Albert Goodwill Spalding (September 2, 1849 – September 9, 1915) was an American pitcher, manager, and executive in the early years of professional baseball, and the co-founder of A.G. Spalding sporting goods company. He was born and raised in Byron, Illinois yet graduated from Rockford Central High School in Rockford, Illinois. He played major league baseball between 1871 and 1878. Spalding set a trend when he started wearing a baseball glove.
After his retirement as a player, Spalding remained active with the Chicago White Stockings as president and part-owner. In the 1880s, he took players on the first world tour of baseball. With William Hulbert, Spalding organized the National League. He later called for the commission that investigated the origins of baseball and credited Abner Doubleday with creating the game. He also wrote the first set of official baseball rules.
|Albert Goodwill Spalding|
Spalding the businessman at 60, 1910
|Born: September 2, 1849|
|Died: September 9, 1915 (aged 66)|
San Diego, California
|May 5, 1871, for the Boston Red Stockings|
|Last MLB appearance|
|August 31, 1878, for the Chicago White Stockings|
|Earned run average||2.14|
|Runs batted in||338|
|Career highlights and awards|
|Member of the National|
|Baseball Hall of Fame|
|Election Method||Veteran's Committee|
Having played baseball throughout his youth, Spalding first played competitively with the Rockford Pioneers, a youth team, which he joined in 1865. After pitching his team to a 26–2 victory over a local men's amateur team (the Mercantiles), he was approached at the age of 15 by another squad, the Forest Citys, for whom he played for two years. In the autumn of 1867 he accepted a $40 per week contract ($717 in today's dollars), nominally as a clerk, but really to play professionally for the Chicago Excelsiors, not an uncommon arrangement used to circumvent the rules of the time, which forbade the hiring of professional players. Following the formation of baseball's first professional organization, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (which became known as the National Association, the Association, or NA) in 1871, Spalding joined the Boston Red Stockings (precursor club to the modern Atlanta Braves) and was highly successful; winning 206 games (and losing only 53) as a pitcher and batting .323 as a hitter.
William Hulbert, principal owner of the Chicago White Stockings, did not like the loose organization of the National Association and the gambling element that influenced it, so he decided to create a new organization, which he dubbed the National League of Baseball Clubs. To aid him in this venture, Hulbert enlisted the help of Spalding. Playing to the pitcher's desire to return to his Midwestern roots and challenging Spalding's integrity, Hulbert convinced Spalding to sign a contract to play for the White Stockings (now known as the Chicago Cubs) in 1876. Spalding then coaxed teammates Deacon White, Ross Barnes and Cal McVey, as well as Philadelphia Athletics players Cap Anson and Bob Addy, to sign with Chicago. This was all done under complete secrecy during the playing season because players were all free agents in those days and they did not want their current club and especially the fans to know they were leaving to play elsewhere the next year. News of the signings by the Boston and Philadelphia players leaked to the press before the season ended and all of them faced verbal abuse and physical threats from the fans of those cities.
He was "the premier pitcher of the 1870s", leading the league in victories for each of his six full seasons as a professional. During each of those years he was his team's only pitcher. In 1876, Spalding won 47 games as the prime pitcher for the White Stockings and led them to win the first-ever National League pennant by a wide margin.
In 1877, Spalding began to use a glove to protect his catching hand. People had used gloves previously, but they were not popular, and Spalding himself was skeptical of wearing one at first. However, once he began donning gloves, he influenced other players to do so.
Spalding retired from playing baseball in 1878 at the age of 27, although he continued as president and part owner of the White Stockings and a major influence on the National League. Spalding's .796 career winning percentage (from an era when teams played about once or twice a week) is the highest ever by a baseball pitcher, far exceeding the second-best .690.
In the months after signing for Chicago, Hulbert and Spalding organized the National League by enlisting the two major teams in the East and the four other top teams in what was then considered to be the West, also known as the jungle. Joining Chicago initially were the leading teams from Cincinnati, Louisville, and St. Louis. The owners of these western clubs accompanied Hulbert and Spalding to New York where they secretly met with owners from New York City, Philadelphia, Hartford, and Boston. Each signed the league's constitution, and the National League was officially born. "Spalding was thus involved in the transformation of baseball from a game of gentlemen athletes into a business and a professional sport." Although the National Association held on for a few more seasons, it was no longer recognized as the premier organization for professional baseball. Gradually, it faded out of existence and was replaced by myriad minor leagues and associations around the country.
In 1886, with Spalding as President of the franchise, the Chicago White Stockings (today's Chicago Cubs), began holding spring training in Hot Springs, Arkansas, which subsequently has been called the "birthplace" of spring training baseball. The location and the training concept was the brainchild of Spalding and his player/manager Cap Anson, who saw that the city and the natural springs created positives for their players. They first played in an area called the Hot Springs Baseball Grounds. Many other teams followed the concept and began training in Hot Springs and other locations.
In 1905, after Henry Chadwick wrote an article saying that baseball grew from the British sports of cricket and rounders, Spalding called for a commission to find out the real source of baseball. The commission called for citizens who knew anything about the founding of baseball to send in letters. After three years of searching, on December 30, 1907, Spalding received a letter that (erroneously) declared baseball to be the invention of Abner Doubleday. The commission, though, was biased, as Spalding would not appoint anyone to the commission if they believed the sport was somewhat related to the English sport of rounders. Just before the commission, in a letter to sportswriter Tim Murnane, Spalding noted, "Our good old American game of baseball must have an American Dad." The project, later called the Mills Commission, concluded that "Base Ball had its origins in the United States" and "the first scheme for playing baseball, according to the best evidence available to date, was devised by Abner Doubleday at Cooperstown, N.Y., in 1839."
Receiving the archives of Henry Chadwick in 1908, Spalding combined these records with his own memories (and biases) to write "America's National Game" (published 1911) which, despite its flaws, was probably the first scholarly account of the history of baseball.
In 1874 while Spalding was playing and organizing the league, Spalding and his brother Walter began a sporting goods store in Chicago, which grew rapidly (14 stores by 1901) and expanded into a manufacturer and distributor of all kinds of sporting equipment. The company became "synonymous with sporting goods" and is still a going concern.
Spalding published the first official rules guide for baseball. In it he stated that only Spalding balls could be used (previously, the quality of the balls used had been subpar). Spalding also founded the "Baseball Guide", which at the time was the most widely read baseball publication.
In 1888–1889, Spalding took a group of major league players around the world to promote baseball and Spalding sporting goods. This was the first-ever world baseball tour. Playing across the western U.S., the tour made stops in Hawaii (although no game was played), New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon, Egypt, Italy, France, and England. The tour returned to grand receptions in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago. The tour included future Hall of Famers Cap Anson and John Montgomery Ward. While the players were on the tour, the National League instituted new rules regarding player pay that led to a revolt of players, led by Ward, who started the Players' League the following season (1890). The league lasted one year, partially due to the anti-competitive tactics of Spalding to limit its success. The tour and formation of the Player's League is depicted in the 2015 movie "Deadball."
Spalding had been a prominent member of the Theosophical Society under William Quan Judge. In 1900, Spalding moved to San Diego with his newly acquired second wife, Elizabeth and became a prominent member and supporter of the Theosophical community Lomaland, which was being developed on Point Loma by Katherine Tingley. He built an estate in the Sunset Cliffs area of Point Loma where he lived with Elizabeth for the rest of his life. The Spaldings raised race horses and collected Chinese fine furniture and art.
The Spaldings had an extensive library which included many volumes on Theosophy, art, and literature. In 1907–09 he was the driving force behind the development of a paved road, known as the "Point Loma boulevard", from downtown San Diego to Point Loma and Ocean Beach; the road also provided good access to Lomaland. It later provided the basis for California State Route 209. He proposed the project, supervised it on behalf of the city, and paid a portion of the cost out of his own pocket. He joined with George Marston and other civic-minded businessmen to purchase the site of the original Presidio of San Diego, which they developed as a historic park and eventually donated to the city of San Diego. He ran unsuccessfully for the United States Senate in 1910 as a Republican, but lost to eventual winner John D. Works by a vote of 92 to 21 in the California legislature. He helped to organize the 1915 Panama-California Exposition, serving as second vice-president.
He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1939, as one of the first inductees from the 19th century at that summer's opening ceremonies. His plaque in the Hall of Fame reads "Albert Goodwill Spalding. Organizational genius of baseball's pioneer days. Star pitcher of Forest City Club in late 1860s, 4-year champion Bostons 1871–75 and manager-pitcher of champion Chicagos in National League's first year. Chicago president for 10 years. Organizer of baseball's first round-the-world tour in 1888."
|New title|| Owner of the Chicago Cubs
The following are the baseball events of the year 1874 throughout the world.1875 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1875 throughout the world.1876 Chicago White Stockings season
The 1876 Chicago White Stockings season was the 5th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 1st in the National League and the 3rd at 23rd Street Grounds. The White Stockings, as one of the founding members of the new National League, won the NL's initial championship during this season with a record of 52–14.1877 Chicago White Stockings season
The 1877 Chicago White Stockings season was the 6th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 2nd in the National League and the 4th at 23rd Street Grounds. The White Stockings finished fifth in the National League with a record of 26–33.1878 Chicago White Stockings season
The 1878 Chicago White Stockings season was the 7th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 3rd in the National League and the 1st at Lakefront Park. The White Stockings finished fourth in the National League with a record of 30–30.Al Reach
Alfred James Reach (May 25, 1840 – January 14, 1928) was an Anglo-American sportsman who, after becoming one of the early stars of baseball in the National Association, went on to become an influential executive, publisher, sporting goods manufacturer and spokesman for the sport.
Born in London, Reach was a regular for the champion Eckford club of Brooklyn in the early 1860s before moving to the Philadelphia Athletics in 1865. When the National Association began, he helped them win the first professional baseball pennant in 1871. Upon his retirement from playing in 1875, he helped found the Philadelphia Phillies franchise. Reach served as team president from 1883 to 1899. Later, similarly to Albert Spalding, Reach formed a sporting goods company and earned millions. In fact, he sold his company to Spalding in 1889. Reach was the trade name used on the game balls for the American League until 1976.
Reach kept his interest in the Phillies franchise, selling out in 1899 to his longtime partner, John Rogers. Reach died at age 87 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and is interred at West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.A Pennsylvania historical marker was dedicated on April 4, 2003 at 1820 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia for Reach's contribution to baseball.Albert Spalding (violinist)
Albert Spalding (August 15, 1888 – May 26, 1953) was an American violinist and composer.America's National Game
America's National Game is a book by Albert Spalding, published in 1911 detailing the early history of the sport of baseball. Much of the story is told first-hand, since Spalding had been involved in the game, first as a player and later an administrator, since the 1850s. In addition to his personal recollections, he had access to the records of Henry Chadwick, the game's first statistician and archivist. Spalding was, however, known to aggrandise his role in the major moments in baseball's history.Cap Anson
Adrian Constantine Anson (April 17, 1852 – April 14, 1922), nicknamed "Cap" (for "Captain") and "Pop", was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) first baseman. Including his time in the National Association (NA), he played a record 27 consecutive seasons. Anson was regarded as one of the greatest players of his era and one of the first superstars of the game. Anson spent most of his career with the Chicago Cubs franchise (then known as the "White Stockings" and later the "Colts"), serving as the club's manager, first baseman and, later in his tenure, minority owner. He led the team to six National League pennants in the 1880s. Anson was one of baseball's first great hitters, and probably the first to tally over 3,000 career hits.
His contemporary influence and prestige are regarded by historians as playing a major role in establishing the racial segregation in professional baseball that persisted until the late 1940s. On several occasions, Anson refused to take the field when the opposing roster included black players. Anson may have influenced the most noted vote in 19th-century professional baseball in favor of segregation: a July 14, 1887 one by the high-minor International League to ban the signing of new contracts with black players.After retiring as a player and leaving the Colts, Anson briefly managed the New York Giants. He ran several enterprises in Chicago, including opening a billiards and bowling hall and running a semi-professional baseball team he dubbed "Anson's Colts". Anson also toured extensively on the vaudeville circuit, performing monologues and songs. Many of his business ventures failed. As a result, Anson lost his ownership stake in the Colts (by then known as the Cubs) and filed for bankruptcy. Anson was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939.Jim Hart (baseball)
James Abner Hart (July 10, 1855 – July 18, 1919) was an American baseball manager for the Louisville Colonels and the Boston Beaneaters for parts of three seasons.
Hart went to the U.K. in the 1890s. A British national professional Baseball body was started in 1890 and a letter to Albert Spalding in America requesting help in establishing a league. The British requested eight to ten players to coach and convert the existing players (whose primary game was usually soccer). Spalding sent Hart as a skilled manager and players: William J. Barr, Charles Bartlett, J. E. Prior and Leech Maskrey.The original intention had been to have eight teams but initially there were just four Aston Villa, Preston North End, Stoke City and Derby. The first three used Jim Hart to decide the line-up of their teams, but Francis Ley at Derby made his own decisions.In 1891 Hart, who was secretary of the Chicago White Stockings (later the Colts and then the Cubs), succeeded Albert G. Spalding as president of the team. Hart was part-owner of the Chicago Colts team, and in the 1895 season, the entire Colts team was arrested for creating a disturbance on Sunday, and Hart bailed every player out.List of Chicago Cubs owners and executives
This is a list of owners and executives of the Chicago Cubs.List of Major League Baseball wins records
The following is a listing of pitching win and winning percentage records in Major League Baseball. All teams are considered to be members of the American or National Leagues, unless noted. Players denoted in boldface are still actively contributing to the record noted. An (r) denotes a player's rookie season.List of pre-World Series baseball champions
The modern World Series, the current championship series of Major League Baseball, began in 1903, and was established as an annual event in 1905. Before the formation of the American Association (AA), there were no playoff rounds—all championships went to the team with the best record at the end of the season. In the initial season of the National League (NL) in 1876, there was controversy as to which team was the champion: the Chicago White Stockings, who had the best overall record (52–14), or the St. Louis Brown Stockings (45–19), who were the only team to have a winning record against every other franchise in the league. The teams agreed to play a five-game "Championship of the West" series, won by St. Louis, 4 games to 1. Beginning in 1884, the championship series between the National League and the American Association were promoted and referred to as the "World's Championship Series" (WCS), or "World's Series" for short; however, they are not officially recognized by Major League Baseball as part of World Series history. Though early publications, such as Ernest Lanigan's Baseball Cyclopedia and Turkin and Thompson's Encyclopedia of Baseball, listed the 19th-century games on an equal basis with those of the 20th century, Sporting News publications about the World Series, which began in the 1920s, ignored the 19th-century games, as did most publications about the Series after 1960. Major League Baseball, in general, regards 19th-century events as a prologue to the modern era of baseball, which is defined by the emergence of the two present major leagues.
In the second year of the WCS, a dispute in the 1885 series concerned Game 2, which was forfeited by the St. Louis Browns when they pulled their team off the field protesting an umpiring decision. The managers, Cap Anson and Charles Comiskey, initially agreed to disregard the game. When St. Louis won the final game and an apparent 3–2 series championship, Chicago owner Albert Spalding overruled his manager and declared that he wanted the forfeit counted. The result of a tied WCS was that neither team got the prize money that had been posted by the owners before the series (and was returned to them after they both agreed it was a tie). Following the collapse of the AA in 1891, four of its clubs were admitted to the National League. The league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, the league champions played the runners-up in the postseason championship series called the Temple Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup series in 1900.Ned Williamson
Edward Nagle "Ned" Williamson (October 24, 1857 – March 3, 1894) was a professional baseball infielder in Major League Baseball. He played for three teams: the Indianapolis Blues of the National League (NL) for one season, the Chicago White Stockings (NL) for 11 seasons, and the Chicago Pirates of the Players' League for one season.
From 1883 and 1887, Williamson held the single-season record for both doubles and home runs. Although his record for doubles was surpassed in 1887, he held the home run record until 1919, when it was topped by Babe Ruth of the Boston Red Sox. Statistically, he was one of the best fielders of his era. During the first eight years of his career, he led the league at his position in both fielding percentage and double plays five times, and he also led his position in assists six times. Later, when he moved to shortstop, he again led the league in both assists and double plays.
His career was shortened by a knee injury that he suffered in Paris during a world-tour organized by Albert Spalding. After he left organized baseball, his health declined rapidly. He contracted tuberculosis and ultimately died at the age of 36 of dropsy.Nicholas Young (executive)
Nicholas Ephraim Young (September 12, 1840 – October 31, 1916) was an American executive, manager and umpire in professional baseball who served as president of the National League from 1885 to 1902. Born in Amsterdam, New York at Johnson Hall, the estate of Sir William Johnson, he served in the Union Army during the Civil War, and later was employed in the U.S. Treasury Department. Young, an excellent cricket player as a young man, became a right fielder and official with a Washington, D.C. amateur baseball club. In 1871, he organized the meeting which resulted in the formation of the sport's first professional league, the National Association of Professional Baseball Players; he was named league secretary, managed the Washington team from 1871–1873, and also served as a league umpire.
When the National League, baseball's first major league, was formed in 1876, Young was named secretary and treasurer, posts he continued to hold until leaving office as president in 1902. Although well-liked, his tenure was marked by a tendency to acquiesce to the desires of the most powerful NL owners; league play in the 1890s increasingly tended toward rowdyism and violence on the field, and labor disputes resulted in the single year of the Players' League. Young also oversaw the NL's merger with the American Association after the 1891 season. When the American League claimed major league status in 1901, many star players and top umpires jumped to the new league after tiring of the NL's style. Resulting disputes between NL owners necessitated a change at the league level, and both Young and rival candidate Albert Spalding had to withdraw their names from consideration in the contest for the presidency. Young returned to his post with the Treasury Department; he died at age 76 in Washington.O. P. Caylor
Oliver Perry Caylor (December 14, 1849 – October 19, 1897) was an American baseball newspaper columnist for The Cincinnati Enquirer and the Cincinnati Commercial before becoming one of the principal figures in the founding of the American Association in 1881 as well as the catalyst in the formation of the modern-day Cincinnati Reds.
Caylor was also a manager for the Cincinnati Red Stockings of the American Association, succeeding the original manager, Pop Snyder. His stint with the team was mixed, since he finished in second place in his 1885 debut season, but the following year, he finished with a losing record (65–73) and in fifth place. Caylor resigned after the 1886 season due in large part to his combative nature that put him at odds with the press and new club ownership.
Caylor moved to Philadelphia where he began writing for the Sporting Life. The New York Metropolitans then hired him as their manager on June 11, 1887, with Caylor inheriting a team with a 9–28 record. He was fired in the off-season by new owner Charlie Byrne after finishing the season with a dismal 35–60 record and a seventh-place finish. Caylor's career as a manager was over with an overall managerial record of 163–182 (.472 winning percentage).
Caylor moved to Carthage, Missouri, where he proceeded to start The Daily Democrat newspaper. In 1890, he would move back to New York City after being hired by Albert Spalding to be the editor for the New York Sporting Times.
Caylor died in Winona, Minnesota at age 47 and was buried in Dayton, Ohio, the city of his birth.Ross Barnes
Charles Roscoe Barnes (May 8, 1850 – February 5, 1915) was one of the stars of baseball's National Association (1871–75) and the early National League (1876–81), playing second base and shortstop. He played for the dominant Boston Red Stockings teams of the early 1870s, along with Albert Spalding, Cal McVey, George Wright, Harry Wright, Jim O'Rourke, and Deacon White. Despite playing for these star-studded teams, many claim that Ross was the most valuable to his teams.Spalding (company)
Spalding is an American sporting goods company founded by Albert Spalding in Chicago, Illinois in 1876. It is now headquartered in Bowling Green, Kentucky. The company specializes in the production of balls for many sports, but is best known for its basketballs. Spalding also makes a range of other products for baseball, soccer, softball, volleyball, and American football.Spalding (surname)
Spalding is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Albert Spalding (1850–1915), American baseball player and sporting goods manufacturer
Albert Spalding (violinist) (1888–1953), American composer and concert violinist
Baird T. Spalding (1872–1953), English-American author
Brian Spalding (1923–2016), English professor, physics
Burleigh F. Spalding (1853–1934), Chief Justice of North Dakota
Catherine Spalding (1793–1858), American Roman Catholic nun
Charles F. Spalding (Chuck Spalding, 1919–2000), American heir, political advisor, television screenwriter and investment banker
Dick Spalding, American soccer player
Douglas Spalding (1840–1877), English biologist
Esperanza Spalding (born 1984) American jazz bassist and singer
Esta Spalding (born 1966), Canadian author and poet
Georg Ludwig Spalding (1762–1811), German philologist
George Spalding (1836–1915), U.S. Representative from Michigan
Harriet Mabel Spalding (1862–1935), American poet, litterateur
Henry H. Spalding (1803–1843), U.S. Presbyterian missionary, established the Lapwai Mission in 1836 in what is now Idaho
J. Mark Spalding (born 1965), American Roman Catholic bishop
Johann Joachim Spalding (1714–1804), German Protestant theologian
John Spalding, the name of several people
Kim Spalding (1915–2000), American actor
Linda Spalding (born 1943), Canadian writer and editor
Mark Spalding (disambiguation), the name of several people
Martin John Spalding (1810–1872), bishop of Baltimore
Phil Spalding (born 1957), English bass player
Silsby Spalding (1886–1949), American businessman and politician; the first Mayor of Beverly Hills, California
Solomon Spalding (1761–1816), American clergyman, businessman, and author
Susan Marr Spalding (1841–1908), American poet
Thomas Spalding (1774–1851), United States Representative from Georgia
Volney Morgan Spalding (1849–1918), American botanist
William Spalding (disambiguation), the name of several people
Presidents of the United States Olympic Committee
Italics denotes players who have been voted in but not yet inducted.