rival aristocrats and their factions contended with each other for supreme power. Alcaeus and his older brothers were passionately involved in the struggle but experienced little success. Their political adventures can be understood in terms of three tyrants who came and went in succession:

  • Melanchrus – he was overthrown sometime between 612 BC and 609 BC by a faction that, in addition to the brothers of Alcaeus, included Pittacus (later renowned as one of the Seven Sages of Greece); Alcaeus at that time was too young to be actively involved;
  • Myrsilus – it is not known when he came to power but some verses by Alcaeus (frag. 129) indicate that the poet, his brothers and Pittacus made plans to overthrow him and that Pittacus subsequently betrayed them; Alcaeus and his brothers fled into exile where the poet later wrote a drinking song in celebration of the news of the tyrant's death (frag. 332);
  • Pittacus – the dominant political figure of his time, he was voted supreme power by the political assembly of Mytilene and appears to have governed well (590-580 BC), even allowing Alcaeus and his faction to return home in peace.

Sometime before 600 BC, Mytilene fought Athens for control of Sigeion and Alcaeus was old enough to participate in the fighting. According to the historian Herodotus,[5] the poet threw away his shield to make good his escape from the victorious Athenians then celebrated the occasion in a poem that he later sent to his friend, Melanippus. It is thought that Alcaeus travelled widely during his years in exile, including at least one visit to Egypt. His older brother, Antimenidas, appears to have served as a mercenary in the army of Nebuchadnezzar II and probably took part in the conquest of Askelon. Alcaeus wrote verses in celebration of Antimenides' return, including mention of his valour in slaying the larger opponent (frag. 350), and he proudly describes the military hardware that adorned their family home (frag. 357).

"Alcaeus was in some respects not unlike a Royalist soldier of the age of the Stuarts. He had the high spirit and reckless gaiety, the love of country bound up with belief in a caste, the licence tempered by generosity and sometimes by tenderness, of a cavalier who has seen good and evil days." — Richard Claverhouse Jebb[6]

Alcaeus was a contemporary and a countryman of Sappho and, since both poets composed for the entertainment of Mytilenean friends, they had many opportunities to associate with each other on a quite regular basis, such as at the Kallisteia, an annual festival celebrating the island's federation under Mytilene, held at the 'Messon' (referred to as temenos in frs. 129 and 130), where Sappho performed publicly with female choirs. Alcaeus' reference to Sappho in terms more typical of a divinity, as holy/pure, honey-smiling Sappho (fr. 384), may owe its inspiration to her performances at the festival.[7] The Lesbian or Aeolic school of poetry "reached in the songs of Sappho and Alcaeus that high point of brilliancy to which it never after-wards approached"[8] and it was assumed by later Greek critics and during the early centuries of the Christian era that the two poets were in fact lovers, a theme which became a favourite subject in art (as in the urn pictured above).

Poetry

The poetic works of Alcaeus were collected into ten books, with elaborate commentaries, by the Alexandrian scholars Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace sometime in the 3rd century BC, and yet his verses today exist only in fragmentary form, varying in size from mere phrases, such as wine, window into a man (fr. 333) to entire groups of verses and stanzas, such as those quoted below (fr. 346). Alexandrian scholars numbered him in their canonic nine (one lyric poet per Muse). Among these, Pindar was held by many ancient critics to be pre-eminent,[9] but some gave precedence to Alcaeus instead.[10] The canonic nine are traditionally divided into two groups, with Alcaeus, Sappho and Anacreon, being 'monodists' or 'solo-singers', with the following characteristics:[11]

  • They composed and performed personally for friends and associates on topics of immediate interest to them;
  • They wrote in their native dialects (Alcaeus and Sappho in Aeolic dialect, Anacreon in Ionic);
  • They preferred quite short, metrically simple stanzas or 'strophes' which they re-used in many poems — hence the 'Alcaic' and 'Sapphic' stanzas, named after the two poets who perfected them or possibly invented them.

The other six of the canonic nine composed verses for public occasions, performed by choruses and professional singers and typically featuring complex metrical arrangements that were never reproduced in other verses. However, this division into two groups is considered by some modern scholars to be too simplistic and often it is practically impossible to know whether a lyric composition was sung or recited, or whether or not it was accompanied by musical instruments and dance. Even the private reflections of Alcaeus, ostensibly sung at dinner parties, still retain a public function.[7]

Critics often seek to understand Alcaeus in comparison with Sappho:

If we compare the two, we find that Alcaeus is versatile, Sappho narrow in her range; that his verse is less polished and less melodious than hers; and that the emotions which he chooses to display are less intense. — David Campbell[12]

The Aeolian song is suddenly revealed, as a mature work of art, in the spirited stanzas of Alcaeus. It is raised to a supreme excellence by his younger contemporary, Sappho, whose melody is unsurpassed, perhaps unequalled, among all the relics of Greek verse. — Richard Jebb[13]

In the variety of his subjects, in the exquisite rhythm of his meters, and in the faultless perfection of his style, all of which appear even in mutilated fragments, he excels all the poets, even his more intense, more delicate and more truly inspired contemporary Sappho. — James Easby-Smith[10]

The Roman poet, Horace, also compared the two, describing Alcaeus as "more full-throatedly singing"[14] — see Horace's tribute below. Alcaeus himself seems to underscore the difference between his own 'down-to-earth' style and Sappho's more 'celestial' qualities when he describes her almost as a goddess (as cited above), and yet it has been argued that both poets were concerned with a balance between the divine and the profane, each emphasising different elements in that balance.[7]

Dionysius of Halicarnassus exhorts us to "Observe in Alcaeus the sublimity, brevity and sweetness coupled with stern power, his splendid figures, and his clearness which was unimpaired by the dialect; and above all mark his manner of expressing his sentiments on public affairs,"[15] while Quintilian, after commending Alcaeus for his excellence "in that part of his works where he inveighs against tyrants and contributes to good morals; in his language he is concise, exalted, careful and often like an orator;" goes on to add: "but he descended into wantonness and amours, though better fitted for higher things."[16]

Poetic genres

The works of Alcaeus are conventionally grouped according to five genres.

  • Political songs: Alcaeus often composed on a political theme, covering the power struggles on Lesbos with the passion and vigour of a partisan, cursing his opponents,[17] rejoicing in their deaths,[18] delivering blood-curdling homilies on the consequences of political inaction[19] and exhorting his comrades to heroic defiance, as in one of his 'ship of state' allegories.[20] Commenting on Alcaeus as a political poet, the scholar Dionysius of Halicarnassus once observed that "...if you removed the meter you would find political rhetoric."[21]
  • Drinking songs: According to the grammarian Athenaeus, Alcaeus made every occasion an excuse for drinking and he has provided posterity several quotes in proof of it.[22] Alcaeus exhorts his friends to drink in celebration of a tyrant's death,[18] to drink away their sorrows,[23] to drink because life is short[24] and along the lines in vino veritas,[25] to drink through winter storms[26] and to drink through the heat of summer.[27] The latter poem in fact paraphrases verses from Hesiod,[28] re-casting them in Asclepiad meter and Aeolian dialect.
  • Hymns: Alcaeus sang about the gods in the spirit of the Homeric hymns, to entertain his companions rather than to glorify the gods and in the same meters that he used for his 'secular' lyrics.[29] There are for example fragments in 'Sapphic' meter praising the Dioscuri,[30] Hermes[31] and the river Hebrus[32] (a river significant in Lesbian mythology since it was down its waters that the head of Orpheus was believed to have floated singing, eventually crossing the sea to Lesbos and ending up in a temple of Apollo, as a symbol of Lesbian supremacy in song).[33] According to Porphyrion, the hymn to Hermes was imitated by Horace in one of his own 'sapphic' odes (C.1.10: Mercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis).[34]
  • Love songs: Almost all Alcaeus' amorous verses, mentioned with disapproval by Quintilian above, have vanished without trace. There is a brief reference to his love poetry in a passage by Cicero.[35] Horace, who often wrote in imitation of Alcaeus, sketches in verse one of the Lesbian poet's favourite subjects — Lycus of the black hair and eyes (C.1.32.11-12: nigris oculis nigroque/crine decorum). It is possible that Alcaeus wrote amorously about Sappho, as indicated in an earlier quote.[36]
  • Miscellaneous: Alcaeus wrote on such a wide variety of subjects and themes that contradictions in his character emerge. The grammarian Athenaeus quoted some verses about perfumed ointments to prove just how unwarlike Alcaeus could be[37] and he quoted his description of the armour adorning the walls of his house[38] as proof that he could be unusually warlike for a lyric poet.[39] Other examples of his readiness for both warlike and unwarlike subjects are lyrics celebrating his brother's heroic exploits as a Babylonian mercenary[40] and lyrics sung in a rare meter (Sapphic Ionic in minore) in the voice of a distressed girl,[41] "Wretched me, who share in all ills!" — possibly imitated by Horace in an ode in the same meter (C.3.12: Miserarum est neque amori dare ludum neque dulci).[42] He also wrote Sapphic stanzas on Homeric themes but in un-Homeric style, comparing Helen of Troy unfavourably with Thetis, the mother of Akhilles.[43]

A drinking poem (fr. 346)

The following verses demonstrate some key characteristics of the Alcaic style (square brackets indicate uncertainties in the ancient text):

πώνωμεν· τί τὰ λύχν' ὀμμένομεν; δάκτυλος ἀμέρα·
κὰδ δ'ἄερρε κυλίχναις μεγάλαις [αιτα]ποικίλαισ·
οἶνον γὰρ Σεμέλας καὶ Δίος υἶος λαθικάδεον
ἀνθρώποισιν ἔδωκ'. ἔγχεε κέρναις ἔνα καὶ δύο
πλήαις κὰκ κεφάλας, [ἀ] δ' ἀτέρα τὰν ἀτέραν κύλιξ
ὠθήτω...
[44]

Let's drink! Why are we waiting for the lamps? Only an inch of daylight left.
Lift down the large cups, my friends, the painted ones;
for wine was given to men by the son of Semele and Zeus
to help them forget their troubles. Mix one part of water to two of wine,
pour it in up to the brim, and let one cup push the other along...[45]

The Greek meter here is relatively simple, comprising the Greater Asclepiad, adroitly used to convey, for example, the rhythm of jostling cups (ἀ δ' ἀτέρα τὰν ἀτέραν). The language of the poem is typically direct and concise and comprises short sentences — the first line is in fact a model of condensed meaning, comprising an exhortation ("Let's drink!), a rhetorical question ("Why are we waiting for the lamps?") and a justifying statement (Only an inch of daylight left.)[46] The meaning is clear and uncomplicated, the subject is drawn from personal experience, and there is an absence of poetic ornament, such as simile or metaphor. Like many of his poems (e.g., frs. 38, 326, 338, 347, 350), it begins with a verb (in this case "Let's drink!") and it includes a proverbial expression ("Only an inch of daylight left") though it is possible that he coined it himself.[12]

A hymn (fr. 34)

Alcaeus rarely used metaphor or simile and yet he had a fondness for the allegory of the storm-tossed ship of state. The following fragment of a hymn to Castor and Polydeuces (the Dioscuri) is possibly another example of this though some scholars interpret it instead as a prayer for a safe voyage.[47]

Hither now to me from your isle of Pelops,
You powerful children of Zeus and Leda,
Showing youselves kindly by nature, Castor
And Polydeuces!

Travelling abroad on swift-footed horses,
Over the wide earth, over all the ocean,
How easily you bring deliverance from
Death's gelid rigor,

Landing on tall ships with a sudden, great bound,
A far-away light up the forestays running,
Bringing radiance to a ship in trouble,
Sailed in the darkness!

The poem was written in Sapphic stanzas, a verse form popularly associated with his compatriot, Sappho, but in which he too excelled, here paraphrased in English to suggest the same rhythms. There were probably another three stanzas in the original poem but only nine letters of them remain.[48] The 'far-away light' (Πήλοθεν λάμπροι) is a reference to St Elmo's Fire, an electrical discharge supposed by ancient Greek mariners to be an epiphany of the Dioscuri, but the meaning of the line was obscured by gaps in the papyrus until reconstructed by a modern scholar—such reconstructions are typical of the extant poetry (see Scholars, fragments and sources below). This poem doesn't begin with a verb but with an adverb (Δευτέ) but still communicates a sense of action. He probably performed his verses at drinking parties for friends and political allies—men for whom loyalty was essential, particularly in such troubled times.[42]

Tributes from other poets

Horace

The Roman poet Horace modelled his own lyrical compositions on those of Alcaeus, rendering the Lesbian poet's verse-forms, including 'Alcaic' and 'Sapphic' stanzas, into concise Latin — an achievement he celebrates in his third book of odes.[49] In his second book, in an ode composed in Alcaic stanzas on the subject of an almost fatal accident he had on his farm, he imagines meeting Alcaeus and Sappho in Hades:

quam paene furvae regna Proserpinae
et iudicantem vidimus Aeacum
sedesque descriptas piorum et
Aeoliis fidibus querentem

Sappho puellis de popularibus
et te sonantem plenius aureo,
Alcaee, plectro dura navis,
dura fugae mala, dura belli! [50]

How close the realm of dusky Proserpine
Yawned at that instant! I half glimpsed the dire
Judge of the dead, the blest in their divine
Seclusion, Sappho on the Aeolian lyre,

Mourning the cold girls of her native isle,
And you, Alcaeus, more full-throatedly
Singing with your gold quill of ships, exile
And war, hardship on land, hardship at sea.[14]

Ovid

Ovid compared Alcaeus to Sappho in Letters of the Heroines, where Sappho is imagined to speak as follows:

nec plus Alcaeus consors patriaeque lyraeque
laudis habet, quamvis grandius ille sonet.

Nor does Alcaeus, my fellow-countryman and fellow-poet,
receive more praise, although he resounds more grandly.[51]

Scholars, fragments and sources

P.Berol. inv. 9810
A 2nd century AD papyrus of Alcaeus, one of the many such fragments that have contributed to our greatly improved knowledge of Alcaeus' poetry during the 20th century (P.Berol. inv. 9810 = fr. 137 L.–P.).

The story of Alcaeus is partly the story of the scholars who rescued his work from oblivion.[4][52] His verses have not come down to us through a manuscript tradition — generations of scribes copying an author's collected works, such as delivered intact into the modern age four entire books of Pindar's odes — but haphazardly, in quotes from ancient scholars and commentators whose own works have chanced to survive, and in the tattered remnants of papyri uncovered from an ancient rubbish pile at Oxyrhynchus and other locations in Egypt: sources that modern scholars have studied and correlated exhaustively, adding little by little to the world's store of poetic fragments.

Ancient scholars quoted Alcaeus in support of various arguments. Thus for example Heraclitus 'The Allegorist'[53] quoted fr. 326 and part of fr. 6, about ships in a storm, in his study on Homer's use of allegory.[54] The hymn to Hermes, fr308(b), was quoted by Hephaestion (grammarian)[55] and both he and Libanius, the rhetorician, quoted the first two lines of fr. 350,[56] celebrating the return from Babylon of Alcaeus' brother. The rest of fr. 350 was paraphrased in prose by the historian/geographer Strabo.[57] Many fragments were supplied in quotes by Athenaeus, principally on the subject of wine-drinking, but fr. 333, "wine, window into a man", was quoted much later by the Byzantine grammarian, John Tzetzes.[58]

The first 'modern' publication of Alcaeus' verses appeared in a Greek and Latin edition of fragments collected from the canonic nine lyrical poets by Michael Neander, published at Basle in 1556. This was followed by another edition of the nine poets, collected by Henricus Stephanus and published in Paris in 1560. Fulvius Ursinus compiled a fuller collection of Alcaic fragments, including a commentary, which was published at Antwerp in 1568. The first separate edition of Alcaeus was by Christian David Jani and it was published at Halle in 1780. The next separate edition was by August Matthiae, Leipzig 1827.

Some of the fragments quoted by ancient scholars were able to be integrated by scholars in the nineteenth century. Thus for example two separate quotes by Athenaeus[59] were united by Theodor Bergk to form fr. 362. Three separate sources were combined to form fr. 350, as mentioned above, including a prose paraphrase from Strabo that first needed to be restored to its original meter, a synthesis achieved by the united efforts of Otto Hoffmann, Karl Otfried Muller[60] and Franz Heinrich Ludolf Ahrens. The discovery of the Oxyrhynchus papyri towards the end of the nineteenth century dramatically increased the scope of scholarly research. In fact, eight important fragments have now been compiled from papyri — frs. 9, 38A, 42, 45, 34, 129, 130 and most recently S262. These fragments typically feature lacunae or gaps that scholars fill with 'educated guesses', including for example a "brilliant supplement" by Maurice Bowra in fr. 34, a hymn to the Dioscuri that includes a description of St Elmo's fire in the ship's rigging.[61] Working with only eight letters (πρό...τρ...ντες; tr. pró...tr...ntes), Bowra conjured up a phrase that brilliantly develops the meaning and the euphony of the poem (πρότον' ὀντρέχοντες; tr. próton' ontréchontes), describing luminescence "running along the forestays".

References

  1. ^ J. Easby-Smith, The Songs of Alcaeus, W. H. Lowdermilk and Co. (1901)
  2. ^ David Mulroy, Early Greek Lyric Poetry, University of Michigan Press, 1992, pp. 77–78
  3. ^ David. A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classic Press, 1982, pp. 285–7
  4. ^ a b Easby-Smith, James S. (1901). "The Songs of Alcaeus". Washington: W. H. Lowdermilk and Co.
  5. ^ Histories 5.95
  6. ^ R. C. Jebb, Greek Literature, MacMillan and Co. 1878, p. 59
  7. ^ a b c Nagy, Gregory (2007). Lyric and Greek Myth (The Cambridge Companion to Greek Mythology). ed. R. D. Woodward, Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–51.
  8. ^ James S. Easby-Smith, The Songs of Alcaeus, W. H. Lowdermilk and Co., Washington, 1901
  9. ^ Quintilian 10.1.61; cf. Pseudo-Longinus 33.5.
  10. ^ a b James Easby-Smith, The Songs of Alcaeus p.31
  11. ^ Andrew M.Miller (trans.), Greek Lyric: An Anthology in Translation, Hackett Publishing Co. (1996), Intro. xiii
  12. ^ a b David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), p. 287
  13. ^ Jebb, Richard (1905). Bacchylides: the poems and fragments. Cambridge University Press. p. 29.
  14. ^ a b James Michie (trans.), The Odes of Horace, Penguin Classics (1964), p. 116
  15. ^ Imit. 422, quoted from Easby-Smith in Songs of Alcaeus
  16. ^ Quintillian 10.1.63, quoted by D.Campbell in G.L.P, p. 288
  17. ^ fr. 129
  18. ^ a b fr. 332
  19. ^ fr. S262
  20. ^ fr. 6
  21. ^ Imit. 422, quoted by Campbell in G.L.P., p. 286
  22. ^ Athenaeus 10.430c
  23. ^ Frs. 335, 346
  24. ^ fr. 38A
  25. ^ fr. 333
  26. ^ fr. 338
  27. ^ fr. 347
  28. ^ Hesiod Op. 582–8
  29. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), p. 286
  30. ^ fr. 34a
  31. ^ fr. 308b
  32. ^ fr. 45
  33. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), pp. 292–3
  34. ^ David Campbell, 'Monody', in The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature, P. Easterling and E. Kenney (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), p. 213
  35. ^ Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 4.71
  36. ^ fr. 384
  37. ^ fr. 362, Athenaeus 15.687d
  38. ^ fr. 357
  39. ^ Athenaeus 14.627a
  40. ^ fr. 350
  41. ^ fr. 10B
  42. ^ a b David Campbell, 'Monody', in The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature, P. Easterling and E. Kenney (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), p. 214
  43. ^ fr. 42
  44. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), p. 60
  45. ^ Andrew M.Miller (trans.), Greek Lyric: An Anthology in Translation, Hackett Publishing Co. (1996), p. 48
  46. ^ David Campbell, 'Monody', in The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature, P. Easterling and E. Kenney (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), p. 212
  47. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), pp. 286, 289
  48. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Vol. I, Loeb Classical Library (1990), p. 247
  49. ^ Horace Od. 3.30
  50. ^ Horace Od. 2.13.21–8
  51. ^ Ovid Her.15.29s, cited and translated by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric I: Sappho and Alcaeus, Loeb Classical Library (1982), p. 39
  52. ^ David. A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classic Press, 1982, pp. 285–305
  53. ^ Donald. A. Russell and David Konstan (ed.s and tran.s.), Heraclitus:Homeric Problems, Society of Biblical Literature (2005), Introduction
  54. ^ Heraclitus All.5
  55. ^ Hephaestion Ench. xiv.1
  56. ^ Hephaestion Ench. x 3; Libanus Or. 13.5
  57. ^ Strabo 13.617
  58. ^ Tzetzes Alex. 212
  59. ^ Athenaeus 15.674cd, 15.687d
  60. ^ Müller, Karl Otfried, "Ein Bruder des Dichters Alkäos ficht unter Nebukadnezar," Rheinisches Museum 1 (1827):287.
  61. ^ David. A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classic Press, 1982, p. 290

Sources

  • Sappho et Alcaeus. Fragmenta. Eva-Maria Voigt (ed.). Polak and van Gennep, Amsterdam, 1971.
  • Greek Lyric Poetry. D.A. Campbell (ed.). Bristol Classical Press, London, 1982. ISBN 978-0-86292-008-1
  • Greek Lyric 1: Sappho and Alcaeus. D. A. Campbell (ed.). Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1982. ISBN 978-0-674-99157-6
  • Alcée. Fragments. Gauthier Liberman (ed.). Collection Budé, Paris, 1999. ISBN 978-2-251-00476-1
  • Sappho and the Greek Lyric Poets. Translated by Willis Barnstone. Schoken Books Inc., New York, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8052-0831-3

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The 98th National Guard Higher Command "Archipelago" (Greek: 98 Ανώτερη Διοίκηση Ταγμάτων Εθνοφυλακής «ΑΡΧΙΠΕΛΑΓΟΥΣ», 98 ΑΔΤΕ; 98 Anóteri Dioíkisi Tagmáton Ethnofylakís "Archipelágous", abbrev. 98 ADTE), is a Greek Army mechanized infantry division-sized command responsible for the defence of the island of Lesbos, Greece.

Aeolic Greek

In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (; also Aeolian , Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); in Thessaly; in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and in the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.

The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects (Arcadocypriot, Attic, Ionic, and Doric varieties), as well as many innovations.

Aeolic Greek is widely known as the language of Sappho and of Alcaeus of Mytilene. Aeolic poetry, which is exemplified in the works of Sappho, mostly uses four classical meters known as the Aeolics: Glyconic (the most basic form of Aeolic line), hendecasyllabic verse, Sapphic stanza, and Alcaic stanza (the latter two are respectively named for Sappho and Alcaeus).

In Plato's Protagoras, Prodicus labelled the Aeolic dialect of Pittacus of Mytilene as "barbarian" (barbaros), because of its difference from the Attic literary style: "He didn't know to distinguish the words correctly, being from Lesbos, and having been raised with a barbarian dialect".

Alcaeus

Alcaeus may refer to:

Alcaeus (comic poet), a writer of ten plays of the Old Comedy

Alcaeus (mythology), one of several figures of this name in Greek mythology

12607 Alcaeus, a main belt asteroid

Alcaeus of Messene, a Greek epigrammatist of the late 3rd/early 2nd century BC

Alcaeus of Mytilene, a lyric poet of the archaic period

Alcaeus and Philiscus (2nd-century BC), two Epicurean philosophers expelled from Rome in either 173 BC or 154 BC

Alcaeus of Messene

Alcaeus of Messene (; Greek: Ἀλκαῖος ὁ Μεσσήνιος) was an ancient Greek poet, who flourished between 219 and 196 BC. Twenty-two of his short poems or epigrams survive in the Greek Anthology, from some of which his date may be fixed at around the late 3rd/early 2nd century BC. Some of his poems are on literary themes, but most are political.

Alcaeus was contemporary with Philip V, king of Macedon and son of Demetrius II of Macedon, against whom several of his poems are pointed, apparently from patriotic feelings. One of these, however, gave more offense to the Roman general Flamininus than to Philip, as Alcaeus ascribed the victory of the battle of Cynoscephalae to the Aetolians as much as to the Romans. Philip contented himself with writing an epigram in reply to that of Alcaeus, in which he gave the Messenian a very broad hint of the fate he might expect if he fell into his hands. This reply was enough to lead French classical scholar Claudius Salmasius to suppose that Alcaeus was actually crucified by Philip. In another epigram, in praise of Flamininus, the mention of the Roman general's name, Titus, led John Tzetzes into the error of imagining the existence of an epigrammatist named Alcaeus under the emperor Titus. Those epigrams of Alcaeus which bear internal evidence of their date were written between the years 219 and 196.

Of the 22 epigrams in the Greek Anthology which bear the name of Alcaeus, two are written "Alcaeus of Mytilene"; but most scholars take this to be the addition of some ignorant copyist. Others bear the name of "Alcaeus of Messene," and some of Alcaeus alone. But in the last class there are several which must, from internal evidence, have been written by Alcaeus of Messene, and there seems no reason to doubt his being the author of all twenty-two.

Ancient literature

Before the spread of writing, oral literature did not always survive well, though some texts and fragments have persisted. August Nitschke sees some fairy tales as literary survivals dating back to Ice Age and Stone Age narrators.

Carcharodus alceae

Carcharodus alceae, the mallow skipper, is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. The scientific Latin species name alceae refers to the host plants Althaea, which, in turn, are named after the ancient Greek poet Alcaeus of Mytilene.

Cithara

The cithara or kithara (Greek: κιθάρα, romanized: kithāra, Latin: cithara) was an ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre or lyra family. In modern Greek the word kithara has come to mean "guitar", a word which etymologically stems from kithara.The kithara was a professional version of the two-stringed lyre. As opposed to the simpler lyre, which was a folk-instrument, the kithara was primarily used by professional musicians, called kitharodes. The kithara's origins are likely Anatolian. The barbiton was a bass version of the kithara popular in the eastern Aegean and ancient Anatolia.

In the Middle Ages, cythara was also used generically for stringed instruments including lyres, but also including lute-like instruments. The use of the name throughout the Middle Ages looked back to the original Greek kithara, and its abilities to sway people's emotions.

Classical Literature of Greece

This is a list of most influential Greek authors of antiquity (by alphabetic order):

From c.VII B.C- c.VII A.D

Aeschines-Rhetorics

Aeschylus - Tragedy

Aesop - Fables

Alcaeus of Mytilene-Lyric Poetry

Alcman-Lyric Poetry

Anacreon-Lyric Poetry

Anaxagoras-Philosophy

Anaximander-Philosophy, Mathematics

Anaximenes-Philosophy, Mathematics

Andocides-Rhetorics

Anthony the Great-Theology

Antiphon-Rhetorics

Apollodorus of Carystus-Comedy

Aristophanes - Comedy

Archimedes - Mathematics, Geometry

Aristotle - Philosophy, Physics, Biology

Aratus - Poetry, Astronomy

Arrian - History

Athanasius of Alexandria-Theology

Bacchylides-Lyric Poetry

Chionides-Comedy

Chrysippus-Philosophy

Claudius Ptolemy -Geography, Astronomy

Clement of Alexandria-Theology, Philosophy

Democritus - Philosophy, Chemistry

Demosthenes - Rhetorics, Politics

Dinarchus-Rhetorics

Dinon-History

Diodorus - History

Diogenes Laërtius - History of Philosophy

Duris of Samos-History

Epicurus-Philosophy

Epimenides of Knossos - Philosophy, Philosophical poetry

Eubulus (poet)-Comedy

Euclid of Megara - Mathematics, Geometry

Euripides - Tragedy

Evagrius Ponticus-Theology

Gorgias - Philosophy

Hegemon of Thasos-Comedy

Heraclitus-Philosophy

Herodotus of Halicarnassus - History

Hesiod - Epic Poetry

Hippocrates of Cos - Medicine

Homer - Epic Poetry

Hypereides-Rhetorics

Iamblichus-Philosophy

Ibycus of Rhegium-Lyric Poetry

Irenaeus-Theology, Philosophy

Isaeus-Rhetorics, Logography

Isocrates-Rhetorics

Justin the Martyr-Theology, Philosophy

Leucippus-Philosophy, Atomism

Luke the Evangelist-Theology, Medicine, History

Lycurgus of Athens-Rhetorics

Lysias-Logography, Rhetorics

Maximus the Confessor-Theology, Philosophy

Menander - Comedy

Melissus of Samos-Philosophy

Nicomachus of Gerasa-Mathematics

Origen-Theology, Philosophy

Papias of Hierapolis-Theology

Parmenides-Philosophy

Pherecydes of Leros-Mythography, Logography

Philo of Alexandria-Theology, Philosophy

Pindar - Lyrical Poetry

Plato - Philosophy

Plutarch - History, Biography, Philosophy

Posidippus (comic poet)-Comedy

Protagoras - Philosophy

Pythagoras of Samos-Philosophy, Mathematics, Religion (No works)

Sappho of Lesbos-Lyric Poetry

Simonides-Lyric Poetry

Socrates-Philosophy (No Works)

Solon - Politics, Philosophy

Stesichorus-Lyric Poetry

Strattis-Comedy

Thales of Miletus-Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics

Theocritus - Bucolic poetry

Theopompus-History

Thucydides - History

Xenarchus of Seleucia-Philosophy, Philology

Xenophanes- Philosophy, Theology

Xenophon - History

Zeno of Citium-Philosophy

Zeno of Elea-Philosophy

Horapollo

Horapollo (from Horus Apollo; Greek: Ὡραπόλλων) is the supposed author of a treatise, titled Hieroglyphica, on Egyptian hieroglyphs, extant in a Greek translation by one Philippus, dating to about the 5th century.

Latin poetry

The history of Latin poetry can be understood as the adaptation of Greek models. The verse comedies of Plautus are considered the earliest surviving examples of Latin literature and are estimated to have been composed around 205-184 BC.

The start of Latin literature is conventionally dated to the first performance of a play in verse by a Greek slave, Livius Andronicus, at Rome in 240 BC. Livius translated Greek New Comedy for Roman audiences, using meters that were basically those of Greek drama, modified to the needs of Latin. His successors Plautus and Terence further refined the borrowings from the Greek stage and the prosody of their verse is substantially the same as for classical Latin verse.The traditional meter of Greek epic, the dactylic hexameter, was introduced into Latin literature by Ennius (239-169 BC), virtually a contemporary of Livius, who substituted it for the jerky Saturnian meter in which Livius had been composing epic verses. Ennius moulded a poetic diction and style suited to the imported hexameter, providing a model for 'classical' poets such as Virgil and Ovid.The late republic saw the emergence of Neoteric Poets, notably Catullus—rich young men from the Italian provinces, conscious of metropolitan sophistication, and looking to the scholarly Alexandrian poet Callimachus for inspiration. Catullus shared the Alexandrian's preference for short poems and wrote within a variety of meters borrowed from Greece, including Aeolian forms such as hendecasyllabic verse, the Sapphic stanza and Greater Asclepiad, as well as iambic verses such as the choliamb and the iambic tetrameter catalectic (a dialogue meter borrowed from Old Comedy).Horace, whose career crossed the divide between republic and empire, followed Catullus' lead in employing Greek lyrical forms, identifying with Alcaeus of Mytilene, composing Alcaic stanzas, and also with Archilochus, composing poetic invectives in the Iambus tradition (in which he adopted the metrical form of the Epode or 'Iambic Distich'). Horace was a contemporary of Virgil and, like the epic poet, he wrote verses in dactylic hexameter, but in a conversational and epistolary style. Virgil's hexameters are generally regarded as "the supreme metrical system of Latin literature."

List of Ancient Greek poets

This list of Ancient Greek poets covers poets writing in the Ancient Greek language, regardless of location or nationality of the poet. For a list of modern-day Greek poets, see List of Greek poets.

Nine Lyric Poets

The Nine Lyric or Melic Poets were a canonical group of ancient Greek poets esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria as worthy of critical study. In the Palatine Anthology it is said that they established lyric song. They were:

Alcman of Sparta (choral lyric, 7th century BC)

Sappho of Lesbos (monodic lyric, c. 600 BC)

Alcaeus of Mytilene (monodic lyric, c. 600 BC)

Anacreon of Teos (monodic lyric, 6th century BC)

Stesichorus of Metauros (choral lyric, 7th century BC)

Ibycus of Rhegium (choral lyric, 6th century BC)

Simonides of Ceos (choral lyric, 6th century BC)

Bacchylides of Ceos (choral lyric, 5th century BC)

Pindar of Thebes (choral lyric, 5th century BC)In most Greek sources the word melikos (from melos, "song") is used to refer to these poets, but the variant lyrikos (from lyra, "lyre") became the regular form in both Latin (as lyricus) and in modern languages. The ancient scholars defined the genre on the basis of the musical accompaniment, not the content. Thus, some types of poetry which would be included under the label "lyric poetry," in modern criticism are excluded—namely, the elegy and iambus which were performed with flutes.

The Nine Lyric Poets are traditionally divided among those who primarily composed choral verses, and those who composed monodic verses. This division is contested by some modern scholars.Antipater of Thessalonica proposes an alternative canon of nine female poets.

Phrynon

Phrynon of Athens (Greek: Φρύνων ο Αθηναίος; Athens; before 657 BC – Sigeum; c. 606 BC) was a general of ancient Athens, and a winner in ancient Olympic Games.

Sapphic stanza

The Sapphic stanza, named after Sappho, is an Aeolic verse form spanning four lines (originally three: in the poetry of Sappho and Alcaeus, there is no line-end before the final Adonean).

Sappho and Alcaeus

Sappho and Alcaeus is an 1881 oil painting by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. It is held by the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore.

The painting measures 66 by 122 centimetres (26 in × 48 in). It depicts a concert in the late 7th century BC, with the poet Alcaeus of Mytilene playing the kithara. In the audience is fellow Lesbian poet Sappho, accompanied by several of her female friends. Sappho is paying close attention to the performance, resting her arm on a cushion which bears a laurel wreath, presumably intended for the performer. The painting illustrates a passage by the poet Hermesianax, recorded by Athenaeus in his Deipnosophistae ("The Philosophers' Banquet"), book 13, page 598.

The location, with tiers of white marble seating, is based on the Theatre of Dionysus in Athens, but Alma-Tadema has replaced the original inscribed names of Athenians with the names of Sappho's friends. In the background, the Aegean Sea can be seen through some trees.

The painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1881, and depicted in William Powell Frith's A Private View at the Royal Academy, 1881, to the far right, being inspected by John Everett Millais. It was highly praised by critics: Punch described it as "marbellous". It was acquired by William Thompson Walters of Baltimore, and on his death in 1894 it was inherited by his son Henry Walters, who left it to the Walters Art Museum on his own death in 1931.

Sigeion

Sigeion (Ancient Greek: Σίγειον, Sigeion; Latin: Sigeum) was an ancient Greek city in the north-west of the Troad region of Anatolia located at the mouth of the Scamander (the modern Karamenderes River). Sigeion commanded a ridge between the Aegean Sea and the Scamander which is now known as Yenişehir and is a part of the Çanakkale district in Çanakkale province, Turkey. The surrounding region was referred to as the Sigean Promonotory, which was frequently used as a point of reference by ancient geographers since it marked the mouth of the Hellespont. The outline of this promontory is no longer visible due to the alluvial activity of the Karamenderes which has filled in the embayment east of Yenişehir. The name 'Sigeion' means 'silent place' and is derived from Ancient Greek σιγή (sigē), 'silence'; in Classical Antiquity, the name was assumed to be antiphrastic, i.e. indicating a characteristic of the place contrary to reality, since the seas in this region are known for their fierce storms.

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