Albert II of Germany

Albert the Magnanimous KG (10 August 1397 – 27 October 1439) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death and member of the House of Habsburg. He was also King of Bohemia, elected King of Germany as Albert II, Duke of Luxembourg and, as Albert V, Archduke of Austria from 1404.[1]

Albert the Magnanimous
Albrecht II. von Habsburg
King of Hungary and Croatia
Reign18 December 1437 – 27 October 1439
Coronation1 January 1438, Székesfehérvár
PredecessorSigismund
SuccessorVladislaus I
King of Bohemia
Reign6 May 1438 – 27 October 1439
Coronation29 June 1438, Prague
PredecessorSigismund
SuccessorLadislaus the Posthumous
King-elect of Germany
Reign18 March 1438 – 27 October 1439
PredecessorSigismund
SuccessorFrederick III
Duke of Austria
Reign14 September 1404 – 27 October 1439
PredecessorAlbert IV
SuccessorLadislaus the Posthumous
Born10 August 1397
Vienna, Austria
Died27 October 1439 (aged 42)
Neszmély, Hungary
Burial
SpouseElizabeth of Luxembourg
IssueAnne, Duchess of Luxembourg
Elisabeth, Queen of Poland
Ladislas the Posthumous
HouseHabsburg
FatherAlbert IV, Duke of Austria
MotherJoanna Sophia of Bavaria
ReligionRoman Catholic

Biography

Albert was born in Vienna as the son of Albert IV, Duke of Austria, and Joanna Sophia of Bavaria.

He succeeded to the Duchy of Austria at the age of seven on his father's death in 1404. His uncle Duke William of Inner Austria, then head of the rivaling Leopoldinian line, served as regent for his nephew, followed by his brothers Leopold IV and Ernest the Iron in 1406. The quarrels between the brothers and their continued attempts to gain control over the Albertinian territories led to civil war-like conditions. Nevertheless, Albert, having received a good education, undertook the government of Austria proper on the occasion of Leopold's death in 1411 and succeeded, with the aid of his advisers, in ridding the duchy of the evils which had arisen during his minority.[2]

In 1422 Albert married Elisabeth of Luxemburg, the daughter and heiress of the King Sigismund of Hungary (later also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia), and his second wife, the Slovenian noblewoman Barbara of Celje.[3] Besides Hungary, Albert's marriage brought him claims to several Slavic kingdoms and principalities as well.

Albert assisted his father-in-law Sigismund in his campaigns against the Hussites, involving the Austrian duchy in the Hussite Wars. In return Sigismund designated him as his successor and granted him the title of a Margrave of Moravia in 1423. The Austrian lands were devastated several times and Albert also participated in the 1431 Battle of Domažlice where the Imperial troops suffered an embarrassing defeat.

When Sigismund died in 1437, Albert was crowned king of Hungary on 1 January 1438, and just as his predecessor did, he moved his court to the Hungarian Kingdom from where he later oversaw his other domains. Although crowned king of Bohemia six months after ascending to the Hungarian throne, he was unable to obtain possession of the country. He was engaged in warfare with the Bohemians and their Polish allies, when on 18 March 1438, he was chosen "King of the Romans" at Frankfurt, an honour which he does not appear to have sought.[4] He was never crowned as Holy Roman Emperor.

Afterwards engaged in defending Hungary against the attacks of the Turks, he died on 27 October 1439 at Neszmély and was buried at Székesfehérvár. Albert was an energetic and warlike prince, whose short reign as a triple king gave great promise of usefulness for the Holy Roman Empire.[2] Until its final dissolution in 1806 the House of Habsburg remained the ruling dynasty.[4]

Expulsion of the Jews

Though the Jews in the Austrian duchy had been subject to local persecutions during the 13th and 14th century, their position remained relatively safe. Jewish communities prospered in several towns like Krems or the area around the Judenplatz at Vienna. During the confusion after the death of Duke Albert IV in 1404 their situation worsened sharply, culminating in the blaze of the Vienna synagogue on 5 November 1406, followed by riots and lootings.

When Albert V came of age in 1411 and interfered in the Hussite Wars, he repeatedly established new taxes imposed on the Jewish community to finance his campaigns. On the other hand, after the Hussites had devastated the duchy, the Austrian Jews were accused of collaboration and arms trade in favour of the enemies. The accusations of a host desecration at Krems in 1420 gave Albert pretext for the destruction of the Jewish community.

According to the 1463 Chronica Austriae by chronicler Thomas Ebendorfer the duke on 23 May 1420, at the behest of the Church, ordered the imprisonment and forcible conversion of the Jews. Those that had not converted or escaped were sent off in boats down the Danube, while wealthy Jews remained under arrest, several of them tortured and stripped of their property. The forced baptism of Jewish children was stopped on intervention by Pope Martin V. On 12 March 1421 Albert sentenced the remaining Jews to death. 92 men and 120 women were burned at the stake south of the Vienna city walls on 12 March 1421. The Jews were placed under an "eternal ban" and their synagogue was demolished. The persecutions in several Austrian towns are explicitly described in a 16th-century script called Vienna Geserah.

Full title

CoA Albert II of Habsburg (Variant)
Coat of Arms

Full titulature Albert possessed went as follows: Albert, by the grace of God elected King of the Romans, always August, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, elected King of Bohemia, duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, margrave of Moravia, Lord of the Wendish March and Port Naon, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrete and Kyburg, etc. Margrave of Burgau and landgrave of Alsace.

In practise he often used a shorter version: Albert, by the grace of God elected King of the Romans, always August, King of Hungary, Dalmatia and Croatia, etc. elected King of Bohemia, duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, Margrave of Moravia and Count of Tyrol, etc.

Family

Children

His children with Elisabeth of Bohemia were:

Ancestors

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Albert II (Holy Roman emperor) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  2. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Albert II." . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 496. Endnote: see W. Altmann, Die Wahl Albrecht II. zum römische Könige (Berlin, 1886).
  3. ^ a b Jackson-Laufer 1999, p. 130.
  4. ^ a b Setton 1978, p. 57.

References

  • Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO.
  • Setton, Kenneth M. (1978). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The Fifteenth Century. 2. The American Philosophical Society.

External links

Albert II of Germany
Born: 10 August 1397  Died: 27 October 1439
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Sigismund
King of Hungary and Croatia
1437–39
Succeeded by
Ladislaus V
Succeeded by
Vladislaus I
German King
(formally King of the Romans)
1438–39
Succeeded by
Frederick III
King of Bohemia
1438–39
Vacant
Title next held by
Ladislaus
Preceded by
Albert IV
Archduke of Austria
1404–39
1397

Year 1397 (MCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1438 Imperial election

The imperial election of 1438 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Frankfurt on March 18.

1439

Year 1439 (MCDXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1440 Imperial election

The imperial election of 1440 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Frankfurt on February 2.

Anna of Hesse

Anna of Hesse (26 October 1529, Kassel – 10 July 1591, Meisenheim) was a princess of Hesse by birth and marriage Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken.

Anne of Austria, Landgravine of Thuringia

Anne of Bohemia and Austria (12 April 1432 – 13 November 1462) was a Duchess of Luxembourg in her own right and, as a consort, Landgravine of Thuringia and of Saxony.

She was the eldest daughter of Albert of Austria, the future Emperor-Elect and Elisabeth, queen of Bohemia, the sole descendant of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor.

Her posthumous brother Ladislaus, Duke of Austria (1440–57) succeeded, very underage, as king of Bohemia and later also as king of Hungary. Anne also had a younger sister, Elisabeth, who was to become later a queen of Poland and grand duchess of Lithuania.

On 2 June 1446 the young Anne was married to William "the Brave" of Saxony (1425–82), Landgrave of Thuringia, a younger son of Frederick I "the Warlike" of Saxony.

In right of Anne, William became Duke of Luxembourg from 1457 when Anne's brother Ladislaus died childless. Though, their rights to the land were disputed by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1469, William concluded that the possession's keeping was untenable against Burgundian attacks, and retreated to his Thuringian lands – that however took place when Anne was already dead.

They had two surviving daughters:

Margaret of Thuringia (1449 – 13 July 1501), who married John II, Elector of Brandenburg, and whose direct main heirs have been Electors of Brandenburg, then Kings of Prussia, and then German Emperors.

Katharina of Thuringia (1453 – 10 July 1534), who married Duke Henry II of Münsterberg and who has surviving descendants, mainly among Bohemian high nobility.

Barbara Jagiellon

Barbara Jagiellon (15 July 1478 – 15 February 1534), was a Polish princess member of the Jagiellonian dynasty and by marriage Duchess of Saxony.

Born in Sandomierz, she was the sixth daughter of King Casimir IV of Poland and Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. She was named after her great-grandmother, Barbara of Cilli, Holy Roman Empress.

Barbara of Cilli

Barbara of Cilli (1392 – 11 July 1451) was the Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. She was actively involved in politics and economy of her times, independently administering large feudal fiefdoms and taxes, and was instrumental in creating the famous royal Order of the Dragon. She served as the regent of Hungarian kingdom in the absence of her husband four times: in 1412, 1414, 1416, and 1418.

Conrad IV of Bussnang

Conrad IV of Bussnang or of Bußlingen (died 12 March 1471, Rufach) was a 15th-century Roman Catholic clergyman. He was prince-bishop of Strasbourg from 1439, under emperor Albert II of Germany, pope Eugene IV and his metropolitan bishop Dietrich Schenk von Erbach, bishop of Mainz.

Elizabeth of Austria (1436–1505)

Elizabeth of Austria (German: Elisabeth, Polish: Elżbieta Rakuszanka; Lithuanian: Elžbieta Habsburgaitė; c. 1436 – 30 August 1505) was the wife of King Casimir IV of Poland and thus Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania. Orphaned at an early age, she spent her childhood in the court of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. As one of the three surviving grandchildren of Emperor Sigismund, she had a strong claim to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia. That made her an attractive bride for a Polish prince. The Polish nobility, seeking to increase Polish influence in Hungary and Bohemia, pursued marriage with Elizabeth since she was born and finally succeeded in 1454. Her marriage to Casimir was one of the most successful royal marriages in Poland. She gave birth to thirteen children, eleven of whom survived to adulthood. Four of her sons were crowned as kings.

Expulsions and exoduses of Jews

In Jewish history, Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions and have fled from areas after experiencing ostracism and threats of various kinds by various local authorities seeking refuge in other countries.

The Land of Israel was always regarded by Jews as the Jewish homeland. After its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel adopted the 1950 Law of Return restoring Israel as the Jewish homeland and making it the place of refuge for Jewish refugees at the time and into the future. This law was intended to encourage Jews to return to their homeland in Israel.

Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death. He was the first emperor of the House of Habsburg, and the fourth member of the House of Habsburg to be elected King of Germany after Rudolf I of Germany, Albert I in the 13th century and his predecessor Albert II of Germany. He was the penultimate emperor to be crowned by the Pope, and the last to be crowned in Rome.

Prior to his imperial coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola from 1424, and also acted as regent over the Duchy of Austria (as Frederick V) from 1439. He was elected and crowned King of Germany (as Frederick IV) in 1440. He was the longest-reigning German monarch when in 1493, after ruling his domains for more than 53 years, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I.

During his reign, Frederick concentrated on re-uniting the Habsburg "hereditary lands" of Austria and took a lesser interest in Imperial affairs. Nevertheless, by his dynastic entitlement to Hungary as well as by the Burgundian inheritance, he laid the foundations for the later Habsburg Empire. Mocked as "Arch-Sleepyhead of the Holy Roman Empire" (German: Erzschlafmütze) during his lifetime, he is today increasingly seen as an efficient ruler.

Gerhard VII, Duke of Jülich-Berg

Gerhard VII, Duke of Jülich-Berg (c. 1416 – 19 August 1475) was the son of William VIII of Jülich, Count of Ravensberg and Adelheid of Tecklenburg. Gerhard was the second duke of the combined Duchy of Jülich-Berg but the 7th Gerhard in the House of Jülich.Upon his father's death in 1428, Gerhard became Count of Ravensberg. In 1437, his uncle Adolf died without heirs and Gerhard inherited his title as Duke of Jülich-Berg. Gerhard continued his uncle's fight for the dukedom of Guelders, supported by King Albert II of Germany. In 1444 he won the Battle of Linnich but was unable to prevail in his fight for Guelders and ultimately sold his claim to Burgundy and acquired Blankenheim-Löwenberg and Heinsberg from Guelders. He was increasingly unable to govern his territories after 1461. His spouse Sophie of Saxe-Lauenburg then wielded regency for him.

Hackinger

Hackinger, or von Hacking, is the name of an old Austrian noble family (ritter or knight).

The earliest documented use of the name was by Marcwardus de Hakkingin in 1156, a follower of the House of Babenberg, who named himself after the town of Hacking, which is now part of Vienna. It was also noted that the family was exceptionally large; over 100 members of the knighthood have been documented at the monastery in Klosterneuburg. Another early member was referenced in 1168 as Gerungus de Hakeing.

Their origins prior to this is unknown, except that they had various landholdings and fiefdoms in the central Vienna valley (Wiental). Since the offspring of the Hackinger family also carried the title, indicates this was a hereditary line of knights.

The family would also construct the fortress of Hacking (Veste Hacking) in the middle of the 13th century due to its strategic location. Hacking was the seat of this knightly family until the 13th century when the Russbachers purchased the land. Where the family seat moved at this time is unknown.

Around, 1263, under Ottokar II of Bohemia, Tiemo von Russbach, son of Wernard von Russbach, changes his name to Tiemo von Hacking. This is the same year he took ownership of Hacking. His wife also takes on the name of Agnes von Hacking. Tiemo and his brother Gundaker would also use von Hacking as late as 1293. This is the last time this specific family line can be found in historical sources, and may have ended here or reverted to the Russbach name. Regardless, this newer Hackinger line had no relation to the older Hackinger line.

The von Hacking family was linked by marriage with the Greiff family through Elisabeth von Hacking, daughter of Heinrich von Hacking, who married Otto Grief. The Greiffs were known to be a very wealthy Viennese family, also knights. There was also a very close connection with the Burggrafen (burgraves) von Gars the depth of which is unknown. All that is known is that Erkenbert von Gars expresses a very close connection with the von Hacking family.

Between the 14th and 16th century records indicate numerous properties and land rights owned by the family. These lands include areas such as Auhof, Heiligenkreuz, Mauerbach, Schönbühel, Ranzenbach, Hilprechting, Hohenberg, Klammhof, Saag, Klosterneuburg, Uttendorf, and Ochsenburg. The most notable was Wilhelm von Hacking who owned several lands in upper Austria (Oberösterreich), many of which were given to him by Albert II of Germany (Archduke Albert V of Austria).

In 1451, Georg Hackinger helped form the Mailberger Bund at Mailberg Castle, an alliance against King Frederick III in a dispute over the rightful reign of Ladislaus the Posthumous.

The Hackinger name virtually vanishes from records until the 18th and 19th centuries, when it reappears with the greatest density in areas such as Austria (notably Upper Austria, Styria, and Burgenland) and Niederbayern, Germany. Names have also been found in Sopron, Hungary. The name continues to the present day in these areas.

The disappearance of the name from records in the 16th century is not unusual. During the period known as the Military Revolution (1550–1660), nobles gradually lost their role in raising and commanding private armies, as many nations created cohesive national armies. This was coupled with a loss of the socio-economic power of the nobility, owing to the economic changes of the Renaissance and the growing economic importance of the merchant classes, which increased still further during the Industrial Revolution. In countries where the nobility was the dominant class, rich city merchants came to be more influential than noblemen, and the latter sometimes sought inter-marriage with families of the former to maintain their noble lifestyles.

Today the Hackinger name is rare and highly concentrated in the specific areas mentioned previously, as such it is likely these are the offspring of the noble family.

Helene Kottanner

Helene Kottanner (née Wolfram; Hungarian: Kottanner Ilona or Kottanner Jánosné; c. 1400 – after 1470) was a Hungarian courtier and writer. Her last name is spelled variously as Kottanner, Kottanerin, or Kottannerin. She is primarily known to history as the author of memoirs about the years 1439 and 1440, when king Albert II of Germany died and his son Ladislaus the Posthumous was born. Kottanner, who dictated her life story in German, was a kammerfrau to Queen Elizabeth of Luxembourg (1409–1442). She also assisted Queen Elisabeth in a royal succession plot.

List of people known as the Magnanimous

The epithet the Magnanimous may refer to:

Albert II of Germany (1397-1439), King of Hungary, Bohemia, and Germany

Alfonso V of Aragon (1396-1458), King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica, Sicily, and Naples

Charles II, Count of Alençon (1297-1346)

John V of Portugal (1689-1750), King of Portugal and the Algarves

John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony (1503-1554), head of the Protestant Schmalkaldic League

Ladislaus of Naples (1377-1414), King of Naples

Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley (1271-1326)

Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1439-1471), also Prince of Lüneburg

Pedro II of Brazil (1825-1891), Emperor of Brazil

Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse (1504-1567), a leading champion of the Protestant Reformation

Lower Saxon Circle

The Lower Saxon Circle (German: Niedersächsischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. It covered much of the territory of the medieval Duchy of Saxony (except for Westphalia), and was originally called the Saxon Circle (German: Sächsischer Kreis) before later being better differentiated from the Upper Saxon Circle by the more specific name.

An unusual aspect of this circle was that, at various times, the kings of Denmark (in Holstein), Great Britain (in Hanover) and Sweden (in Bremen) were all Princes of a number of Imperial States.

Magdalena of Saxony

Magdalena of Saxony (7 March 1507 – 25 January 1534) was Margravine of Brandenburg, its "Electoral Princess", the Electoral equivalent of a crown princess.

She was the daughter of George the Bearded, Duke of Saxony and his wife Barbara. Magdalena's maternal grandparents were Kazimierz IV Jagiellon and his wife queen Elisabeth of Austria, daughter of Albert II of Germany.

She was a granddaughter of the Elisabeth aforementioned,mother of the Jagiellonians, queen of Poland, who had claimed the Duchy of Luxembourg in 1460s as being the younger daughter of the last Luxembourg heiress Elisabeth of Luxembourg, Queen of Bohemia. Though by no means an heiress of her grandmother, she was intended to wed the heir of her grandmother's older sister. Joachim (1505–1571), the future elector of Brandenburg, was the eldest son and heir of their current claimant of Luxembourg, Joachim I, Elector of Brandenburg (1484–1535), the eldest son and heir of Margaret of Thuringia (1449–1501), Dowager Electress of Brandenburg, herself the eldest daughter and heiress of Anna, Duchess of Luxembourg and William of Saxony, Landgrave of Thuringia.

Magdalena was thus married, at Dresden, on 6 November 1524, to her second cousin's son Joachim Hector, the future Elector of Brandenburg. Their son was John George, another future Elector of Brandenburg. After Magdalena's death which occurred well before Joachim ascended the electorate, Joachim II Hector married Hedwig Jagiellon, daughter of King Sigismund I of Poland.

Ancestors of Albert II of Germany
16. Albert I, King of the Romans
8. Albert II, Duke of Austria
17. Elisabeth of Carinthia
4. Albert III, Duke of Austria
18. Ulrich III, Count of Pfirt
9. Joanna of Pfirt
19. Joanna of Burgundy
2. Albert IV, Duke of Austria
20. John II, Burgrave of Nuremberg
10. Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg
21. Elisabeth of Henneberg-Schleusingen
5. Beatrice of Nuremberg
22. Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen
11. Elisabeth of Meissen
23. Matilda of Bavaria
1. Albert II, King of the Romans
24. Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
12. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
25. Matilda of Habsburg
6. Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
26. William I, Count of Hainaut
13. Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut
27. Joan of Valois
3. Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
28. Bolesław III, Duke of Legnica
14. Louis I, Duke of Brieg
29. Margaret of Bohemia
7. Margaret of Brieg
30. Henry IV, Duke of Głogów
15. Agnes of Głogów
31. Matilda of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
Přemyslid
Non-dynastic
Luxembourg
Habsburg
Non-dynastic
Jagiellonian
Habsburg
Habsburg-Lorraine
House of Árpád
House of Přemysl
House of Wittelsbach
Capetian House of Anjou
House of Luxembourg
House of Habsburg
House of Jagiellon
House of Hunyadi
House of Jagiellon
House of Zápolya
House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
East Francia within the
Carolingian Empire (843–911)
East Francia (911–962)
Kingdom of Germany within the
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)
German Confederation (1815–1848)
German Empire (1848/1849)
German Confederation (1850–1866)
North German Confederation (1867–1871)
German Empire (1871–1918)

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