Albian

The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest or uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous epoch/series. Its approximate time range is 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma (million years ago). The Albian is preceded by the Aptian and followed by the Cenomanian.[2]

System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0 72.1
Campanian 72.1 83.6
Santonian 83.6 86.3
Coniacian 86.3 89.8
Turonian 89.8 93.9
Cenomanian 93.9 100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5 ~113.0
Aptian ~113.0 ~125.0
Barremian ~125.0 ~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4 ~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9 ~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8 ~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

Stratigraphic definitions

The Albian stage was first proposed in 1842 by Alcide d'Orbigny. It was named after Alba, the latin name for River Aube in France,

A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), ratified by the IUGS in 2016, defines the base of the Albian as the first occurrence of the planktonic foraminiferan Microhedbergella renilaevis at the Col de Pré-Guittard section, Arnayon, Drôme, France.[3]

The top of the Albian stage (the base of the Cenomanian stage and Upper Cretaceous series) is defined as the place where the foram species Rotalipora globotruncanoides first appears in the stratigraphic column.[4]

The Albian is sometimes subdivided in Early/Lower, Middle and Late/Upper subages or substages. In western Europe, especially in the UK, a subdivision in two substages (Vraconian and Gaultian) is more often used.

Lithofacies

The following representatives of the Albian stage are worthy of notice: the phosphorite beds of the Argonne and Bray areas in France; the Flammenmergel of northern Germany; the lignites of Utrillas in Spain; the Upper sandstones of Nubia, and the Fredericksburg beds of North America.[5]

Paleontology

Ankylosaurs

Birds (avian theropods)

Bony fish

Cartilaginous fish

†Ceratopsia

Crocodylomorphs

†Ichthyosaurs

Mammalia

†Ornithopods

Plesiosaurs

†Pterosauria

†Sauropods

†Theropods (non-avian)

Ammonites

Ammonitida

  • Moffitites

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in lower Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

Puzosia sp Madagascar
Puzosia

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in middle Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

Mortoniceras inflatum 01
Mortoniceras from South Africa

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in upper Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

SmallScaphites
Scaphites

†Belemnites

BelemniteDB2
Belemnites

Nautiloids

Cameroceras trentonese
An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

Phylloceratida

  • Carinophylloceras

References

Notes

  1. ^ Super User. "ICS - Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org.
  2. ^ For a detailed geologic timescale, see Gradstein et al. (2004)
  3. ^ Kennedy, J.W.; Gale, A.S.; Huber, B.T.; Petrizzo, M.R.; Bown, P.; Jenkyns, H.C. (2017). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Albian Stage, of the Cretaceous, the Col de Pré-Guittard section, Arnayon, Drôme, France". Episodes. 40 (3): 177–188. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2017/v40i3/017021.
  4. ^ See Kennedy et al. (2004) for a description of the GSSP for the Cenomanian
  5. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHowe, John Allen (1911). "Albian". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 505.
  6. ^ Mortimer, Mickey. "List of Dromaeosaurids". Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.

Literature

  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Kennedy, W.J.; Gale, A.S.; Lees, J.A. & Caron, M.; 2004: The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Cenomanian Stage, Mont Risou, Hautes-Alpes, France, Episodes 27, pp. 21–32.
  • d'Orbigny, A.C.V.M.; 1842: Paléontologie française: Terrains crétacés, vol. ii. (in French)

External links

Aegyptosaurus

Aegyptosaurus meaning 'Egypt’s lizard', for the country in which it was discovered (Greek sauros meaning 'lizard') is a genus of sauropod dinosaur believed to have lived in what is now Africa, around 95 million years ago, during the mid- and late-Cretaceous Period (Albian to Cenomanian stages). Like most sauropods, it had a long neck and a small skull. The animal's long tail probably acted as a counterweight to its body mass. Aegyptosaurus was a close relative of Argentinosaurus, a much larger dinosaur found in South America.

Aegyptosaurus was described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1932. Its fossils have been found in Egypt, Niger (Farak Formation), and in several different locations in the Sahara Desert. All known examples were discovered before 1939. The fossils were stored together in Munich, but were obliterated when an Allied bombing raid destroyed the museum where they were kept in 1944, during World War II.

Albian Ajeti

Albian Afrim Ajeti (born 26 February 1997) is a Swiss professional footballer who plays for West Ham United as a striker. His elder brother Arlind Ajeti and his twin brother Adonis are also footballers.

Albian Sands

Albian Sands Energy Inc. is the operator of the Muskeg River Mine and Jack Pine Mine, an oil sands mining project located 75 kilometres (47 mi) north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. It is a joint venture between Shell Canada (10%), CNRL (70%) and Chevron Canada (20%). The company's legal headquarters are located in the Shell Tower in Calgary, Alberta. Albian Sands got its name from the Albian Boreal Sea which, during the Albian stage of the Cretaceous (over 100 million years ago), moved over the McMurray sands and deposited a blanket of marine shale on its floor which trapped the hydrocarbons of the McMurray Formation. The oil sands resources of the Muskeg River Mine are a legacy of the Albian Sea.At full production, Albian Sands can produce 340,000 barrels per day (54,000 m3/d) of crude bitumen, a naturally occurring semi-solid form of crude oil. The mine product, diluted bitumen or dilbit, is sent to be upgraded at the Scotford Upgrader in Fort Saskatchewan. The Muskeg River Mine stands on a Shell Canada lease containing more than 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m3) of mineable bitumen, of which it is expected to recover 1,650 million barrels (262,000,000 m3) of bitumen over the next 30 years. The Muskeg River Mine, Jack Pine Mine and the Scotford Upgrader together comprise the Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP).A proposed future mine expansion would increase production by 100,000 bbl/day. The 100,000 barrels per day (16,000 m3/d) (incremental) expansion project received regulatory approval in late 2006.At the mine site, the 175 megawatt MRM Cogeneration plant owned 70% by ATCO Power and 30% by SaskPower supplies process steam and electricity to the mine. 50% of the electricity produced is surplus to mine needs and is sold into the Alberta power grid. The Corridor Pipeline which transports diluted bitumen from the Muskeg River Mine to the Scotford Upgrader is owned by Inter Pipeline Ltd.. To accommodate its workforce, the project has built a 2460-room "village" with service and recreation facilities.The project is using satellite based imaging to ensure transparent reporting of its land use.

Aptian

The Aptian is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous epoch or series and encompasses the time from 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma (million years ago), approximately. The Aptian succeeds the Barremian and precedes the Albian, all part of the Lower/Early Cretaceous.The Aptian partly overlaps the upper part of the regionally used (in Western Europe) stage Urgonian.

The Selli Event, also known as OAE1a, was one of two oceanic Anoxic events in the Cretaceous period, which occurred around 120 Ma and lasted approximately 1 to 1.3 million years. The Aptian extinction was a minor extinction event hypothesized to have occurred around 116 to 117 Ma.

Cenomanian

The Cenomanian is, in the ICS' geological timescale the oldest or earliest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or the lowest stage of the Upper Cretaceous series. An age is a unit of geochronology: it is a unit of time; the stage is a unit in the stratigraphic column deposited during the corresponding age. Both age and stage bear the same name.

As a unit of geologic time measure, the Cenomanian age spans the time between 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma and 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma (million years ago). In the geologic timescale it is preceded by the Albian and is followed by the Turonian. The Upper Cenomanian starts approximately at 95 M.a.

The Cenomanian is coeval with the Woodbinian of the regional timescale of the Gulf of Mexico and the early part of the Eaglefordian of the regional timescale of the East Coast of the United States.

At the end of the Cenomanian an anoxic event took place, called the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event or the "Bonarelli Event", that is associated with a minor extinction event for marine species.

Chelidae

The Chelidae are one of three living families of the turtle suborder Pleurodira and are commonly called the Austro-South American side-neck turtles. The family is distributed in Australia, New Guinea, parts of Indonesia, and throughout most of South America. It is a large family of turtles with a significant fossil history dating back to the Cretaceous. The family is entirely Gondwanan in origin, with no members found outside Gondwana, either in the present day or as a fossil.

Chubutisaurus

Chubutisaurus (meaning "Chubut lizard") is a genus of dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Period. It lived in South America. It is classified as a sauropod, specifically one of the titanosaurs. The type species, Chubutisaurus insignis, was described by del Corro in 1975. Its fossils were found in the Cerro Barcino Formation, Albian stage, about 110 million years ago. Chubutisaurus had a more robust radius than Venenosaurus.

Comahuesaurus

Comahuesaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur of the family Rebbachisauridae. It was found in the Lohan Cura Formation, in Argentina and lived during the Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian. The type species is C. windhauseni, named by Carballido and colleagues in 2012. It had originally been assigned to Limaysaurus by Salgado et al. (2004), but was later assigned its own genus based on the presence of diagnostic characters in the caudal centra, pubis and ischium.Comahuesaurus is known from abundant material compared to other rebbachisaurids; 37 caudal vertebrae, three fragmentary dorsal vertebrae and multiple appendicular elements, including a right humerus, pubis, ischium and a 113 cm long left femur. In their phylogenetic analysis, Carballido et al. (2012) placed Comahuesaurus in an intermediate position between basal rebbachisaurids such as Histriasaurus and the derived clade formed by subfamilies Rebbachisaurinae and Limaysaurinae.It shares with more derived rebbachisaurids a reduced hyposphene-hypantrum system, but hadn't yet completely lost said structure; that change would happen at some further point in the evolution of the clade, as it is so far only known to be fully absent in limaysaurines.

Diluvicursor

Diluvicursor ("flood runner") is a genus of small ornithischian from the Lower Albian (Early Cretaceous) of Australia. It is known from one species, the type species D. pickeringi. The two known specimens, a vertebra and a partial juvenile postcranium discovered in 2005 from the Eumeralla Formation, are known, and they were named in early 2018.

Kronosaurus

Kronosaurus ( KRON-o-SAWR-əs; meaning "lizard of Kronos") is an extinct genus of short-necked pliosaur. With an estimated length of 9 to 10.9 metres (30 to 36 ft), it was among the largest pliosaurs, and is named after the leader of the Greek Titans, Cronus. It lived in the Early Cretaceous period (Aptian to Late Albian). Fossil material has been recovered from the Toolebuc Formation (middle to late Albian) and Wallumbilla Formations (Aptian) of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, and from the upper Paja Formation (late Aptian) in Boyacá, Colombia, and assigned to two species.

Lavocatisaurus

Lavocatisaurus is a genus of sauropod in the family Rebbachisauridae from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian) Rayoso Formation of the Neuquén Basin, northern Patagonia, Argentina.

Leptocleididae

Leptocleididae is a family of small-sized plesiosaurs that lived during the Early Cretaceous period (early Berriasian to early Albian stage). Leptocleidus and Umoonasaurus had round bodies and triangle-shaped heads. Hilary F. Ketchum and Roger B. J. Benson (2010), transferred Brancasaurus, Kaiwhekea, Nichollssaura and Thililua to this family. However, Ketchum and Benson (2011) reassigned Kaiwhekea and Thililua to their original positions, as an elasmosaurid and a polycotylid, respectively.

Ligabuesaurus

Ligabuesaurus is a genus of dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous (Late Aptian to Early Albian stage, around 110 million years ago). It was a basal titanosaurid sauropod which lived in what is now Argentina. The type species, Ligabuesaurus leanzai, was described by Jose Bonaparte, Gonzalez Riga, and Sebastián Apesteguía in 2006, based on a partial skeleton. The specific name, leanzai, is dedicated to the geologist Dr. Héctor A. Leanza, who discovered the skeleton in the Lohan Cura Formation.

Limaysaurus

Limaysaurus (“Limay lizard”) is a genus represented by a single species of rebbachisaurid sauropod dinosaurs, which lived during the mid-Cretaceous period, about 99.6 and 97 million years ago, in the Cenomanian, in what is now South America (northwestern Patagonia).

Mesoparapylocheles

Mesoparapylocheles is an extinct hermit crab genus which existed during the Mesozoic in what is now Europe. It was described by René H.B. Fraaije, Adiël A. Klompmaker and Pedro Artal in 2012. The type species is Mesoparapylocheles michaeljacksoni from the Albian or Cenomanian of Spain; it was named after the singer Michael Jackson. Genus also includes two species (M. jaegeri and M. schweigerti) from the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) of Germany and additional two species (M. strouhali and M. zapfei) from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Austria.

Nodosauridae

Nodosauridae is a family of ankylosaurian dinosaurs, from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous period of what are now North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Antarctica.

Normanniasaurus

Normanniasaurus ( Normannia lizard) is an extinct genus of basal titanosaur sauropod known from the Early Cretaceous (Albian stage) Poudingue Ferrugineux Formation of Seine-Maritime, northwestern France.

Scyliorhinus

Scyliorhinus is a genus of catsharks in the family Scyliorhinidae. This genus is known in the fossil records from the Cretaceous period, late Albian age to the Pliocene epoch.

Xianshanosaurus

Xianshanosaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of the Ruyang Basin in Henan Province, China. It was described in 2009 by a team of Chinese paleontologists. The type species is X. shijiagouensis.

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