Albert I (13 November 1848 – 26 June 1922) was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 10 September 1889 until his death. He devoted much of his life to oceanography. Alongside his expeditions, Albert I made reforms on political, economic and social levels, bestowing a constitution on the Principality in 1911.
|Prince of Monaco|
|Reign||10 September 1889 – 26 June 1922|
|Born||13 November 1848|
|Died||26 June 1922 (aged 73)|
Lady Mary Hamilton
(m. 1869; annulled 1880)
(m. 1889; separated 1902)
|Issue||Louis II, Prince of Monaco|
|Father||Charles III, Prince of Monaco|
|Mother||Antoinette de Mérode|
Born Albert Honoré Charles Grimaldi on 13 November 1848 in Paris, France, the son of Prince Charles III (1818–1889), and Countess Antoinette de Mérode-Westerloo (1828–1864), a Belgian noblewoman, maternal aunt of Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Princess della Cisterna, Duchess consort of Aosta and Queen consort of Spain.
As a young man, Prince Albert served in the Spanish Navy, during the Franco-Prussian War, he joined the French Navy where he was awarded the Legion of Honor. In addition to his interest in oceanographic studies, Albert had a keen interest in the origins of man and in Paris, he founded the "Institute for Human Paleontology" that was responsible for a number of archeological digs. The "Grimaldi Man" found in the Baousse-Rousse cave was named in his honour. Albert's intellectual achievements gained him worldwide recognition and in 1909, the British Academy of Science made him a member.
On 21 September 1869 at the Château de Marchais (which is still in the possession of the Grimaldi family today) in Champagne, Prince Albert was married to Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton (1850–1922), of Lanarkshire, Scotland, a daughter of the 11th Duke of Hamilton and his wife, Princess Marie of Baden. The couple met for the first time in August 1869 at a ball hosted by the Emperor and Empress of France; their marriage had been arranged by Albert's grandmother Caroline.
Caroline had tried to make a match between Albert and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the first cousin of Queen Victoria, and sought the help of Napoléon III (Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte) and his wife, Empress Eugénie. The Emperor convinced Caroline that Queen Victoria would never allow a relative of hers to marry into a family who were making a living out of gambling. He then suggested Mary, his third cousin and sister of his good friend, the 12th Duke of Hamilton, as a suitable alternative. Mary was a granddaughter of Charles, Grand Duke of Baden and related by blood to the French Imperial family through her maternal grandmother Stéphanie de Beauharnais, Emperor Napoléon I's adopted daughter and second cousin of Napoléon III's mother, Hortense de Beauharnais. The Hamiltons were well aware of the extent of Monaco's estate, which was no bigger than theirs, but were sufficiently impressed by its status as an independent principality. The couple married at Château de Marchais on 21 September 1869.
Within a year of their marriage, the couple's only child (Louis) was born, but Mary, from the hills of Scotland, disliked Monaco and everything Mediterranean. While Albert was away fighting in the Franco-Prussian war, she left Monaco permanently. The couple divorced and their marriage was annulled by the Church on 3 January 1880, although a special provision was made by the Vatican to allow Louis to remain legitimate in the eyes of the Church. Civilly, the marriage was dissolved on 28 July 1880 by the Order of Prince Charles III. That same year, the former Princess of Monaco remarried in Florence, Italy, to a Hungarian nobleman, Prince Tassilo Festetics von Tolna.
On 10 September 1889, Albert ascended the throne of Monaco on the death of his father. That same year in Paris, on 30 October, he married the Dowager Duchess de Richelieu, née Marie Alice Heine (1858–1925). The American daughter of a New Orleans building contractor of German-Jewish descent, Alice Heine had married the Duc de Richelieu but had been widowed by age 21 and left with a young son, Armand. Her marriage to Prince Albert proved an equal blessing for him and the tiny principality of Monaco, since Alice brought a strong business acumen, well in advance of her youth. Having helped put her husband's principality on a sound financial footing, she would devote her energies to making Monaco one of Europe's great cultural centers, with an opera, theater, and a ballet under the direction of the famed Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev.
Despite the initial success of the marriage of Prince Albert and Princess Alice, in 1902, they separated legally, without issue, though did not divorce. According to Anne Edwards' book The Grimaldis of Monaco, this was due to the Princess's friendship with the composer Isidore de Lara. By the same token, the courtesan Caroline Otero, La Belle Otero, who had served him as a high class prostitute between 1893 and 1897, recalled Albert fondly in her memoirs and claimed that he was not a virile man and suffered from erection difficulty. Princess Alice had La Belle Otero banned from the province in 1897 for being seen with her husband.
In March 1910, there were mass protests against his rule. The Monegasque demanded a constitution and a parliament to rein in the absolute monarch or else they would overthrow him and establish a republic. They were dissatisfied about French domination of the principality's politics and economy. There was severe unemployment as the country lacked factories and farmland and the casinos did not allow citizens to work there. On 5 January 1911, Prince Albert I granted Monaco a constitution, but the document had little real meaning in terms of reducing autocratic rule and was soon suspended by the Prince when World War I broke out. Also in 1911, Prince Albert created the Monte Carlo Rally, an automobile race designed to draw tourists to Monaco and the Casino.
Despite his military service, or perhaps because of it, the Prince became a pacifist, establishing the International Institute of Peace in Monaco as a place to develop a peaceful settlement for conflict through arbitration. In the tension-filled times leading up to World War I, Prince Albert made numerous attempts to dissuade Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II from war.
When war came, Prince Albert could not avoid becoming involved. In one incident, he even wrote personally to the Kaiser in an effort to ameliorate the consequences of Gen. Karl von Bülow's wrath. Without the Prince's intervention, the French villages of Sissonne and Marchais would have been destroyed. In the "Great War to End All Wars," Monaco declared its neutrality, but in fact, provided the Allied forces with hospitals, convalescent centers, and soldiers, including Prince Albert's only son, Louis.
Albert died on 26 June 1922 in Paris, France and was succeeded by his son, Louis II.
Prince Albert I of Monaco devoted much of his life to the study of the sea and oceans. At only 22 years old, he embarked on a career in the then relatively new science of oceanography. Understanding the importance of the relationship between living creatures and their environment, he devised a number of techniques and instruments for measurement and exploration. Albert I was also the “instigator and promulgator” of the oceanographic science he contributed to create. He founded the Oceanographic Institute Foundation Albert I, Prince of Monaco is a private foundation recognized of public utility, established in 1906. It has two buildings: The Oceanographic Institute of Paris, now renamed Ocean House, and what became the world-renowned Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. This includes an aquarium, a museum, and a library, with research facilities in Paris.
He owned four, increasingly impressive research yachts, Hirondelle, Princesse Alice, Princesse Alice II and Hirondelle II. Accompanied by some of the world's leading marine scientists, he travelled the length and breadth of the Mediterranean, making numerous oceanographic studies, maps and charts. In 1896, on an oceanographic survey of the Azores, he discovered the Princess Alice Bank.
From an early age, Prince Albert I of Monaco evidenced a strong fascination for the polar regions. In the years 1898-1907 he made four scientific cruises to Svalbard on his yacht Princesse Alice. His efforts are honored by the later naming of Albert I Land on Spitsbergen.
The first cruise in the summer of 1898 was an oceanographical and zoological reconnaissance, aimed mainly at adding to the collections of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco, for which the construction had just started.
On the second expedition, in 1899, the focus was on the hydrography and topography of Raudfjorden, on the north-western tip of Spitsbergen, of which a map was published. His efforts are acknowledged by the later naming of Albert I Land, which comprises the part of Spitsbergen west of Raudfjorden.
The third trip, in 1906, meteorology was added to the range of observations and surveys were pursued. The Prince also provided support for two other expeditions, that of the Scotsman, William Bruce, to Prins Karls Forland, and that of the Norwegian, Gunnar Isachsen, to northwestern Spitsbergen. His funding of the latter lead to regular Norwegian scientific expeditions on Svalbard, and in 1928 the foundation of the Norwegian Polar Institute.
The Prince's fourth expedition in 1907, was aimed at completing the results from the previous summer. Prince Albert also lent his support, either financially, or through gifts or loans of oceanographic instruments, to numerous Arctic and Antarctic explorers. Finally, he showed a keen interest in environmental protection, especially in Svalbard. This is demonstrated by his responses to a questionnaire that Hugo Conwentz, a German botanist sent him in 1912.
In 1918, the US National Academy of Sciences awarded Prince Albert its Alexander Agassiz Medal for his achievements. The Explorers Club elected Albert I to its highest category of membership — Honorary Member — in 1921. He was also awarded the Cullum Geographical Medal of the American Geographical Society. Prince Rainier of Monaco and the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans established the Prince Albert I Medal in the physical and chemical sciences of the oceans in his honor.
Albert I, Prince of Monaco
Cadet branch of the House of MatignonBorn: 13 November 1848 Died: 26 June 1922
| Prince of Monaco
| Hereditary Prince of Monaco
| Marquis of Baux|
|Titles of nobility|
Charles III of Monaco
| Duke of Valentinois
Louis II of Monaco
Albert I Land is the land area of the northwestern part of Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It is bordered by Haakon VII Land to the southeast. To the northeast lies Raudfjorden and its inner branch, Klinckowströmfjorden, to the southeast Krossfjorden and its inner branch, Lilliehöökfjorden, to the west and north the Arctic Ocean.
Albert I Land is the part of Spitsbergen that was first observed by Willem Barentz in 1596. Currently uninhabited, several geographical names stem from the history of whaling in the area during the 17th century. The area is named after Albert I, Prince of Monaco, in honor of his exploration of Spitsbergen, and in particular this area in 1898-1907.
The Hornemantoppen mountain is the highest peak in Albert I Land.Automobile Club de Monaco
The Automobile Club de Monaco is a motoring club based in Monaco. The club serves as the governing body for motorsport within Monaco, and organises the prestigious Monaco Grand Prix and Monte Carlo Rally. It is a member of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing Monaco as a mobility and sporting club.
Founded in 1890 as an association of cyclists, the Sport Vélocipédique Monégasque, the club began to incorporate motorists in 1907 and was renamed the Sport Vélocipédique et Automobile Monégasque. Alexandre Noghès, the SVAM's president, started planning the principality's first international motorsport event, the Monte Carlo Rally, at the behest of Albert I, Prince of Monaco. The rally would start at points across Europe, and converge on Monaco to finish. The club ceased to organise cycling events following the First World War and was renamed the Automobile Club de Monaco in 1925.The ACM applied to the AIACR (the forerunner to the FIA) to be upgraded from a regional French club to a full national member, but had their application refused because no motorsport event was held entirely within Monaco's borders. Antony Noghès, the son of the club's President, organised the inaugural Monaco Grand Prix in 1929 on a circuit around the streets of Monaco, and the ACM was promptly admitted to the AIACR. The Monaco Grand Prix was part of the European Championship in the 1930s, and was included in the inaugural Formula One World Championship in 1950. The Grand Prix has been held continuously since 1955, and despite minor modifications over the years, it is still largely run over the same circuit as the inaugural race in 1929.
The ACM also organises the Historic Grand Prix of Monaco, a series of races for historic Grand Prix cars held over the Circuit de Monaco, and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique classic rally. Other motorsport events held by the club include the Monaco ePrix and the Junior Monaco Kart Cup.Cape Monaco
Cape Monaco (64°43′S 64°18′W) is a cape which forms the southwest tip of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. Gossler Islands and Chukovezer Island are lying respectively 3 km west and 7.2 km north of the cape.
Cape Monaco was discovered by a German expedition in 1873–74, under Eduard Dallmann, but its relationship to Anvers Island was not known at that time. It was later charted by the Third French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–05, under Jean-Baptiste Charcot, and named by him for Albert I, Prince of Monaco, a patron of the expedition.Centre de la Mer et des Eaux
The Centre de la Mer et des Eaux was an aquarium and museum of marine life located in the 5th arrondissement in the building of the Institut Océanographique at 195, rue Saint-Jacques, Paris, France. It closed in November 2010.
The Institut Océanographique was established in 1906 by Albert I, Prince of Monaco, and inaugurated in 1911. In addition to research laboratories and amphitheaters, the institute contained the Centre de la Mer et des Eaux dedicated to educating the public about marine life and related environmental issues. Its displays presented aspects of oceanography and marine technology, as well as scale models, reconstructions of marine landscapes, and aquariums.
The center included a set of 6 aquariums, each containing from 500 to 4,000 litres (130 to 1,060 US gal) of seawater for a total volume of 15,000 litres (4,000 US gal), as follows:
Pool 1 - fish of the coral reef
Pool 2 - reef coral and fauna that live within it
Pool 3 - Brightly colored fish
Pool 4 - Small fish
Pool 5 - Clown fish and sea anemone
Pool 6 - The French Atlantic coast (shellfish, sea urchins, sea anemones, and starfish, in water chilled to 12 °C)An additional terrarium contained turtles given to the museum when they have become too large and aggressive for home cultivation. Special displays explained the richness of life in coastal and around hydrothermal vents, and illustrated the relationships between humans and four types of shellfish (scallop, oyster, cowry, and the nautilus).Jules Richard (oceanographer)
Jules Richard (18 November 1863 – 24 January 1945) was a French oceanographer and carcinologist, with a focus on copepods. He was for many years the assistant to Albert I, Prince of Monaco, served as director of the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco, and was a president of the Zoological Society of France.Louis II, Prince of Monaco
Louis II (12 July 1870 – 9 May 1949) was Prince of Monaco from 1922 to 1949.Louis Joubin
Louis Marie Adolphe Olivier Édouard Joubin (27 January 1861 in Épinal – 24 April 1935) was a professor at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris. He published works on nemerteans, chaetognatha, cephalopods, and other molluscs.He served as an assistant to Henri de Lacaze-Duthiers, subsequently becoming director of the laboratories at Banyuls-sur-Mer (1882) and Roscoff (1884). Later on, he became an instructor at the University of Rennes, and in 1903 succeeded Edmond Perrier as chaire des mollusques, des vers et des zoophytes at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (from 1917 onward his title was chaire des mollusques). In 1906 he was chosen by Albert I, Prince of Monaco to be in charge of instruction at the Institut océanographique.In 1905 he was named president of the Société zoologique de France. In 1920 he became a member of the Académie des Sciences.Joubin's squid (Joubiniteuthis portieri) is named for him, as is Scolymastra joubini, a hexactinellid sponge whose lifespan is purportedly 10,000 years.Louis Mayer (lawyer)
Louis Mayer (1868-1941) was a Monegasque lawyer. He was an advisor to Albert I, Prince of Monaco. He was also the executor of his will. He served on the boards of the Oceanographic Institute, which runs the Oceanographic Museum, and the Institute of Human Paleology.Louis Tinayre
Louis Tinayre (1861–1942) was a French illustrator and painter. He did panoramas and dioramas of Madagascar and paintings of Albert I, Prince of Monaco on his hunts around the world.Masques et bergamasques
Masques et bergamasques, Op. 112, is an orchestral suite by Gabriel Fauré. It was arranged by the composer from incidental music he provided for a theatrical entertainment commissioned for Albert I, Prince of Monaco in 1919. The original score contained eight numbers, including two songs for tenor, and a choral passage. These numbers were not included in the published suite, which has four movements.Mayerbreen
Mayerbreen is a glacier in Haakon VII Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The glacier has a length of about twelve kilometers. It originates from Neubauerfjellet, and debouches into the bay of Mayerbukta in Möllerfjorden. The glacier is named after Louis Benoit Joseph Mayer, counsellor of Albert I, Prince of Monaco. The mountain of Snødomen is located between the glaciers of Mayerbreen and Tinayrebreen.Mayerbukta
Mayerbukta is a bay in Haakon VII Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It is located at the eastern side of Möllerfjorden, and has a width of about 1.5 kilometers. The glacier of Mayerbreen debouches into the bay.
The bay is named after Louis Benoit Joseph Mayer, counsellor of Albert I, Prince of Monaco.Princess Marie Amelie of Baden
Princess Marie Amelie of Baden (Marie Amelie Elisabeth Caroline; 11 October 1817 – 17 October 1888) was the youngest daughter of Charles, Grand Duke of Baden and Stéphanie de Beauharnais,. In 1843, she married the Scottish nobleman William Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale. They became the Duke and Duchess of Hamilton upon the death of William's father in 1852. Their only daughter Mary married the future Albert I, Prince of Monaco and was the mother of Louis II.
Princess Marie was a cousin of Napoleon III of France, as well as a friend of his and his wife's, Empress Eugénie. She often accompanied the couple at official events, and provided them lodging when they visited her outside France.Raoul Gunsbourg
Raoul Samuel Gunsbourg (born January 6, 1860 in Bucharest - died May 31, 1955 in Monte Carlo) was a Jewish-Romania-born opera director, impresario, composer and writer. Gunsbourg is best known for being the longest-serving director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, where his career spanned almost six decades.
Raoul Gunsbourg acquired his musical education and its comprehensive knowledge in language and literature as a self-taught person. He attended Medical School in Bucharest which he finished in 1875. In 1877-78 he served as a medic in the Russian army during the Russian-Turkish war. In 1881-83 he created and managed the Gunsbourg's French Opera Stage in Moscow and St. Petersburg. In Moscow Gunsbourg met German composer Richard Wagner. After returning to France, Gunsbourg directed the Grand Théâtre de Lille during the 1888/89 season and the Opéra de Nice in 1889-91.
In 1892, on recommendation by czar Alexander III of Russia, Gunsbourg was invited by Princess Alice, an American wife of Albert I, Prince of Monaco, to serve as the director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo. Empowered by Princess Alice's encouragement and support, Gunsbourg transformed the Opéra de Monte-Carlo into a world-class cultural venue. He was the first opera director to stage Berlioz's La damnation de Faust, which was considered at that time so far more as an oratorio than opera, in his theatre on February 18, 1893.
Gunsbourg's work in Monte Carlo was briefly interrupted during World War II. Assisted by members of the French Resistance, Gunsbourg fled to nearby Switzerland, escaping arrest and possible execution by the Nazis who occupied Monaco in 1943 and began the deportation of the Jewish population. After the war was over, Gunsbourg returned to Monaco where he continued directing the Opéra de Monte-Carlo until 1951.Robert Calcagno
Robert Calcagno born 26 June 1960 is a Monegasque politician and leader who is CEO of the Oceanographic Institute Foundation Albert I, Prince of Monaco.
Robert Calcagno has held ministerial posts in the government of the Principality of Monaco between 2006 and 2009. He now leads the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco and the Maison des océans in Paris
His commitment to the protection of the oceans, to a better balance between Humankind and Nature and, on a broader level, his involvement in the economic, social and international life of the Principality of Monaco, have made him one of the key players in the policies of H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco.Suzanne Kohn
Suzanne Kohn (née Netre, 18 September 1895 – 8 March 1945) was a French Jew who died in a Nazi concentration camp.Kohn was born into one of France's most prominent Jewish families; her father owned a tobacco company, her grandparents were personal friends of Albert I, Prince of Monaco and she grew up in an environment of wealth and elegance.Kohn's husband, Armand Kohn, was Secretary-General of the Rothschild Foundation in Paris from 1940. The couple had four children: Antoinette, Rose-Marie, Philippe and Georges André. In 1942 Kohn and her children converted to Catholicism to avoid the persecution of Jews by the Nazi regime, however in July 1944 the family was arrested and imprisoned in the Drancy internment camp in Paris. Kohn and her daughter Antoinette were taken to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they both died.Tasziló Festetics
Prince Tasziló Festetics de Tolna (5 May 1850 – 4 May 1933) was a member of the Hungarian noble family of Festetics. He was born in Vienna, the son of Count György Festetics de Tolna, who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary from 1867 to 1871, and Countess Eugénia Erdõdy de Monyorókerék et Monoszló.
In 1880 Festetics married Lady Mary Victoria Douglas-Hamilton (11 December 1850, Hamilton Palace – 14 May 1922, Budapest), former wife of Albert I, Prince of Monaco. The couple had four children:
Countess Mária Matild Georgina Festetics de Tolna (24 May 1881, Baden-Baden – 2 March 1953, Strobl am Wolfgangsee), who married Prince Karl Emil von Fürstenberg (grandfather Princess Ira von Fürstenberg, Prince Egon von Fürstenberg, and Prince Karl von Schwarzenberg).
Prince György Tasziló József Festetics de Tolna (4 September 1882, Baden-Baden – 4 August 1941, Keszthely); who married Countess Marie Franziska von Haugwitz.
Countess Alexandra Olga Eugénia Festetics de Tolna (1 March 1884, Baden-Baden – 23 April 1963, Vienna); who was married first to Prince Karl von Windisch-Grätz (brother-in-law of Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria) and later to Prince Erwin zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst,
Countess Karola Friderika Mária Festetics de Tolna (17 January 1888, Vienna — 21 January 1951, Strobl); who was married to Baron Oskar Gautsch von Frankenthurn, son of Baron Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn, Minister-President of Cisleithania.On 21 June 1911 Count Tasziló Festetics de Tolna was made a Prince with the style Serene Highness (Durchlaucht) by King Francis Joseph I of Hungary. He died at Festetics Palace, Keszthely, the day before his 83rd birthday. His grandson Georg (born 1940) is the current head of the house.William Hamilton, 11th Duke of Hamilton
William Alexander Archibald Hamilton, 11th Duke of Hamilton and 8th Duke of Brandon (19 February 1811 – 8 July 1863) styled Earl of Angus before 1819 and Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale between 1819 and 1852, was a Scottish nobleman and the Premier Peer of Scotland.
He was the son of Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton and Susan Euphemia Beckford, daughter of English novelist William Beckford. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. He was Knight Marischal of Scotland from 1846 and Lord Lieutenant of Lanarkshire from 1852 until his death.
At the Mannheim Palace, on 23 February 1843, he married Princess Marie Amélie of Baden, daughter of the Grand Duke Charles of Baden and Stéphanie de Beauharnais, the adopted daughter of Napoleon I. After his marriage he lived chiefly in Paris and Baden, taking very little interest in British affairs. They had three children:
William Douglas-Hamilton, 12th Duke of Hamilton (1845–1895)
Lieutenant Charles George Douglas-Hamilton, 7th Earl of Selkirk (1847–1886), 11th Hussars
Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton (1850–1922), married firstly Albert I, Prince of Monaco, latterly to Tassilo Festetics de Tolna.Though he had married in 1843, the duke did not succeed to his title until 1852. In that year, he purchased the house located at 22 Arlington Street in St. James's, a district of the City of Westminster in central London from Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of Beaufort for £60,000. The duke lavished expenses on the house for approximately a decade, including installing iron firebacks with his coronet and motto. Upon his death, the house passed to his widow who sold it to Ivor Guest, 1st Baron Wimborne via auction in 1867.Îles du Prince-de-Monaco
Îles du Prince-de-Monaco is a small a group of islands belonging to the Kerguelen Islands and situated near the coast of Grande Terre, the principal island.
They are located in the Audierne bay around 0.5 kilometres (1,600 feet) from the Bourbonnais point. The two main isles of the group are separated by a narrow strait and on the widest of them an unnamed hill reaches an elevation of 99 metres (325 feet) above sea level, the highest point of the Îles du Prince-de-Monaco.
Their name was chosen by Raymond Rallier du Baty in 1908/1909 to honour Albert I, Prince of Monaco.
|Ancestors of Albert I, Prince of Monaco|
Generations are numbered from Honoré II, Prince of Monaco.
* prince by marriage