Alberto de Agostini National Park

Alberto de Agostini National Park (Spanish pronunciation: [alˈβeɾto ðe aɣosˈtini]) is a protected area that was created on January 22, 1965,[2] on land that was formerly part of the "Hollanda" forest reserve and "Hernando de Magallanes National Park". It covers 1,460,000 hectares (3,607,739 acres)[1] and includes the Cordillera Darwin mountain range, which is the final land-based stretch of the Andes before it becomes a chain of mountains appearing as small islands that sink into the Pacific Ocean and the Beagle Channel.

The park, along with Cabo de Hornos National Park, was designated a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2005. As part of the Magallanes Sub-Polar (or Sub-Antarctic) Evergreen Rainforest, UNESCO highlights the area’s "mosaic of contrasting ecosystems and unique and singular characteristics on a world level."[3]

Several tidewater glaciers and steep fjords can be found in the park. It also comprises the Gordon, Cook and Londonderry islands, as well as part of Hoste Island (excluding the Hardy Peninsula and other portions).

Alberto de Agostini National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Marinelli Glacier Cordillera Darwin
Map showing the location of Alberto de Agostini National Park
Map showing the location of Alberto de Agostini National Park
LocationMagallanes Region, Chile  Chile
Nearest cityPunta Arenas
Coordinates54°44′57″S 70°26′23″W / 54.74906°S 70.43967°WCoordinates: 54°44′57″S 70°26′23″W / 54.74906°S 70.43967°W
Area1,460,000 ha (3,607,739 acres)[1]
EstablishedJanuary 22, 1965[2]
Governing bodyNational Forest Corporation (Chile)

History

The park is named after one of the most important Salesian priests in Chilean history, Father Alberto Maria De Agostini. The Italian missionary, explorer, photographer and writer is known for his discoveries, photographs and maps of the region.

The region was visited by Charles Darwin, who encountered its native Fuegian peoples in the Murray Channel. Fuegian peoples include the Selk'nam, Haush, Manek'enk and Yaghan), the latter settling the lands along the channel approximately 10,000 years ago. The encounter would be of vital importance when the scientist sat down to write his theory on human evolution.[4][5] Other areas of the park, such as the picturesque Agostini Fjord, were only discovered in the past century.

Alberto de Agostini National Park, along with Cabo de Hornos National Park, was named the Cabo de Hornos World Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2005.[6]

Location

The park is located 148 km (80 nautical miles) southwest of Punta Arenas, the nearest city, in Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena region, stretching over three provinces: (Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego and Antártica Chilena).

Geography

The park features a highly irregular coastline, which is deeply indented by fjords. The centerpiece of the park is the Cordillera Darwin, whose slopes drop precipitously to the sea. The Darwin range is dominated by Monte Darwin and Monte Sarmiento. The valleys not filled by the sea are covered by glaciers, which also occupy small high plateaus.

Geology

Much of the landscape of the park has been sculpted by glaciers. The largest glacier is the Marinelli, which is in a state of retreat as of 2008.[7] One of the most stunning portions of the park is the Seno Pía, an embayment of the Beagle Channel.[8] The glaciers and mountains in this area form an amazing scenery, which also comprises the majestic Mount Darwin. Another glacier-related highlight of the park is the Avenue of the Glaciers, where the word avenue is used in a figurative sense describing part of the north-west arm of the Beagle Channel where it is possible to view several glaciers along the north shore. These glaciers are: España, Romanche, Alemania (also known as Roncagli), Italia, Francia and Holanda.[9]

Climate

Tierra del Fuego experiences extreme weather. The climate of the park is classified as subpolar oceanic climate and is wet, cold and windy.[10]

Biology

Seno Pia
Seno Pía

Flora

The park is part of the Magellanic subpolar forests ecoregion. This pristine coastal ecosystem is home to various species of trees such as the coihue (nothofagus betuloides) and canelo (drimys winteri).

Fauna

Mammals found in the park include the Culpeo or Andean fox (lycalopex culpaeus), the South American gray fox (lycalopex griseus), also known as the Patagonian fox, the marine otter (lontra felina), known locally as chungungo, the South American sea lion, the southern elephant seals, the leopard seal (hydrurga leptonyx), the Chilean dolphin (cephalorhynchus eutropia, also known as the black dolphin or tonina), the Burmeister's porpoise (phocoena spinipinnis), Peale's dolphin (lagenorhynchus australis), the humpback whale (megaptera novaeangliae), and the guanaco (lama guanicoe).

Sea birds include the southern royal albatross (diomedea epomophora),[11] the Magellanic woodpecker (campephilus magellanicus), the white-crested elaenia (elaenia albiceps),[12] the cormorant, the austral thrush (turdus falcklandii) or Magellan thrush, among many others.

Southern Sea Lions

South American sea lion (otaria flavescens, formerly Otaria byronia), also known as the southern sea lion or Patagonian sea lion.

Culpeo MC

Culpeo (lycalopex culpaeus)

Lagenorhynchus australis

Peale's dolphin (lagenorhynchus australis)

Tonina Chilena2

Chilean dolphin (cephalorhynchus eutropia)

Humpback stellwagen edit

Humpback whale (megaptera novaeangliae)

Diomedea epomophora - SE Tasmania

Southern royal albatross (diomedea epomophora).

Macronectes giganteus -East Falkland -flying-8b-4c

Southern giant petrel (macronectes giganteus), also known as the Antarctic giant petrel, giant fulmar, stinker, and stinkpot.

Tourism

There are no roads to the park, and as such, most visitors arrive by cruise ships or other boats, generally from Punta Arenas, or else by aeroplane from Puerto Williams. There is an admission tariff (foreigners pay twice as much as Chilean nationals); there are few facilities for tourists, but there are park rangers.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "National Parks of Chile". CONAF. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Alberto de Agostini National Park". CONAF. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  3. ^ Biosphere Reserve of the Magallanes Sub-Polar region UNESCO 2009–2014 retrieved on January 07, 2015
  4. ^ Darwin y los hijos del Fuego BBC 2014, Katia Chornik, Open University, retrieved on December 20, 2014
  5. ^ Father de Agostini (EN) 1999–2014 Patagonia-Argentina.com retrieved on December 20, 2014
  6. ^ UNESCO Biosphere Reserve of the Magallanes Sub-Polar Archived 2006-10-09 at the Wayback Machine – Park description at UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve.
  7. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008 Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens, Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham
  8. ^ USGS. "P 1386-I – Chile and Argentina – Wet Andes". Archived from the original on 19 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
  9. ^ Park information for Tourists – Interpatagonia interpatagonia 2002–2015, retrieved on January 08, 2015
  10. ^ information for Tourists – nationalparkstraveler 2005–2014 National Park Advocates, retrieved January 9, 2015
  11. ^ Albatros real, pajaro carnero rutaschile.com 2014, Retrieved on December 16, 2014
  12. ^ White-crested elaenia detailed info Aves de Chile 1999—2015, retrieved January 7, 2015
  13. ^ Alberto de Agostini CONAF data sheet CONAF Corporación Nacional Forestal, retrieved on January 08, 2015

External links

Alberto Maria de Agostini

Father Alberto Maria de Agostini (2 November 1883 – 25 December 1960) born in Pollone, Piedmont was an Italian missionary of the Salesians of Don Bosco order as well as a passionate mountaineer, explorer, geographer, ethnographer, photographer and cinematographer.

Alemania Glacier

Alemania Glacier, also known as Roncagli Glacier, is a glacier located in Alberto de Agostini National Park, Chile. The advance of one of its lobes blocked the drainage of some streams, forming Martinic Lake.

Aracena Island

Aracena Island (Spanish: Isla Capitán Aracena or Isla Aracena) is an island in the Magallanes Region of Chile. It belongs to the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, and forms part of the Alberto de Agostini National Park.

For some 6000 years the coastal areas of Aracena Island have been inhabited by the Alacalufe (or Kawésqar) people. By the early years of the 21st century, the continued presence of the Alacalufe has been put seriously at risk by the actions of non-indigenous people.The highest point on Aracena Island is Mount Vernal. (The United States Hydrographic Office in South America Pilot (Year 1916, page 316) erroneously located Mount Vernal on the Clarence Island.)

Cabo de Hornos National Park

Cabo de Hornos National Park is a protected area in southern Chile that was designated a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2005, along with Alberto de Agostini National Park. The world’s southernmost national park, it is located 12 hours by boat from Puerto Williams in the Cape Horn Archipelago, which belongs to the Commune of Cabo de Hornos in the Antártica Chilena Province of Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region.

The park was created in 1945 and includes the Wollaston Archipelago and the Hermite Islands. It covers 63,093 hectares (155,906 acres) and is run by the Corporacion Nacional Forestal (CONAF), the Chilean body that governs all national parks in Chile.

Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

The Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (Cabo de Hornos Biosphere Reserve) is located in the extreme south of Chile and comprises marine areas, islands, fjords, channels, forests and moorland. It covers an area of approximately 49,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi). All biosphere reserves include core zones (no significant infrastructure development), buffer zones (light development) and transition zones (more traditional development under a sustainable rubric). In the case of Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, the core zone is constituted of Alberto de Agostini National Park and Cabo de Hornos National Park, which are strictly protected under Chilean law and under the biosphere reserve status cannot have infrastructure for lodging.

The Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve is administered by a Governing Board that is presided by the regional governor and includes relevant public services and local organizations. The reserve's scientific advisory board is coordinated by the Omora Ethnobotanical Park - University of Magallanes. In addition to hosting the world's southernmost forested ecosystems and culture (the Yahgans), the Cape Horn Archipelago also protects 5% of the world's bryophyte diversity (mosses and liverworts). While considered one of the world's last remaining wilderness areas, Cape Horn currently is confronting serious threats related to tourism, development of real estate projects, invasive exotic species and salmon farming.

Cook Island, Tierra del Fuego

Cook Island, also known as London Island, is an island located in the Tierra del Fuego archipelago. It lies west of Gordon Island, south of O'Brien Island and east of Londonderry Island at the head of Cook Bay, within the Alberto de Agostini National Park.

Cook Island is the location of the Fueguino volcanic cones.

The island was named after Captain James Cook. Cook did not visit the island, but passed the mouth of Cook Bay on 19 December 1774. The bay was named in 1828 by Captain Henry Foster.

Cordillera Darwin

The Cordillera Darwin is an extensive mountain range mantled by an ice field that is located in Chile.

De Agostini (disambiguation)

De Agostini is an Italian publishing house.

De Agostini may also refer to:

Alberto María de Agostini, an Italian missionary, explorer and geographer

Alberto de Agostini National Park, a Chilean natural park dedicated to him

Giovanni Maria de Agostini, a lay monk of Italian origin who travelled widely in South and North America

Luigi De Agostini, an Italian footballer

Doris de Agostini, a Swiss skier

Virginia De Agostini, international figure skating judge for the International Skating Union

Holanda Glacier

Holanda Glacier is a glacier located in Alberto de Agostini National Park, Chile. It is located at the east end of a group of glaciers line up on the north shore of the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The glacier terminus ends in a small proglacial lake.

Hoste Island

Hoste Island (Spanish: Isla Hoste) is one of the southernmost islands in Chile, lying south, across the Beagle Channel, from Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego and west of Navarino Island, from which it is separated by the Murray Channel. Hoste Island has the southernmost trees on earth, Nothofagus antarctica. In Magellania, Jules Verne described an imaginary republic on the island.

Italia Glacier

Italia Glacier is a tidewater glacier located in Alberto de Agostini National Park, Chile. It flows down in a southwest direction to its terminus in the Beagle Channel.

Magdalena Channel

Magdalena Channel (Spanish: Canal Magdalena) is a Chilean channel joining the Strait of Magellan with the Cockburn Channel and is part of a major navigation route which ultimately connects with the Beagle Channel. It separates Capitán Aracena Island from the westernmost portion of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, and crosses Alberto de Agostini National Park. It is flanked by mountains, the chief of which is Monte Sarmiento. Like the Abra Channel and the Bárbara Channel farther west, it joins the western part of the Strait of Magellan directly to the Pacific Ocean.

It is located at 54°15′S 70°55′W.

Marinelli Glacier

Marinelli Glacier is a tidewater glacier located in Alberto de Agostini National Park, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. The glacier spills out from the backbone of the Cordillera Darwin and calves into Ainsworth Bay, an embayment of the Almirantazgo Fjord. The Marinelli Glacier is in a state of retreat, beginning at least as early as 1960 and continuing to the present time.

Meltwater of Marinelli glacier discharges to form the headwaters of Marinelli Creek.

Monte Buckland

Monte Buckland is a prominent peak in Alberto de Agostini National Park, in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego. It towers over a narrow peninsula between Agostini Fjord and Fitton bay, which is an eastward projection of the Gabriel Channel, which separates Dawson Island from Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. The mounts Sella, Aosta and Giordano are located to the southeast of Mt Buckland and have distinctive shapes.

Phillip Parker King's description of the mountain:

Close to the east end of the Gabriel Channel is Mount Buckland, a tall obelisk-like hill, terminating in a sharp needlepoint, and lifting its head above a chaotic mass of 'reliquiæ diluvianæ,' covered with perpetual snow, by the melting of which an enormous glacier on the leeward, or north-eastern side, has been gradually formed.

Monte Buckland was climbed in 2012 by a German expedition after several decades since its first ascent.

Monte Sarmiento

Monte Sarmiento is a pyramidal peak with a glaciated saddle-shaped summit located within Alberto de Agostini National Park, in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego. It rises abruptly from the east shore of the Magdalena Channel and marks the western border of the Cordillera Darwin. The mountain is frequently shrouded in clouds, but when it is visible is "the most sublime spectacle in Tierra del Fuego" according to the words of

Charles Darwin, one of the many people who have been captivated by the beauty of this mountain.

Mount Darwin (Andes)

Mount Darwin (Spanish: Monte Darwin) is a peak in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego forming part of the Cordillera Darwin, the southernmost range of the Andes, just to the north of the Beagle Channel. It is formed of crystalline schists and has massive glaciers down its steep southern slopes. Monte Darwin was for a long time considered as the highest peak in Tierra del Fuego, but that distinction corresponds to a mountain unofficially named Monte Shipton, which is about 2,580 m (8,460 ft) high and is located at 54°39′33″S 69°35′54″W. Both peaks are best climbed in late December, January, February and March. Monte Shipton was first climbed in 1962 by Eric Shipton, E. Garcia, F. Vivanco and C. Marangunic.Mount Darwin was given its name during the voyage of the Beagle by HMS Beagle's captain Robert FitzRoy to celebrate Charles Darwin's 25th birthday on 12 February 1834. A year earlier FitzRoy had named an expanse of water to the southwest of the mountain the Darwin Sound to commemorate Darwin's quick wit and courage in saving them from being marooned when waves from a mass of ice splitting off a glacier threatened their boats.

The mountain is part of Alberto de Agostini National Park.

Romanche Glacier

Romanche Glacier is a glacier located in Alberto de Agostini National Park, Chile. A cascade from the glacier tumbles into the Beagle Channel.

Stoppani Glacier

Stoppani Glacier is a valley glacier located in Alberto de Agostini National Park, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. The glacier spills out from the backbone of the Cordillera Darwin and ends about 12 km (7.5 mi) from Yendegaia Bay giving origin to Yendegaia River.

Yendegaia National Park

Yendegaia National Park is located in Tierra del Fuego in the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region of Chile and contains 150,612 ha (372,170 acres) of mountainous terrain and Valdivian temperate rain forest. It borders the Alberto de Agostini National Park and Tierra del Fuego National Park.

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