Alberta separatism is a movement that advocates the secession of the province of Alberta from Canada either by forming an independent nation, by creating a new union with one or more of Canada's western provinces, or by joining the United States.
Alberta was established as a province on September 1st, 1905. Alberta separatism comes from the belief that many Albertans hold that they are culturally and economically distinct from the rest of Canada particularly, Central Canada and Eastern Canada because of economic imbalances whereby Alberta is a net over-contributor to the system of Equalization payments in Canada. Furthermore, the majority of Alberta's trade flows north/south with the United States and not east/west with the rest of Canada.
The Alberta economy was traditionally based on agriculture, but in the last half of the 20th century it changed to become an industrial resource extraction-based economy, mainly oil and gas production. Alberta's political culture in the late 20th century was generally dominated by both small "c" and large "C" conservative politics and economics, whereas the rest of Canada tended to favour more centrist policies and parties.
Separatism emerged in the 1930s within the Social Credit Party, which formed the Government of Alberta after the 1935 election. The federal government deemed implementing a form of social credit unconstitutional and invoked its rarely used power of disallowance under S.56 of the Constitution Act, 1867, thereby voiding provincial legislation. Premier William Aberhart did secure provincially-owned banks and distribution of prosperity certificates most of which were openly against the Government. Premier Aberhart's followers called for separation from Canada, but Aberhart himself counselled moderation and rejected secession. The separatist movement was ridiculed by the media as a fringe movement of the uneducated.
Following World War II, the popular "Alberta First" opposition was formed to combat wastage and excessive export of gas. Albertans in general felt that they have been denied their fair return and usage of their own resources, and that outsiders had benefited disproportionately. In 1949, Alberta responded by passing legislation to strengthen control over export of gas from the Province. Ottawa responded by invoking the military in order to pressure Alberta to export its gas to the US. By 1954, it was widely understood that predatory encroachments from outside monopolies were backed by the federal government, in opposition of Albertan interests.
The modern ideal for a separate Alberta nation began in the 1970s, as a response to Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's pursuit of bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Canada, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and the National Energy Program. These programs were seen by many Albertans as an attack on oil resources; the promotion of Liberal "anti-Albertan" values were viewed as a negative influence by many Albertans.
In 1974, as Quebeckers were discussing separating from Canada, many Albertans also began to consider separation. This resulted in some Calgary-based citizens forming the Independent Alberta Association. Central to the argument was the fact that Alberta would pay billions of dollars towards Canada, but without political representation equal to that of Central and Eastern Canada. Many expressed the opinion that Trudeau would continue his hard federalist stance producing unfavorable results for Western Canada including Alberta and its natural resources. Some, like Glenn Morrison, president of Renn Industries, did not agree with Alberta separatism but, believed strongly that Alberta needed increased representation in Ottawa and greater autonomy. In the end, the Independent Alberta Association did not move beyond association status, and did not form a political party.
Other influences in the 1970s included two major oil crises: coinciding with the Yom-Kippur War of 1973 and the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The first was caused by the decision of the US to support Israel, which in turn caused retaliation by Egypt and Syria, bringing on an oil embargo that resulted in Alberta receiving substantially less price for oil than the global market prices dictated. Across North America, long lines could be seen at gas stations, and people started to realize the need to conserve energy resources.
The second oil crisis of 1979 was again due to decreased oil output, this time in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. In 1978, a revolutionary anti-American government headed by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini overthrew the America-friendly government of the Shah of Iran. Gasoline prices, which had earlier stabilized somewhat since 1973, spiked again. Some members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and a few similarly minded oil-rich nations had ceased all oil exports to the United States and countries that supported Israel. The price of oil sold to North America quadrupled within months, and service stations again ran out of fuel, long lines were evident at gas stations across North America.
The Alberta government and the Canadian federal government responded politically to address oil reserves and conservation of petroleum resources. In 1971, the Alberta Social Credit Party provincial government, headed by Harry Strom, created an environmental ministry, the first of its kind, with a mandate to manage and conserve Alberta's natural resources. Federally, in 1974, the Office of Energy Conservation was created. Conflict arose between Alberta and Canada after the 1973 crisis, over the management and distribution of Alberta's oil resources, and financial wealth, setting the stage for Alberta separatism.
After Joe Clark's Progressive Conservatives won a minority government in 1979 defeating Pierre Trudeau's Liberal party Albertans were hopeful a change in federal energy policy would occur. These ideas were harnessed during Clark's unsuccessful 1980 election campaign. An Albertan Clark lost the election and resigned the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1983 after receiving only a 67% confidence vote at a party convention.
In 1980, a Liberal majority government under Pierre Trudeau was formed. This caused the already brewing separatist movement in western Canada to attract thousands of people to rallies and coincided with the election of a separatist to the Alberta Legislature.
In October 1980, the National Energy Program (NEP) was created by the federal government under Prime Minister Trudeau, and support for Alberta separatism and anger toward the Federal Government reached a new level of popular support. This program was widely thought to be an attempt by the federal government to seize full control over Alberta's natural resources. Notably, Trudeau introduced a tax to finance the federally owned energy company Petro-Canada and gave grants to Canadian-owned companies to encourage exploration. After the introduction of the NEP, Alberta' oil industry slumped, with drastic reduction in the number of oil wells drilled. Abandonment of major projects such as Alsands caused high unemployment in Alberta. The Petroleum Incentives Program, part of the NEP, was criticized for luring exploration capital away from Alberta.
Trudeau argued that the NEP would pave the way for Canada to become self-sufficient in energy but with the forced requirement of Alberta producers to sell domestically at a significant discount compared to world prices, which allowed the sponsored Petro-Canada the advantage in purchasing producing assets. Eastern Canadians would then be able to buy oil at below-market rates, and the federal government would have a view into an industry dominated by foreign owned petroleum companies. Trudeau argued that the NEP would help shield and promote self-sufficiency in Canada from the volatility of the international oil prices, but instead, economic disaster resulted. Alberta's unemployment rate rose from 4% to more than 10%, bankruptcies soared 150%, Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers later blamed the NEP for the loss of 15,000 jobs, a 22% drop in drilling activity, and a 25% decline in exploration budgets. Industry cash flow and earnings fell from $4.7 billion in 1980 to $3.1 billion in 1981. Many prominent citizens were inspired to push forward Alberta separatist principles. This sentiment gave rise to the Western Canada Concept (WCC) and West-Fed which held popular, well-attended meetings across Alberta. Many of the people attracted to these parties were not necessarily advocating for independence, but were advocating for fair treatment of Alberta and her resources.
In 1980, Doug Christie, a British Columbia lawyer, formed the WCC in an effort to promote Western separatism. In 1982, Gordon Kesler was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta in a by-election in Olds-Didsbury as a candidate of the WCC and attracted national attention.
In addition, an organization called West-Fed was founded, led by Edmonton businessman Elmer Knutson, who was credited with inspiring the transformation of Western alienation ideas into a political movement." Knutson denied being a separatist, but West-Fed was widely regarded as a separatist organization. In 1983, Knutson attempted, but failed, to win the leadership of the Social Credit Party of Canada. A year later in 1984, Knutson founded the Confederation of Regions Party to advocate for a new Canadian constitution that would provide Alberta with more regional autonomy. The Confederation of Regions Party of Canada (CoR) was based on the premise that Canada consists of four regions, each of which should have equal representation in Parliament. By mid-1983 it was registered as an official provincial party in Alberta and by 1984 it was registered federally and ran 54 candidates but none were elected. Major platform initiatives included opposition to compulsory bilingualism and metrication, abolishing the Senate, and equal representation to the four regions. A year later Knutson resigned, but in all had significantly inspired many Albertans to join Doug Christie's Western Canada Concept, which was running candidates in elections.
In a 1981 Alberta poll, 49% agreed that "Western Canadians get so few benefits from being part of Canada that they might as well go it on their own." Across the west, polls indicated about 1/3 agreement to this statement. In 1982, 84% of western respondents agreed they are dissatisfied with the federal government, 50% held it responsible for their poor economic situation, and 66% responded they did not trust the federal government.
In response, Premier Peter Lougheed called a snap election in which the party nominated 78 candidates in the province's 79 ridings (electoral districts). Highlighted was major infighting and structural leadership problems within the WCC.
Although WCC won almost 12% of the popular vote (over 111,000 votes), Kesler was defeated after changing ridings, and no other candidate was elected. The WCC still managed a strong third place showing in another by-election, in Spirit River-Fairview, held in 1985, following the death of Grant Notley.
The party's popularity declined after the Progressive Conservative Party, led by Brian Mulroney won a majority government, defeating Prime Minister John Turner in the 1984 federal election. Under Mulroney, the NEP was rapidly dismantled and as a Conservative, new hope reigned for Alberta in achieving a better negotiated resource wealth distribution. This caused the Alberta separatist movement to dissipate significantly. Yet, despite this sentiment, the Mulroney government was a disappointment since the majority of MPs were elected from central Canada, and Alberta's concerns largely ignored. By the time he left office in 1993, Mulroney was perhaps the most hated Prime Minister due to various allegations of corruption pertaining to the sale of Canadian assets. Mulroney awarded the contract for maintenance of CF-18 fighter jets to the Montreal-based Bombardier Aerospace company, a decision that engendered so much anger in Western Canada, since Western Canada produced a better bid, that it directly led to the formation of the Reform Party of Alberta.
After this, the WCC experienced a resurgence, and in 1987 ran candidate Jack Ramsay, who in 1982 had become leader of the party. Ramsay notably and significantly argued for the Triple-E Senate as an alternative to Alberta separation, until 1986 when he reverted his opinion back to the previous separatist position of the WCC. In 1987 Ramsay joined the Reform Party of Alberta and ran in a by-election where he finished second. This would be the last time the party would run a candidate.
Alberta prominent citizen Preston Manning would take the Reform Party of Canada, a right-wing populist federal party, along the lines of non-separatist sentiments and significant popularity. Manning would attract many Albertans that were separatists. The Reform Party existed from 1987 to 2000 when it merged into the Canadian Alliance. Later, in 2003, it would merge with the Progressive Conservative Party to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada. These mergers left a significant void to those interested in furthering separatist principles.
Without the existence of the Reform Party to articulate Alberta's concerns, the separatist movement in the early twenty-first century began to organize meaningfully for the first time since the 1980s. Again though, separatism would place faith in a favourable federal government, only to again be disappointed.
In the 2004 federal election, the governing Liberal Party of Canada was returned with a minority government despite allegations of corruption. 61.7% of Alberta voters voted for the opposition Conservative Party - 22% supported the Liberals, although how many of these Conservative voters were separatist can only be guessed.
There was significant opposition within Alberta to the Kyoto Protocol as the Kyoto treaty was believed to have negative effects on the provincial economy, which is based to a large degree on the oil and gas industry. (Alberta had the world's second largest proven reserves of oil, behind only Saudi Arabia.)
In the 2004 general election, the Separation Party of Alberta nominated 12 candidates who won 4,680 votes, 0.5% of the provincial total. No candidates were elected. This was less support than the Alberta Independence Party attracted in the 2001 election, when 15 candidates attracted 7,500 votes.
Albertan Stephen Harper succeeded against the odds of the Canadian First-past-the-post voting system and in 2006 became elected Prime Minister of Canada in a minority government in the 2006 federal election. Harper had been a significant figure in the Reform Party, became leader of the Canadian Alliance in 2002, then merged with the PC Party in 2003, forming the Conservative Party of Canada. Due to Harper's Reform roots, Albertans held faith that would be the trusted figure to protect Alberta's interests. As a result, Alberta's separatist movement sat on the side-lines, with uncertain prospects. Some pundits predicted that this result would cause support for separatism to ebb away.
The notion of Alberta secession from Canada gained sympathy from some figures within Alberta's conservative parties. Mark Norris, who was one of the contenders to succeed Ralph Klein as the Alberta premier, told the Calgary Sun in March 2006 that under his leadership, if a future federal government persisted in bringing in policies harmful to Alberta such as a carbon tax, "(Alberta is) going to take steps to secede."
Also, some politicians believe, and at least one poll indicated that a much larger portion of the Alberta population may be at least sympathetic to the notion of secession than was indicated by election results. In January 2004, Premier Ralph Klein told the Canadian edition of Readers Digest that one in four Albertans were in support of separation. An August 2005 poll commissioned by the Western Standard pegged support for the idea that "Western Canadians should begin to explore the idea of forming their own country." at 42% in Alberta and 35.6% across the four Western provinces
Support for Albertan separatism has increased significantly with the federal election victory of Justin Trudeau's Liberal Party on October 19, 2015. Federal Liberal leader Justin Trudeau, the son of Pierre Trudeau, became prime minister with a majority government, and re-inspired the Alberta separatist movement. While speaking at a town hall in Peterborough, Ontario, on January 13, 2017, Trudeau responded to a question about pipelines and his commitment to protecting Canada's environment. "We can't shut down the oilsands tomorrow. We need to phase them out. We need to manage the transition off of our dependence on fossil fuels. That is going to take time," The next day at a Calgary vs Edmonton Hockey game in Edmonton, Mr. Trudeau was loudly booed by the crowd. The Rebel reported: "Trudeau was booed at more than Gary Bettman at a hockey game. Now that's saying something. This isn't the first time Trudeau was booed at a sporting event. In 2016, Trudeau made a video message at the Grey Cup in Toronto. Even there he was subject to a chorus of boos." Mention of Justin Trudeau at public events in Alberta will elicit boos from the crowd. His unpopularity in Alberta is a significant rallying point for Alberta separatists. The topic of Alberta separating from Canada is the subject of a growing number main stream media reports.
Peter Zeihan in his 2014 book The Accidental Superpower presented the reasons why he believed both Alberta and the U.S. would benefit from Alberta joining the United States as the 51st state. Quote from page 263 of book:
Zeihan also stated that "Right now, every man, woman and child in Alberta pays $6,000 more into the national budget than they get back. Alberta is the only province that is a net contributor to that budget — by 2020, the number will exceed $20,000 per person, $40,000 per taxpayer. That will be the greatest wealth transfer in per capita terms in the Western world." Per Statistics Canada, in 2015 Alberta paid $27 billion more into the federal treasury than it received back in services.
A February 2019 poll from Angus Reid found 50% of Albertans would support secession from Canada.
In Canada the Clarity Act, which has been approved by the Supreme Court of Canada, governs the process a province should follow to achieve separation. The first step is a province wide referendum with a clear question. The size of majority support required by referendum is not defined. The intent of the framers of the Clarity Act was to make it very difficult for a province to secede. Once a majority has been obtained by clear referendum it would be very difficult to stop the process much like the Brexit vote.
The Alberta Agenda is a loosely organized political movement initiated by a letter written by prominent Albertans, including future Prime Minister Stephen Harper and 2006 Alberta PC leadership candidate Ted Morton, urging Albertan Premier Ralph Klein to fully exercise Alberta's constitutional powers. The letter was published by the National Post on January 27, 2001, in the wake of the Alberta-based Canadian Alliance's defeat in the 2000 Canadian federal election.
The letter has been referred to as the Firewall Letter from its use of the phrase "build firewalls around Alberta," a reference to the computer software programs which block unwanted intrusions from outside sources. Its main recommendations were:
Allowing the province's contract with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to expire in 2012, establishing a provincial police force to take the RCMP's place. Alberta had a separate police force from 1917 until 1932.
Withdrawal from the Canada Pension Plan and establishing a separate Alberta Pension Plan. Many Albertans believe that given the province's youthful demographics, staying in the CPP makes little sense since a separate "APP" would provide higher benefits for a lower premium.
Separate collection of the province's income tax, as opposed to letting the Canada Revenue Agency handle tax collection. Alberta already collects its own corporate tax.Klein personally responded to the letter, but rejected implementing the authors' requests for the duration of his premiership.
The Alberta Agenda should not be confused with Alberta separatism.Alberta Independence Party
The Alberta Independence Party, sometimes abbreviated as AIP, is a Alberta provincial political party founded first in the early 2000s, then revived in 2017.
It was originally dedicated to increasing the autonomy of Alberta within Canadian Confederation, in part as a response to the failure of the Canadian Alliance to make major gains outside of Western Canada in the 2000 Canadian election. It put forward an explicity separatist political platform for the 2019 Alberta general election.The party's founding convention in January, 2001, garnered much media attention when several prominent figures from the Canadian Alliance attended as observers, including MPs Myron Thompson and Darrel Stinson, and Alberta 'senators-in-waiting' Ted Morton and Bert Brown. At the convention, Cory Morgan, a 29-year-old geological surveyor, was elected leader.
One of the party's first challenges was to gather enough signatures to qualify as an official party in Alberta, which it failed to do. As a result, in the 2001 Alberta general election, its fourteen candidates were forced to stand as independents.Canadian cultural protectionism
Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid-20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Governments of Canada to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign culture on the domestic audience. Sharing a large border and a common language with the United States, Canadian politicians have perceived the need to preserve and support a culture separate from US-based North American culture in the globalized media arena. Canada's efforts to maintain its cultural differences from the US and Mexico have been balanced by countermeasures in trade arrangements, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).Cultural mosaic
"Cultural mosaic" (French: "la mosaïque culturelle") is the mix of ethnic groups, languages, and cultures that coexist within society. The idea of a cultural mosaic is intended to suggest a form of multiculturalism, different from other systems such as the melting pot, which is often used to describe nations like the United States' assimilation.Darrel Stinson
Darrel Stinson (born June 5, 1945) is a retired politician in British Columbia, Canada. He was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Okanagan—Shuswap from 1993 until the dissolution of the House of Commons of Canada for the 2006 federal election, and was a member of the Conservative Party of Canada parliamentary caucus.Freedom Conservative Party of Alberta
The Freedom Conservative Party of Alberta is an Albertan autonomist libertarian/libertarian-conservative political party in Alberta, Canada.The party was named the Alberta First Party from 1999 to 2004, when it changed its name to the Separation Party of Alberta. In 2013, it reverted to Alberta First. In April 2018, it became the Western Freedom Party of Alberta. On June 22, 2018, it was announced that the Western Freedom Party had changed to its present name.Liberal-Conservative Party
The Liberal-Conservative Party (French: le Parti libéral-conservateur) was the formal name of the Conservative Party of Canada until 1873, and again from 1922 to 1938, although some Conservative candidates continued to run under the label as late as the 1911 election and others ran as simple Conservatives before 1873. In many of Canada's early elections, there were both "Liberal-Conservative" and "Conservative" candidates; however, these were simply different labels used by candidates of the same party. Both were part of Sir John A. Macdonald's government and official Conservative and Liberal-Conservative candidates would not, generally, run against each other. It was also common for a candidate to run on one label in one election and the other in a subsequent election.The roots of the name are in the coalition of 1853 in which moderate Reformers and Conservatives from Canada West joined with bleus from Canada East under the dual premiership of Sir Allan MacNab and A.-N. Morin. The new ministry committed to secularizing Clergy reserves in Canada West and abolishing seigneurial tenure in Canada East. Over time, the Liberal-Conservatives evolved into the Conservative party and their opponents, the Clear Grits and the Parti rouge evolved into the Liberal Party of Canada. On October 12, 1916, the last Liberal-Conservative cabinet minister, Sam Hughes, was dismissed, making the executive all officially Conservative Party members.
Prominent Liberal-Conservative Members of Parliament and Senators in Canadian history include:
Sir John A. Macdonald
Sir George-Étienne Cartier
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
Sir John Rose
Thomas D'Arcy McGee
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott
John Henry Pope
Joseph-Aldric Ouimet (Liberal-Conservative MP 1873–1896, ran as Conservative and defeated in 1908)
Sir John Sparrow David Thompson
Sir Samuel Hughes
Sir Hugh John Macdonald
Archibald Woodbury McLelan (Liberal-Conservative Senator, resigned and elected to the House of Commons as a Conservative after 1881)
Joseph Godéric Blanchet (Liberal-Conservative from 1867–1875, Conservative 1875–1878, Liberal-Conservative 1878–1883)
John Costigan (Liberal-Conservative 1867–1900, crossed the floor to join the Liberals in 1901)The party resumed formally referring to itself as Liberal-Conservative from 1922 until 1938 when it officially became the National Conservative Party, however, it was commonly referred to as the Conservative Party throughout this period.List of political parties in Alberta
This article lists political parties in Alberta.Mark Norris (Canadian politician)
Mark Norris (born 1962) is an Alberta politician, former MLA and candidate for the leadership of the Progressive Conservatives.
Norris was born and raised in Edmonton, Alberta and earned his Bachelor of Arts in political science from St. Francis Xavier University in Nova Scotia.
He returned to Edmonton following his university years and purchased from his father Paul J. Norris, in 1990, an advertising and sign manufacturing company.
Norris won a seat in the Alberta legislature in 2001 provincial election as the MLA for Edmonton McClung, becoming a celebrated figure within the party for doing so because he had defeated former Tory leadership candidate-turned-Liberal leader Nancy MacBeth. Norris served as the Minister of Economic Development in the Albertan Cabinet under Premier Ralph Klein, but became the only cabinet minister to lose his seat in the 2004 provincial election.
Norris does not rule Alberta separatism out as an option. He told the Calgary Sun in March 2006 that under his leadership, if a future federal government persisted in bringing in policies harmful to Alberta such as a carbon tax, "(Alberta is) going to take steps to secede."On May 30, 2006 Norris became an official candidate in the race to replace Ralph Klein as Premier of Alberta. On the first ballot, he finished sixth of eight candidates, capturing 6.9% of the vote, and was required to withdraw from the race. He subsequently endorsed eventual winner Ed Stelmach.National question (Quebec)
The National Question (in French: la Question nationale) is an expression referring to the discussion about the future status of Quebec within Canada, taking into consideration issues of autonomy, sovereignty, and independence.Nationalisms in Canada
There has historically been, and continues to be, several rival nationalisms in Canada. Canadians have differing cultural and political identifications which often overlap. Loyalty towards Canada is tempered by strong regional and ethnic identities, and an affinity toward a common North American culture shared with the United States.
The largest and most-apparent differences are between English and French Canada, with the federal government recognizing the Québécois as "a nation within a united Canada". Among the provinces, Newfoundlanders also have a strong sense of national identity, having had a period of separate nationhood before joining the Canadian Confederation. Additionally, there has been a revival of Aboriginal nationalism, identifying with a specific band or tribe or with First Nations in general.
Also common are diaspora nationalisms, with nearly every such community represented in Canada. Most Canadians see no conflict in being loyal to Canada while retaining a sense of ethnic identity and connection to the homeland. With an increasingly diverse cultural landscape in the country, some have advocated for civic nationalism based on shared citizenship and common rights.Pink Tory
In Canadian politics, a Pink Tory is a pejorative term for a liberal member of one of the Conservative or Progressive Conservative parties, more liberal than a Red Tory. The term was often derisively applied to the 1971 to 1985 Ontario Progressive Conservative government of Bill Davis by critics on the right, particularly Toronto Sun columnist Claire Hoy. In 2002, Jim Flaherty described rival leadership contender Ernie Eves as a "pink" Tory. More recently the term has been used to describe socially progressive Conservatives who support same-sex marriage and are pro-choice.Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan
The Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan is a right-of-centre political party in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Prior to 1942, it was known as the Conservative Party of Saskatchewan. Members are commonly known as Tories.Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) was a Canadian Royal Commission established in 1991 to address many issues of Aboriginal status that had come to light with recent events such as the Oka Crisis and the Meech Lake Accord. The commission culminated in a final report of 4000 pages, published in 1996. The original report "set out a 20-year agenda for implementing changes."Ted Morton
Frederick Lee Morton (born March 28, 1949), known commonly as Ted Morton, is a Canadian politician and former cabinet minister in the Alberta government. As a member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta, he represented the constituency of Foothills-Rocky View as a Progressive Conservative from 2004 to 2012 (in the 26th and 27th Alberta Legislative Assemblies). He did not win reelection in the 2012 Alberta general election. Morton was a candidate for the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Association in its 2006 and 2011 leadership elections. Dr. Morton is currently an Executive-in-Residence at the School of Public Policy at the University of Calgary and Senior Fellow, Energy and Environment, at the Manning Foundation. He also serves on the Board of the Alberta Land Institute and the Board of Governors of the Council of Canadian Academies.Two Solitudes (Canadian society)
"Two Solitudes" refers to a perceived lack of communication, and moreover a lack of will to communicate, between Anglophone and Francophone people in Canada. The term was popularized by Hugh MacLennan's novel Two Solitudes. In her investiture speech as Governor-General of Canada, Michaëlle Jean specifically stated that "the time of 'two solitudes' had finished".Yukon Party
The Yukon Party (French: Parti du Yukon) is a conservative political party in Yukon, Canada. It is the successor to the Yukon Progressive Conservative Party.