Albert Ellis (September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007) was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). He held MA and PhD degrees in clinical psychology from Columbia University and the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). He also founded and was the President of the New York City-based Albert Ellis Institute for decades. He is generally considered to be one of the originators of the cognitive revolutionary paradigm shift in psychotherapy and one of the founders of cognitive-behavioral therapies.
Based on a 1982 professional survey of US and Canadian psychologists, he was considered as the second most influential psychotherapist in history (Carl Rogers ranked first in the survey; Sigmund Freud was ranked third). Psychology Today noted, "No individual—not even Freud himself—has had a greater impact on modern psychotherapy."
|Born||September 27, 1913|
|Died||July 24, 2007 (aged 93)|
|Known for||Formulating and developing rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy|
|Awards||2003 award from the Association for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (UK), Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies 2005 Lifetime Achievement Award, Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies 1996 Outstanding Clinician Award, American Psychological Association 1985 award for Distinguished professional contributions to Applied Research, American Humanist Association 1971 award for "Humanist of the Year", New York State Psychological Association 2006 Lifetime Distinguished Service Award, American Counseling Association 1988 ACA Professional Development Award, National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists' Outstanding Contributions to CBT Award, American Psychological Association 2013 Award For Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology|
|Fields||Clinical psychology, philosophy and psychotherapy|
Ellis was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and raised in The Bronx borough of New York City from a young age. His paternal grandparents were Jewish immigrants from the Russian Empire , while his maternal grandfather originated from Galicia, Poland in Austria-Hungary. He was the eldest of three children. Ellis' father, Harry, was a broker, often away from home on business trips, who reportedly showed only a modicum of affection to his children. By his teenage years, his parents divorced, and he lived solely with his mother. 
In his autobiography, Ellis characterized his mother, Hattie, as a self-absorbed woman with a bipolar disorder. At times, according to Ellis, she was a "bustling chatterbox who never listened." She would expound on her strong opinions on most subjects, but rarely provided a factual basis for these views. Like his father, Ellis' mother was emotionally distant from her children. Ellis recounted that she was often sleeping when he left for school and usually not home when he returned. Instead of reporting feeling bitter, he took on the responsibility of caring for his siblings. He purchased an alarm clock with his own money and woke and dressed his younger brother and sister. When the Great Depression struck, all three children sought work to assist the family. Ellis was sickly as a child and suffered numerous health problems throughout his youth. At the age of five he was hospitalized with a kidney disease. He was also hospitalized with tonsillitis, which led to a severe streptococcal infection requiring emergency surgery. He reported that he had eight hospitalizations between the ages of five and seven, one of which lasted nearly a year. His parents provided little emotional support for him during these years, rarely visiting or consoling him. Ellis stated that he learned to confront his adversities as he had "developed a growing indifference to that dereliction". Illness was to follow Ellis throughout his life; at age 40 he developed diabetes.
Ellis had exaggerated fears of speaking in public and during his adolescence, he was extremely shy around women. At age 19, already showing signs of thinking like a cognitive-behavioral therapist, he forced himself to talk to 100 women in the Bronx Botanical Gardens over a period of a month. Even though he did not get a date, he reported that he desensitized himself to his fear of rejection by women.
Ellis entered the field of clinical psychology after first earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in business from what was then known as the City College of New York Downtown in 1934. He began a brief career in business, followed by one as a writer. These endeavors took place during the Great Depression that began in 1929, and Ellis found that business was poor and had no success in publishing his fiction. Finding that he could write non-fiction well, Ellis researched and wrote on human sexuality. His lay counseling in this subject convinced him to seek a new career in clinical psychology.
In 1942, Ellis began his studies for a PhD in clinical psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University, which trained psychologists mostly in psychoanalysis. He completed his Master of Arts in clinical psychology from Teachers College in June 1943, and started a part-time private practice while still working on his PhD degree—possibly because there was no licensing of psychologists in New York at that time. Ellis began publishing articles even before receiving his PhD; in 1946 he wrote a critique of many widely used pencil-and-paper personality tests. He concluded that only the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory met the standards of a research-based instrument.
In 1947, he was awarded a PhD in Clinical Psychology at Columbia, and at that time Ellis had come to believe that psychoanalysis was the deepest and most effective form of therapy. Like most psychologists of that time, he was interested in the theories of Sigmund Freud. He sought additional training in psychoanalysis and then began to practice classical psychoanalysis. Shortly after receiving his PhD in 1947, Ellis began a Jungian analysis and program of supervision with Richard Hulbeck, a leading analyst at the Karen Horney Institute (whose own analyst had been Hermann Rorschach, the developer of the Rorschach inkblot test). At that time he taught at New York University, Rutgers University, and Pittsburg State University and held a couple of leading staff positions. At this time, Ellis' faith in psychoanalysis was gradually crumbling.
The writings of Karen Horney, Alfred Adler, Erich Fromm and Harry Stack Sullivan would be some of the influences in Ellis's thinking and played a role in shaping his psychological models. Ellis credits Alfred Korzybski, his book, Science and Sanity, and general semantics for starting him on the philosophical path for founding rational therapy. In addition, modern and ancient philosophy (particularly stoicism), and his own experiences heavily influenced his new theoretical developments to psychotherapy. Ellis acknowledged that his therapy was "by no means entirely new", as in particular Paul Charles Dubois's "rational persuasion" had prefigured some of its main principals; Ellis stated he had read him some years after inventing his therapy, but had studied Émile Coué since a young age.
From the late 1940s onwards, Ellis worked on rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT), and by January 1953 his break with psychoanalysis was complete, and he began calling himself a rational therapist. Ellis was now advocating a new more active and directive type of psychotherapy. In 1955, he presented rational therapy (RT). In RT, the therapist sought to help the client understand—and act on the understanding—that his personal philosophy contained beliefs that contributed to his own emotional pain. This new approach stressed actively working to change a client's self-defeating beliefs and behaviours by demonstrating their irrationality, self-defeatism and rigidity. Ellis believed that through rational analysis and cognitive reconstruction, people could understand their self-defeatingness in light of their core irrational beliefs and then develop more rational constructs.
In 1954, Ellis began teaching his new techniques to other therapists, and by 1957, he formally set forth the first cognitive behavior therapy by proposing that therapists help people adjust their thinking and behavior as the treatment for emotional and behavioral problems. Two years later, Ellis published How to Live with a Neurotic, which elaborated on his new method. In 1960, Ellis presented a paper on his new approach at the American Psychological Association (APA) convention in Chicago. There was mild interest, but few recognized that the paradigm set forth would become the zeitgeist within a generation. At that time, the prevailing interest in experimental psychology was behaviorism, while in clinical psychology it was the psychoanalytic schools of notables such as Freud, Jung, Adler, and Perls. Despite the fact that Ellis' approach emphasized cognitive, emotive, and behavioral methods, his strong cognitive emphasis provoked the psychotherapeutic establishment with the possible exception of the followers of Adler. Consequently, he was often received with significant hostility at professional conferences and in print. He regularly held seminars where he would bring a participant up on stage and treat them. His own therapeutical style was famed for often being delivered in a rough, confrontational style; however, it should not be confused with his rational-emotive and cognitive-behavioral therapy school that is practiced by his students and followers in a large variety of therapeutic styles (e.g., often depending on client's personality, client's clinical problem, and evidence-based information regarding the appropriate intervention, but also including therapist's own preference).
Despite the relative slow adoption of his approach in the beginning, Ellis founded his own institute. The Institute for Rational Living was founded as a non-profit organization in 1959. By 1968, it was chartered by the New York State Board of Regents as a training institute and psychological clinic.
Ellis published his first major book on Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) in 1962. REBT is an active-directive, philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy, the aim of which is to resolve emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and to help people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives. REBT is seen as the first form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
In 1979 and during the next two decades Ellis focuses part of his research on behavioral integrity through applied experimental psychology, focusing on reliability, honesty and loyalty as psychosocial behavior. Organizational commitment as a cognitive norm, evaluating concretely through images developed in his Institute.
In his book Personality Theories developed with Mike Abrams and Lidia Dengelegi Abrams establish the opinions of evaluation of integrity understanding the reason of each personality can have a change in their attitude, reliability is the common factor of their samples taken and of the which great advances were obtained to look for a tool to work with the human mind.
By the 1960s, Ellis had come to be seen as one of the founders of the American sexual revolution. Especially in his earlier career, he was well known for his work as a sexologist and for his liberal humanistic, and in some camps controversial opinions on human sexuality. He also worked with noted zoologist and sex researcher Alfred Kinsey and explored in a number of books and articles the topic of human sexuality and love. Sex and love relations were his professional interests even from the beginning of his career. Norman Haire, in his preface to Ellis' 1952 book Sex Beliefs and Customs, applauded the work of the Society for the Prevention of Venereal Disease while he ridiculed its rival, the National Council for Combating Venereal Disease, who argued that preventive measures such as condoms would encourage vice: Haire called them "the Society for the Prevention of the Prevention of Venereal Disease".
In 1958, Ellis published his classic work Sex Without Guilt which came to be known for its advocacy of a liberal attitude towards sex. He contributed to Paul Krassner's magazine The Realist; among its articles, in 1964 he wrote if this be heresy... Is pornography harmful to children? In 1965, Ellis published a book entitled Homosexuality: Its Causes and Cure, which partly saw homosexuality as a pathology and therefore a condition to be cured. In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association reversed its position on homosexuality by declaring that it was not a mental disorder and thus not properly subject to cure, and in 1976, Ellis clarified his earlier views in Sex and the Liberated Man, expounding that some homosexual disturbed behaviors may be subject to treatment but, in most cases, that should not be attempted as homosexuality is not inherently good or evil, except from a religious viewpoint (See "Ellis and religion", below). Near the end of his life, he finally updated and re-wrote Sex Without Guilt in 2001 and released as Sex Without Guilt in the Twenty-First Century. In this book, he expounded and enhanced his humanistic view on sexual ethics and morality and dedicated a chapter on homosexuality to giving homosexuals advice and suggestion on how to more greatly enjoy and enhance their sexual love lives. While preserving some of the ideas about human sexuality from the original, the revision described his later humanistic opinions and ethical ideals as they had evolved in his academic work and practice.
In his original version of his book Sex Without Guilt, Ellis expressed the opinion that religious restrictions on sexual expression are often needless and harmful to emotional health. He also famously debated religious psychologists, including Orval Hobart Mowrer and Allen Bergin, over the proposition that religion often contributed to psychological distress. Because of his forthright espousal of a nontheistic humanism, he was recognized in 1971 as Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association. By 2003, he was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto. Ellis most recently described himself as a probabilistic atheist, meaning that while he acknowledged that he could not be completely certain there is no god, he believed the probability a god exists was so small that it was not worth his or anyone else's attention.
While Ellis' personal atheism and humanism remained consistent, his views about the role of religion in mental health changed over time. In early comments delivered at conventions and at his institute in New York City, Ellis overtly and often with characteristically acerbic delivery stated that devout religious beliefs and practices were harmful to mental health. In "The Case Against Religiosity", a 1980 pamphlet published by his New York institute, he offered an idiosyncratic definition of religiosity as any devout, dogmatic and demanding belief. He noted that religious codes and religious individuals often manifest religiosity, but added that devout, demanding religiosity is also obvious among many orthodox psychotherapists and psychoanalysts, devout political believers and aggressive atheists.
Ellis was careful to state that REBT was independent of his atheism, noting that many skilled REBT practitioners are religious, including some who are ordained ministers. In his later days, he significantly toned down his opposition to religion. While Ellis maintained his firm atheistic stance, proposing that thoughtful, probabilistic atheism was likely the most emotionally healthy approach to life, he acknowledged and agreed with survey evidence suggesting that belief in a loving God can also be psychologically healthy. Based on this later approach to religion, he reformulated his professional and personal view in one of his last books The Road to Tolerance, and he also co-authored a book, Counseling and Psychotherapy with Religious Persons: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Approach, with two religious psychologists, Stevan Lars Nielsen and W. Brad Johnson, describing principles for integrating religious material and beliefs with REBT during treatment of religious clients.
While many of his ideas were criticized during the 1950s and '60s by the psychotherapeutic establishment, his reputation grew immensely in the subsequent decades. From the 1960s on, his prominence was steadily growing as the cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) were gaining further theoretical and scientific ground. From then, CBT gradually became one of the most popular systems of psychotherapy in many countries, mainly due to the large body of rigorously conducted research that underpinned the work of the cognitive therapy school (a key part of the CBT family) founded by Aaron T. Beck. In the late 1960s, his institute launched a professional journal, and in the early 70s established "The Living School" for children between 6 and 13. The school provided a curriculum that incorporated the principles of RE(B)T. Despite its relative short life, interest groups generally expressed satisfaction with its programmer. Many schools of psychological thought became influenced by Albert Ellis, including Rational Behavior Therapy created by a student of his, Maxie Clarence Maultsby, Jr.. Ellis had such an impact that in a 1982 survey, American and Canadian clinical psychologists and counsellors ranked him ahead of Freud when asked to name the figure who had exerted the average influence on their field. Also in 1982, in an analysis of psychology journals published in the US it was found that Ellis was the most cited author after 1957. In 1985, the APA presented Dr. Ellis with its award for "distinguished professional contributions".
He held many important positions in many professional societies including the Division of Consulting Psychology of the APA, Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, American Association of Marital and Family Therapy, the American Academy of Psychotherapists and the American Association of Sex Educators, Counsellors, and Therapists. In addition Ellis also served as consulting or associate editor of many scientific journals. Many professional societies gave Ellis their highest professional and clinical awards.
In the mid-1990s, he renamed his psychotherapy and behavior change system rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). (It was originally known as rational therapy and then rational-emotive therapy.) This he did to stress the interrelated importance of cognition, emotion and behaviour in his therapeutic approach. In 1994, he also updated and revised his original, 1962 classic book, Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. During the remainder of his life, he continued developing the theory that cognition, emotion and behaviour are intertwined, and that a system for psychotherapy and behaviour change must involve all three.
Ellis's work extended into areas other than psychology, including education, politics, business and philosophy. He eventually became a prominent and confrontational social commenter and public speaker on a wide array of issues. During his career he publicly debated a vast number of people who represented opposing views to his; this included for example debates with psychologist Nathaniel Branden on Objectivism and psychiatrist Thomas Szasz on the topic of mental illness. On numerous occasions he critiqued opposing psychotherapeutic approaches, and questioned some of the doctrines in certain dogmatic religious systems, i.e.:spiritualism and mysticism.
From 1965 until the end of his life he led his famous Friday Night Workshops, in which he conducted therapy sessions with volunteers from the audience. The 1970s found him introducing his popular "rational humorous songs" which combined humorous lyrics with a rational self-help message set to a popular tune. Ellis also held workshops and seminars on mental health and psychotherapy all over the world until his 90s.
Until he fell ill at the age of 92 in 2006, Ellis typically worked at least 16 hours a day, writing books in longhand on legal tablets, visiting with clients, and teaching. On his 90th birthday in 2003, he received congratulatory messages from well-known public figures such as then-President George W. Bush, New York senators Charles Schumer and Hillary Clinton, former President Bill Clinton, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, and the Dalai Lama, who sent a silk scarf blessed for the occasion. In 2004, Ellis was taken ill with serious intestinal problems, which led to hospitalization and the removal of his large intestine. He returned to work after a few months of supportive care.
In 2005, he was removed from all professional duties and from the board of his own institute after a dispute over the management policies of the institute. Ellis was reinstated to the board in January 2006 after winning civil proceedings against the board members who removed him. On June 6, 2007, lawyers acting for Albert Ellis filed a suit against the Albert Ellis Institute in New York state court. The suit alleges a breach of a long-term contract with the AEI and sought recovery of the 45 East 65th Street property through the imposition of a constructive trust.
Despite his series of health issues and profound hearing loss, Ellis never stopped working with the assistance of his wife, Australian psychologist Debbie Joffe Ellis. In April 2006, Ellis was hospitalized with pneumonia, and spent more than a year shuttling between hospital and a rehabilitation facility. He eventually returned to his residence on the top floor of the Albert Ellis Institute where he died on July 24, 2007 in his wife's arms. Ellis had authored and co-authored more than 80 books and 1200 articles (including eight hundred scientific papers) during his lifetime. He died aged 93.
During his final years he worked on his only college textbook with longtime collaborator Mike Abrams with whom he co-authored 3 books along with several research articles and chapters, including the textbook Personality Theories: Critical Perspectives. Ellis' penultimate book was an autobiography entitled "All Out!" published by Prometheus Books in June 2010. The book was dedicated to and included contributions by his wife, Dr Debbie Joffe Ellis, to whom he entrusted the legacy of REBT. In early 2011, the book Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy by Albert and Debbie Joffe Ellis was released by the American Psychological Association. The book explains the essentials of the theory of REBT for students and practitioners of psychology as well as for the general public.
In eulogy of Albert Ellis, APA past president Frank Farley states:
Psychology has had only of a handful of legendary figures who not only command attention across much of the discipline but also receive high recognition from the public for their work. Albert Ellis was such a figure, known inside and outside of psychology for his astounding originality, his provocative ideas, and his provocative personality. He bestrode the practice of psychotherapy like a colossus…
In the opening ceremony of the 2013 American Psychological Association Convention, Ellis was posthumously awarded the APA Award For Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology. It highlights the profound and historic role played in the life and evolution of the fields of psychology and psychotherapy.
Fellow psychologists often criticized Ellis for his weak tone and for not offering any evidence to back his views on psychotherapy. In his obituary in the British newspaper The Guardian, it was noted that others, such as Aaron T. Beck, had conducted more rigorous testing than what Ellis was willing to undertake and were able to better advance cognitive therapy. His approach to treatment of severe depression was also criticized as suggesting simplistic things like "pull your socks up."
The Road To Tolerance (Prometheus Books, 2004) explains the philosophies underlying REBT - particularly an attitude of tolerance - and relates it to many religious, philosophical and social movements.
Most of the books Ellis wrote after inventing REBT had a strong autobiographical element. He used anecdotes from his personal life to explain how the insights of REBT occurred to him and how they helped him cope with personal problems such as shyness, anger and chronic illness. He also used anecdotes from client sessions to illustrate how his therapy worked. Two of Ellis last books were explicitly autobiographical. Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: It Works for Me -- It Can Work for You (Prometheus Books, 2004) recounts his early life and crises in an unusually candid way. It illustrates the way he handled his problems, at first through philosophy, and later through the application of his emerging therapeutic skills and insights. All Out!: An Autobiography (Prometheus Books, 2009) —published after his death—is a more traditional narrative of his life and work (though it also meant to be an inspirational story of the use of rational thinking in self-help).
Albert Ellis (1913–2007) was an American psychologist.
Albert Ellis may also refer to:
Albert Fuller Ellis (1869–1951), Australian prospector and administrator
Albert J. Ellis Airport, a public airport near Jacksonville, North Carolina, US
Albert Ellis (footballer) (1889–1961), English footballer
Albert Gallatin Ellis (1800–1885), politician, newspaper publisher and editor in Wisconsin, US
Albert H. Ellis, politician and farmer from OklahomaAlbert Ellis (footballer)
Albert Ellis (1889–1961) was an English footballer who played for Stoke.Albert Fuller Ellis
Sir Albert Fuller Ellis (28 August 1869 – 11 July 1951) was a prospector in the Pacific. He discovered phosphate deposits on the Pacific islands of Nauru and Banaba Island (Ocean Island) in 1900. He was the British Phosphate Commissioner for New Zealand from 1921 to 1951.
Ellis was born in Roma, Queensland, his family moved to Auckland where he attended the Cambridge District High School. At the age of 18 Albert Ellis joined his brothers James and George in working for John T. Arundel and Co. Their father George C. Ellis, a chemist, and later a farmer in New Zealand, was a director of the company. John T. Arundel and Co. was engaged in Pacific trading of phosphates, copra, and pearl shell.
While working in the company's Sydney office in 1899 Ellis determined that a large rock from Nauru being used as a doorstop was rich in phosphate. Following the discovery Ellis traveled to Ocean Island and Nauru and confirmed the discovery.
Operations on Ocean Island commenced three months after the discovery. Ellis managed the development of the phosphate resources on Nauru, and mining began in 1906 under an arrangement with the German administrators of the island. Following World War I Nauru became a mandate of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, the countries appointed the British Phosphate Commission to manage the extraction and export of phosphate from Nauru. Ellis was appointed the BPC for New Zealand.
In 1928 Ellis was awarded the C.M.G., and in 1938 was created a Knight Bachelor. Ellis wrote a book about the history of the Pacific phosphate islands, his discovery and subsequent development of the phosphate industry on the islands, Ocean Island and Nauru — their Story was published in Australia in 1935.Albert J. Ellis Airport
Albert J. Ellis Airport (IATA: OAJ, ICAO: KOAJ, FAA LID: OAJ) is a county-owned public-use airport in Onslow County, North Carolina, United States. It is located in Richlands, 10 nautical miles (19 km) northwest of the central business district of Jacksonville and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. The airport has a single runway and three gates. Opening on February 15, 1971, the airport is used by general aviation, military and is served by two commercial airlines, Delta Connection, and American Eagle.On August 30, 2006, Delta Air Lines announced new service from the airport to Atlanta, operated by Delta Connection carrier Express Jet Airlines, starting on December 11, 2006. Delta Connection operated by ExpressJet operates CRJ-200/700s/900s and Delta Air Lines at OAJ. Delta began operating B-717 aircraft on the OAJ-ATL route on August 28, 2016.American Eagle operates services to Charlotte. These services are operated by PSA Airlines, which operates CRJ-200s, CRJ-700s, and CRJ-900s.Big Tremaine
Big Tremaine is a 1916 American silent romantic drama film directed by Henry Otto and starring Harold Lockwood, May Allison, Lester Cuneo, Albert Ellis, Lillian Hayward, and William Ehfe. It is based on the 1914 novel of the same name by Marie Van Vorst. The film was released by Metro Pictures on November 20, 1916.California HeatWave
The California Heatwave was a professional basketball team in the American Basketball Association (ABA) team based in Madera, California. The team began play in the fall of 2003 at Selland Arena in Fresno, California. The founder of the Fresno Heatwave was Albert Ellis and Richard Hanna. The Fresno Heatwave was coached by Sean Higgins, and its Vice President was Janine Nkosi.
Originally, the team was called the Fresno Heat, but it was renamed Fresno Heatwave to avoid brand confusion with the National Basketball Association's Miami Heat.Cognitive restructuring
Cognitive restructuring (CR) is a psychotherapeutic process of learning to identify and dispute irrational or maladaptive thoughts known as cognitive distortions, such as all-or-nothing thinking (splitting), magical thinking, over-generalization, magnification, and emotional reasoning, which are commonly associated with many mental health disorders. CR employs many strategies, such as Socratic questioning, thought recording, and guided imagery, and is used in many types of therapies, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). A number of studies demonstrate considerable efficacy in using CR-based therapies.Dream telepathy
Dream telepathy is the purported ability to communicate telepathically with another person while one is dreaming. The first person in modern times to document telepathic dreaming was Sigmund Freud. In the 1940s it was the subject of the Eisenbud-Pederson-Krag-Fodor-Ellis controversy, named after the preeminent psychoanalysts of the time who were involved Jule Eisenbud, Geraldine Pederson-Krag, Nandor Fodor, and Albert Ellis. There is no scientific evidence that dream telepathy is a real phenomenon. Parapsychological experiments into dream telepathy have not produced replicable results.Epictetus
Epictetus (; Greek: Ἐπίκτητος, Epíktētos; c. 55 – 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born a slave at Hierapolis, Phrygia (present day Pamukkale, Turkey) and lived in Rome until his banishment, when he went to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece for the rest of his life. His teachings were written down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses and Enchiridion.
Epictetus taught that philosophy is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are beyond our control; we should accept calmly and dispassionately whatever happens. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline.History of psychotherapy
Although modern, scientific psychology is often dated at the 1879 opening of the first psychological clinic by Wilhelm Wundt, attempts to create methods for assessing and treating mental distress existed long before. The earliest recorded approaches were a combination of religious, magical and/or medical perspectives. Early examples of such psychological thinkers included Patañjali, Padmasambhava, Rhazes, Avicenna and Rumi (see Islamic psychology and Eastern philosophy and clinical psychology).
In an informal sense, psychotherapy can be said to have been practiced through the ages, as individuals received psychological counsel and reassurance from others. Purposeful, theoretically-based psychotherapy was probably first developed in the Middle East during the 9th century by the Persian physician and psychological thinker, Rhazes, who was at one time the chief physician of the Baghdad bimaristan. In the West, however, serious mental disorders were generally treated as demonic or medical conditions requiring punishment and confinement until the advent of moral treatment approaches in the 18th century. This brought about a focus on the possibility of psychosocial intervention - including reasoning, moral encouragement and group activities - to rehabilitate the "insane".
In the 19th century, one could have his or her head examined, literally, using phrenology, the study of the shape of the skull developed by respected anatomist Franz Joseph Gall. Other popular treatments included physiognomy—the study of the shape of the face—and mesmerism, developed by Franz Anton Mesmer—designed to relieve psychological distress by the use of magnets. Spiritualism and Phineas Quimby's "mental healing" technique that was very like modern concept of "positive visualization" were also popular.
While the scientific community eventually came to reject all of these methods, academic psychologists also were not concerned with serious forms of mental illness. That area was already being addressed by the developing fields of psychiatry and neurology within the asylum movement and the use of moral therapy. It wasn't until the end of the 19th century, around the time when Sigmund Freud was first developing his "talking cure" in Vienna, that the first scientifically clinical application of psychology began—at the University of Pennsylvania, to help children with learning disabilities.
Although clinical psychologists originally focused on psychological assessment, the practice of psychotherapy, once the sole domain of psychiatrists, became integrated into the profession after the Second World War. Psychotherapy began with the practice of psychoanalysis, the "talking cure" developed by Sigmund Freud. Soon afterwards, theorists such as Alfred Adler and Carl Jung began to introduce new conceptions about psychological functioning and change. These and many other theorists helped to develop the general orientation now called psychodynamic therapy, which includes the various therapies based on Freud's essential principle of making the unconscious conscious.
In the 1920s, behaviorism became the dominant paradigm, and remained so until the 1950s. Behaviorism used techniques based on theories of operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning theory. Major contributors included Joseph Wolpe, Hans Eysenck, and B.F. Skinner. Because behaviorism denied or ignored internal mental activity, this period represents a general slowing of advancement within the field of psychotherapy.Wilhelm Reich began to develop Body psychotherapy in the 1930s.
Starting in the 1950s, two main orientations evolved independently in response to behaviorism—cognitivism and existential-humanistic therapy. The humanistic movement largely developed from both the Existential theories of writers like Rollo May and Viktor Frankl (a less well known figure Eugene Heimler) and the Person-centered psychotherapy of Carl Rogers. These orientations all focused less on the unconscious and more on promoting positive, holistic change through the development of a supportive, genuine, and empathic therapeutic relationship. Rollo May, Carl Rogers, and Irvin Yalom acknowledge the influence of Otto Rank (1884-1939), Freud's acolyte, then critic.
During the 1950s, Albert Ellis developed the first form of cognitive behavioral therapy, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and few years later Aaron T. Beck developed cognitive therapy. Both of these included therapy aimed at changing a person's beliefs, by contrast with the insight-based approach of psychodynamic therapies or the newer relational approach of humanistic therapies. Cognitive and behavioral approaches were combined during the 1970s, resulting in Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Being oriented towards symptom-relief, collaborative empiricism and modifying core beliefs, this approach has gained widespread acceptance as a primary treatment for numerous disorders.
Since the 1970s, other major perspectives have been developed and adopted within the field. Perhaps the two biggest have been Systems Therapy—which focuses on family and group dynamics—and Transpersonal psychology, which focuses on the spiritual facet of human experience. Other important orientations developed in the last three decades include Feminist therapy, Somatic Psychology, Expressive therapy, and applied Positive psychology. Clinical psychology in Japan developed towards a more integrative socially-orientated counseling methodology. Practice in India developed from both traditional metaphysical and ayurvedic systems and Western methodologies.Since 1993, the American Psychological Association Division 12 Task Force has created and revised a list of empirically supported psychological treatments for specific disorders. The Division 12 standards are based on 7 "essential" criteria for research quality, such as randomization and the use of validated psychological assessments. In general, cognitive behavioral treatments for psychological disorders have received greater support than other psychotherapeutic approaches. Passionate debate among clinical scientists and practitioners about the superiority of evidence-based practices is ongoing, and some have presented correlational data that indicate that most of the major therapies are about of equal effectiveness and that the therapist, client, and therapeutic alliance account for a larger portion of client improvement from psychotherapy. While many Ph.D. training programs in clinical psychology have taken a strong empirical approach to psychotherapy that has led to a greater emphasis on cognitive behavioral interventions, other training programs and psychologists are now adopting an eclectic orientation. This integrative movement attempts to combine the most effective aspects of all the schools of practice.Institute of General Semantics
The Institute of General Semantics (IGS) is a not-for-profit corporation established in 1938 by Alfred Korzybski, to support research and publication on the topic of General Semantics. The Institute publishes Korzybski's writings, including the seminal text Science & Sanity, and books by other authors who have studied or taught general semantics, such as Robert Pula, Irving J. Lee, Wendell Johnson, and Stuart Chase. Every year since 1952, it has sponsored the Alfred Korzybski Memorial Lecture, with presenters from a broad range of disciplines, from science to medicine to entertainment, including names like actor Steve Allen, psychologist Albert Ellis, scientist and visionary R. Buckminster Fuller, linguist Allen Walker Read, and philosopher F. S. C. Northrop. The Institute offers periodic seminars, workshops and conferences and is headquartered in New York City.
The IGS is closely affiliated with GS groups around the globe, including the Australian General Semantics Society.
The Institute of General Semantics publishes:
ETC: A Review of General Semantics, a quarterly journal printed since 1943, distributed to IGS members and subscribed to by over 350 libraries around the world.
Numerous books, CDs and DVDs on general semantics.James A. Ellis
James Albert Ellis (June 1, 1864 – December 27, 1934) was mayor of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, from 1904 to 1906 and in 1913. He represented Ottawa West in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1911 to 1914.
He was born in Accrington, Lancashire, England, in 1864, the son of James Ellis. In 1884, he married Catherine Fishwick. Ellis came to Ontario in 1885. Hydro Ottawa was established during Ellis’s period in office. Ellis resigned before the end of his term in 1906 to become city assessment commissioner. He served as city treasurer from 1907 to 1911. Ellis also served as a public school trustee.
He died in Ottawa in 1934 and is buried in Beechwood Cemetery.Jimmy Ellis (boxer)
James Albert Ellis (February 24, 1940 – May 6, 2014) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1961 to 1975. He won the vacant WBA heavyweight title in 1968 by defeating Jerry Quarry, making one successful title defense in the same year against Floyd Patterson, before losing to Joe Frazier in 1970.Kishor Phadke
Kishor Moreshwar Phadke (born 20 February 1936), also known as K. M. Phadke, is an Indian psychologist, practitioner and trainer in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). He held M.A. degree in Psychology from Pune University. He is first Indian psychologist who enjoys the unique distinction of being a Fellow and Supervisor of Albert Ellis Institute, New York City. He is best known as a pioneer of REBT in India. Due to his distinguished contributions to REBT, Indian psychologists consigned a unique title to his therapy - Ellis-Phadke therapy. He has authored 9 Marathi books, several popular articles and papers and co-authored 5 English books.List of cognitive–behavioral therapies
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an umbrella term that encompasses many therapeutical approaches, techniques and systems.
Acceptance and commitment therapy is a "third wave" cognitive behavior therapy, developed by Steven C. Hayes based in part on relational frame theory.
Anxiety management training was developed by Suinn and Richardson (1971) for helping clients control their anxiety by the use of relaxation and other skills.
Applied behavior analysis, described by Baer, Wolf and Risley in 1968, is the science of applying experimentally derived principles of behavior to improve socially significant behavior.
Behavioral activation is a behavioral approach to treating depression, developed by Neil Jacobson and others.
Behavior modification is a term originally used by Edward Thorndike in 1911.
Cognitive therapy was developed by Aaron Beck.
Cognitive analytic therapy
Cognitive behavior modification
Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy
Cognitive emotional behavioral therapy
Cognitive processing therapy for Post traumatic stress disorder
Compassion focused therapy
Computerised cognitive behavioral therapy
Dialectical behavior therapy
Direct therapeutic exposure
Exposure and response prevention
Functional analytic psychotherapy
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
Prolonged exposure therapy
Rational emotive behavior therapy, formerly called rational therapy and rational emotive therapy, was founded by Albert Ellis.
Self-instructional training was developed by Donald Meichenbaum, influenced by the developmental psychology of Alexander Luria and Lev Vygotsky, designed to treat the mediational deficiencies of impulsive children.
Stress inoculation training
Systematic desensitization is an anxiety reduction technique, developed by Joseph Wolpe.
Systematic rational restructuring was an attempt by Marvin Goldfried to reanalyze systematic desensitization in terms of cognitive mediation and coping skills.List of psychological schools
The psychological schools are the great classical theories of psychology. Each has been highly influential; however, most psychologists hold eclectic viewpoints that combine aspects of each school.Low frustration tolerance
Low frustration tolerance (LFT), or "short-term hedonism" is a concept utilized to describe the inability to tolerate unpleasant feelings or stressful situations. It stems from the feeling that reality should be as wished, and that any frustration should be resolved quickly and easily. People with low frustration tolerance experience emotional disturbance when frustrations are not quickly resolved. Behaviors are then directed towards avoiding frustrating events which, paradoxically, leads to increased frustration and even greater mental stress.
In REBT the opposite construct is "high frustration tolerance".Rational emotive behavior therapy
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), previously called rational therapy and rational emotive therapy, is an active-directive, philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy, the aim of which is to resolve emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and to help people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives. REBT was created and developed by the American psychotherapist and psychologist Albert Ellis, who was inspired by many of the teachings of Asian, Greek, Roman and modern philosophers. REBT is the first form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and was first expounded by Ellis in the mid-1950s; development continued until his death in 2007. Ellis became synonymous with the highly influential therapy. Psychology Today noted, "No individual—not even Freud himself—has had a greater impact on modern psychotherapy.Thinking Allowed (TV series)
Thinking Allowed is an American independent public television series which was broadcast from 1986 to 2002. It began as The Mind's Eye on KCSM-TV in San Mateo, California, in 1986 and changed to Thinking Allowed in 1988 when it was distributed to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). It was an interview program providing alternative points of view on a wide variety of subjects in humanistic psychology, living philosophically, frontiers of science, personal and spiritual development, health and healing, mythology, parapsychology, computers and cognition, management psychology, and global awareness.
The series' host was Jeffrey Mishlove, and featured more than 200 prominent intellectual figures, which included Rupert Sheldrake, Russell Targ, Joseph Campbell, Jacques Vallée, Albert Ellis, H. Dean Brown, Riane Eisler, Virginia Satir, Rollo May, Terence McKenna, Arthur M. Young, Irvin Yalom, Jean Houston, Colin Wilson, Jacob Needleman, J. Nigro Sansonese, Rachel Naomi Remen, Michael Talbot, Theodore Roszak, Robert Ornstein, Jean Shinoda Bolen and many others.
The original interviews can be seen on the show's YouTube channel.Mishlove returned to the format with new interviews titled New Thinking Allowed in 2015, also on YouTube.