Alborz

The Alborz (listen  Persian: البرز‎), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan. This mountain range is divided into Western, Central, and Eastern Alborz Mountains. The Western Alborz Range (usually called the Talysh) runs south-southeastward almost along the western coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Alborz (the Alborz Mountains in the strictest sense) runs from west to east along the entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea, while the Eastern Alborz runs in a northeasterly direction towards the northern parts of the Khorasan region southeast of the Caspian Sea. Mount Damavand, the highest mountain in Iran measuring 5,610.0 m (18,405.5 ft), is located in the Central Alborz Mountains.

Alborz
Elburz, Alburz, Elborz
Almighty Damavand دماوند پوشیده ازبرف ازدوراهی معدن کمردشت - panoramio
Mount Damavand, Iran's highest mountain, located in the Alborz mountain range
Highest point
PeakMount Damavand
Elevation5,610.0 m (18,405.5 ft)
Coordinates35°57′20″N 52°06′36″E / 35.95556°N 52.11000°ECoordinates: 35°57′20″N 52°06′36″E / 35.95556°N 52.11000°E
AlborzCentralColoredNumbered
Location of various peaks in the Alborz range north of Tehran

Etymology

The name Alborz is derived from that of Harā Barazaitī, a legendary mountain in the Avesta, the main text of Zoroastrianism. Harā Barazaitī reflects Proto-Iranian *Harā Bṛzatī. *Bṛzatī is the feminine form of the adjective *bṛzant- "high", the ancestor of modern Persian boland (بلند) and Barz/Berazandeh, cognate with Sanskrit Brihat (बृहत्). Harā may be interpreted as "watch" or "guard", from an Indo-European root *ser- "protect". In Middle Persian, Harā Barazaitī became Harborz, Modern Persian Alborz, which is a cognate with Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus.[1]

Mythology

Zoroastrians may identify the range with the dwelling place of the Peshyotan, and the Zoroastrian Ilm-e-Kshnoom sect identify Mount Davamand as the home of the Saheb-e-Dilan ('Masters of the Heart'). In his epic Shahnameh, the poet Ferdowsi speaks of the mountains "as though they lay in India."[1] This could reflect older usage, for numerous high peaks were given the name and some even reflect it to this day, for example, Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus Mountains, and Mount Elbariz (Albariz, Jebal Barez) in the Kerman area above the Strait of Hormuz. All these names reflect the same Iranian language compound, and share an identification as the legendary mountain Harā Bərəzaitī of the Avesta.

Aerial View of Tehran 26.11.2008 04-35-03

Alborz Mountain range seen from Tehran

Tochal view from Milad Tower

Milad Tower's view to the city and mountains.

Geology

The Alborz mountain range forms a barrier between the south Caspian and the Iranian plateau. It is only 60–130 km wide and consists of sedimentary series dating from Upper Devonian to Oligocene, prevalently Jurassic limestone over a granite core. Continental conditions regarding sedimentation are reflected by thick Devonian sandstones and by Jurassic shales containing coal seams. Marine conditions are reflected by Carboniferous and Permian strata that are composed mainly of limestones. In the Eastern Alborz Range, the far eastern section is formed by Mesozoic (chiefly Triassic and Jurassic) rocks, while the western part of the Eastern Alborz Range is made primarily of Paleozoic rocks. Precambrian rocks can be found chiefly south of the city of Gorgan situated in the southeast of the Caspian Sea and in much smaller portions in the central and western parts of the Central Alborz Range. The central part of the Central Alborz Range is formed mainly of the Triassic and Jurassic rocks, while the northwestern section of the range is made mainly of the Jurassic rocks. Very thick beds of the Tertiary (mostly of the Eocene) green volcanic tuffs and lavas are found mainly in the southwestern and south-central parts of the range. The far northwestern part of the Alborz that constitutes what is called the Western Alborz Range or the Talish Mountains is made mainly of the Upper Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary deposits with a strip of Paleozoic rocks and a band of Triassic and Jurassic rocks in the southern parts, both in a northwest-southeast direction. As the Tethys Sea was closed and the Arabian Plate collided with the Iranian Plate and was pushed against it, and with the clockwise movement of the Eurasian Plate towards the Iranian Plate and their final collision, the Iranian Plate was pressed from both sides. The collisions finally caused the folding of the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleogene rocks, and the Cenozoic (chiefly the Eocene) volcanism to form the Alborz Mountains mainly in the Miocene. The Alpine orogeny began, therefore, with Eocene volcanism in southwestern and south-central parts of the Alborz and continued with the uplift and folding of the older sedimentary rocks in the northwestern, central and eastern parts of the range during the orogenic phases of importance that date from the Miocene and the Pliocene epochs.

Ecoregions, flora and fauna

While the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains are usually semiarid or arid with irregular and low precipitation, the northern slopes of the range are usually humid especially in the western parts of the Central Alborz. In the southern slopes or the Elburz Range forest steppe ecoregion, the higher elevations are arid with few trees. Juniper is the most common tree in the inaccessible areas and high elevations, while shrubs are pistachio, maple, and almond. But in the northern slopes, the Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests ecoregion is lush and forested. The natural vegetation of this region grows in distinct zones: the Hyrcanian forests on the lowest levels; beech forests in the middle zone; and oak forests in higher regions. The wild cypress is the dominant form of vegetation in some valleys, while olive trees grow in the western valleys of the Central Alborz near the Sefidrud. The bezoar ibex, Blanford's fox, Rüppell's fox, red fox, Persian fallow deer, wild boar, Syrian brown bear, Persian leopard, Indian wolf, buzzard, goose, woodpecker, griffon vulture, and eagle are among important animals and birds found in the Alborz Mountains. The extinct Caspian tiger also lived in the Alborz Mountains.

Ski resorts

Due to the great snowy winters of the Alborz Mountains, there are several ski resorts in different places of the range. Some consider that a few of these are among the best in the world.[2] Some of most important ones are Dizin, Shemshak, Tochal, and Darbandsar.

In popular culture

Mount Damavand is featured twice as an online multiplayer map in the game Battlefield 3. In the game it is featured in Damavand Peak and Alborz Mountains.

Mounts, summits, alpine lakes and attractions

AlborzCentralColoredNumbered
  −25 to 500 m (−82 to 1,640 ft)
  500 to 1,500 m (1,600 to 4,900 ft)
  1,500 to 2,500 m (4,900 to 8,200 ft)
  2,500 to 3,500 m (8,200 to 11,500 ft)
  3,500 to 4,500 m (11,500 to 14,800 ft)
  4,500 to 5,671 m (14,764 to 18,606 ft)

Sources

  • North, S.J.R., Guide to Biblical Iran, Rome 1956, p. 50

References

  1. ^ a b electricpulp.com. "ALBORZ".
  2. ^ Dom Joly. "Iran's biggest secret: the skiing's great". the Guardian.

External links

2012 Afghan Premier League

The 2012 Afghan Premier League is the 1st season of the Afghan Premier League, the Afghan league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 2012.

Alborz, Markazi

Alborz (Persian: البرز‎, also Romanized as Alburz) is a village in Pol-e Doab Rural District, Zalian District, Shazand County, Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 198, in 68 families.

Alborz, Qom

Alborz (Persian: البرز‎, also Romanized as Alburz) is a village in Qomrud Rural District, in the Central District of Qom County, Qom Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 136, in 30 families.

Alborz Province

Alborz Province (Persian: Ostāne Alborz‎, Ostan-e Alborz ) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, centered in Karaj.Alborz Province was formed by division of Tehran Province into two provinces, after the Parliamentary approval on June 23, 2010, and was introduced as 31st province of Iran. In 2014 it was placed in Region 1.Situated northwest of Tehran, the Province of Alborz has 6 counties, Karaj County, Savojbolagh County, Taleqan County, Eshtehard County, Fardis County and Nazarabad County. Karaj is the seat of the province. Alborz Province is situated 35 km west of Tehran, at the foothills of the Alborz mountains, and is Iran's smallest province in area.

According to the National Census, in 2011 population of Alborz was 2,412,513 out of which 90,5% lived in urban areas.

Chahardangeh Rural District (Alborz Province)

Chahardangeh Rural District (Persian: دهستان چهاردانگه‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Chaharbagh District, Savojbolagh County, Alborz Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 38,598, in 9,638 families. The rural district has 15 villages.

Dizin

Dizin (Persian: دیزین‎) is the largest Iranian ski resort. It is located in the Alborz mountain range, about 70km North from Tehran. It was established during the 1960s under the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Dizin is the first ski and winter sport resort in Iran which has been officially recognized and granted the title by the International Ski Federation for its capability in administrating official and international competitions.The ski season in Dizin lasts from December to May, due its high altitude. The highest ski lift reaches 3,600 m (11,800 ft), making it one of the 40 highest ski resorts in the world.

Gol Reyhan Alborz F.C.

Gol Reyhan Football Club (Persian: باشگاه فوتبال گل ریحان البرز‎) is an Iranian football team based in Karaj, Iran who play in the Azadegan League.

Haraz River

The Haraz River (Persian: هراز‎) is a notable river flowing through the Mazandaran Province of northern Iran. It flows northwards, from the Alborz mountain range into the Caspian Sea.

Karaj

Karaj (Persian: کرج‎ pronounced [kæˈɾædʒ] (listen)) is the capital of Alborz Province, Iran, and effectively a suburb of Tehran. Although the county hosts a population around 1.97 million, as recorded in the 2016 census, most of the 1,419 sq km county is rugged mountain, the urban area is the fourth-largest in Iran, after Tehran, Mashhad, and Isfahan. Eshtehard County and Fardis County were split off from Karaj county since the previous census.

The earliest records of Karaj date back to 30th century BC. The city was developed under the rule of the Safavid and Qajar dynasties, and is home to historical buildings and memorials from those eras. Until the second half of the 20th century, it used to be known mainly as a summer resort. Today, it is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol.

Lar National Park

Lar National Park (Persian پارک ملی لار park-e melli-e lar) is a protected area in Mazandaran Province and Tehran Province, in northern Iran.

List of mountains in Iran

This is a list of mountains in the country of Iran.

By clicking on the symbols at the head of the table the individual columns may be sorted.

Mazandaran Province

Mazandaran Province pronunciation , (Persian: استان مازندران‎, Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.Mazandaran Province is one of the most densely populated provinces in Iran and has diverse natural resources, notably large reservoirs of oil and natural gas. The province's four largest counties are Sari, Amol, Nur, and Tonekabon. It was founded in 1937.The diverse nature of the province features plains, prairies, forests and rainforest stretching from the sandy beaches of the Caspian Sea to the rugged and snowcapped Alborz sierra, including Mount Damavand, one of the highest peaks and volcanos in Asia.Mazandaran is a major producer of farmed fish, and aquaculture provides an important economic addition to traditional dominance of agriculture. Another important contributor to the economy is the tourism industry, as people from all of Iran enjoy visiting the area. Mazandaran is also a fast-growing centre for biotechnology.

Mount Damavand

Mount Damavand (Persian: دماوند‎ [dæmɒːvænd] (listen)), a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia; the Kunlun Volcanic Group in Tibet is higher than Damāvand, but are not considered to be volcanic mountains.

Damāvand has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore. It is in the middle of the Alborz range, adjacent to Varārū, Sesang, Gol-e Zard, and Mīānrūd. It is near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, in Amol County, Mazandaran Province, 66 kilometres (41 miles) northeast of the city of Tehran.Mount Damāvand is the 12th most prominent peak in the world, and the second most prominent in Asia after Mount Everest. It is the highest volcanic mountain in Asia, and part of the Volcanic Seven Summits mountaineering challenge.

Polur, Iran

Polur (Persian: پلور‎, also Romanized as Polūr; also known as Pūlūr) is a village on the Haraz River in Bala Larijan Rural District, Larijan District, Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

Qeshlaq-e Alborz

Qeshlaq-e Alborz (Persian: قشلاق البرز‎, also Romanized as Qeshlāq-e Alborz) is a village in Qomrud Rural District, in the Central District of Qom County, Qom Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 161, in 35 families.

Road 77 (Iran)

Road 77, also known as the Haraz Road, is one of the most important roads from Tehran to the northern mountains of Iran, and the Iranian coast on the southern Caspian Sea.

is an important road for people of Iran.

Along the road landscapes, Plain, Mountain, Historical tourism. Waterfall and village.

Sabalan

Sabalan (Persian: سبلان [sæbæ'lɒːn]) is an inactive stratovolcano in the Alborz mountain range and Ardabil Province of northwestern Iran.

At 4,811 metres (15,784 ft) in elevation, it is the second highest mountain in Iran. It has a permanent crater lake formed at its summit. On one of its slopes around 3,600 metres (11,800 ft) in elevation there are large rock formations of eroded volcanic outcrops which resemble animals, birds, and insects.

Saidabad Rural District (Alborz Province)

Saidabad Rural District (Persian: دهستان سعيدآباد‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Savojbolagh County, Alborz Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population (including the villages of Seyfabad-e Bozorg and Seyfabad-e Khaleseh, which were fused to create the city of Golsar) was 31,576, in 7,946 families; excluding those, the population (as of 2006) was 20,563, in 5,171 families. The rural district has 21 villages.

Sepiddasht, Alborz

Sepiddasht (Persian: سپيددشت‎, also Romanized as Sepīddasht and Sefīddasht) is a village in Fardis Rural District, in the Central District of Fardis County, Alborz Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,418, in 375 families.

Mountain ranges of the Iranian Plateau and their political geography
Alborz Mountains
Aladagh Mountains
Hindu Kush Mountains
Sulaiman Mountains
Taurus Mountains
Zagros Mountains

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