Albert Dunstan

Sir Albert Arthur Dunstan, KCMG (26 July 1882 – 14 April 1950) was an Australian politician. A member of the Country Party (now National Party), Dunstan was the 33rd premier of Victoria. His term as premier was the second-longest in the state's history, behind Sir Henry Bolte. Dunstan, who was premier from 2 April 1935 to 14 September 1943, and again from 18 September 1943 to 2 October 1945, was the first premier of Victoria to hold that office as a position in its own right, and not just an additional duty taken up by the Treasurer, Attorney-General or Chief Secretary.

Dunstan was born on 26 July 1882 at Donald East, Victoria, the son of a Cornish gold rush immigrant.[1]

Dunstan was the first Deputy Premier of Victoria, serving from March 1932 until May 1932 under premier Edmond Hogan. Dunstan became premier when he unexpectedly withdrew his party's support for the government of Stanley Argyle.

Argyle had fought the March 1935 election with an improving economy, a record of sound, if unimaginative, management. With the Labor Party opposition still divided and demoralised, he was rewarded with a second comfortable majority, his United Australia Party winning 25 seats and the Country Party 20, while Labor won only 17. But at this point he was unexpectedly betrayed by his erstwhile Country Party allies. Dunstan was a close friend of the gambling boss John Wren, who was also very close to the Labor leader Tom Tunnecliffe (in the view of most historians, Tunnecliffe was, in fact, under Wren's control). Wren, aided by the Victorian Labor Party president, Arthur Calwell, persuaded Dunstan to break off the coalition with Argyle and form a minority Country Party government, which Labor would support in return for some policy concessions. Dunstan agreed to this deal, and on 28 March 1935 he moved a successful no-confidence vote in the government from which he had just resigned.

When the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General Lou Bussau resigned in 1938, Henry Bailey became Attorney-General while Dunstan added the portfolio of Solicitor-General to his offices of Premier and Treasurer.[2]

The UAP (and later its successor the Liberal Party) never forgave the Country Party for this treachery. Henry Bolte, later Victoria's longest-serving premier, was 27 in 1935, and Dunstan's betrayal of Argyle lay behind his lifelong and intense dislike of the Country Party, whom he called "political prostitutes".


Sir Albert Dunstan

AlbertDunstan
33rd Premier of Victoria
In office
2 April 1935 – 14 September 1943
Preceded byStanley Argyle
Succeeded byJohn Cain (senior)
In office
18 September 1943 – 2 October 1945
Preceded byJohn Cain (senior)
Succeeded byIan Macfarlan
Personal details
Born26 July 1882
Donald, Victoria, Australia
Died14 April 1950 (aged 67)
Camberwell, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
NationalityAustralian
Political partyVictorian Farmers Union
Country Party of Australia
Spouse(s)
Jessie Gerard Chisholm (m. 1911)
OccupationFarmer

References

  1. ^ "Dunstan, Sir Albert Arthur (1882 - 1950)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  2. ^ "Appointment Solicitor-General Albert Dunstan". Victorian Government Gazette. 22 April 1938. p. 1938:1315.
Victorian Legislative Assembly
Preceded by
Tom Tunnecliffe
Member for Eaglehawk
1920–1927
District abolished
New district Member for Korong and Eaglehawk
1927–1945
District abolished
New district Member for Korong
1945–1955
Succeeded by
Keith Turnbull
Political offices
Preceded by
Stanley Argyle
Premier of Victoria
1935–1943
Succeeded by
John Cain
Preceded by
John Cain
Premier of Victoria
1943–1945
Succeeded by
Ian Macfarlan
Preceded by
Bill Barry
Minister for Health
1947–1948
Succeeded by
Trevor Oldham
Party political offices
Preceded by
Murray Bourchier
Leader of the Country Party in Victoria
1935–1945
Succeeded by
John McDonald
1935 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1935 in Australia.

1937 Victorian state election

The 1937 Victorian state election was held in the Australian state of Victoria on Saturday 2 October 1937 to elect 45 of the 65 members of the state's Legislative Assembly.

1940 Victorian state election

The 1940 Victorian state election was held in the Australian state of Victoria on Saturday 16 March 1940 to elect 44 of the 65 members of the state's Legislative Assembly.

1943 Victorian state election

The 1943 Victorian state election was held in the Australian state of Victoria on Saturday 12 June 1943 to elect 65 members of the state's Legislative Assembly.

1943 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1943 in Australia.

Albert Bussau

Sir Albert Louis (Lou) Bussau (9 July 1884 – 5 May 1947) was an Australian politician.

He was born in Natimuk to carpenter and farmer Johann Joachim Heinrich Adolph Bussau and Maria Ernestina Rokesky. He attended state school and studied by correspondence with the University of Melbourne, becoming an articled clerk. He worked as such in Warracknabeal, Beulah and Hopetoun. On 22 April 1912 he married schoolteacher Mary Scott Baird. From 1915 he farmed at Hopetoun, and he served on Karkarooc Shire Council from 1921 to 1932 (president from 1926 to 1927). He was a founding member of the Victorian Wheatgrowers Association (president 1933), and president of the Country Progressive Party in 1929. From 1931 to 1932 he was vice-president of the United Country Party.In 1932 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Ouyen. He was Attorney-General and Solicitor-General in the government of Albert Dunstan between 2 April 1935, and 1 April 1938. Bussau resigned to become Agent-General for Victoria in London. Knighted in 1941, he returned from London in 1944, becoming inaugural chairman of the Australian Wheat Board in 1945. Bussau died at South Yarra in 1947.

Country Progressive Party (Victoria)

The Country Progressive Party was a political party in the Australian state of Victoria from 1926 to 1930. It was a splinter group from the Victorian Country Party. It was formed by federal MP Percy Stewart and future Victorian Premier Albert Dunstan in protest over protection of sitting members and state governments. Stewart was the party's only federal MP, while it elected four state MPs at the 1927 and 1929 Victorian state elections. The Country Progressives reunited with the main party in 1930.

Deputy Premier of Victoria

The Deputy Premier of Victoria is the second-most senior officer in the Government of Victoria. The Deputy Premiership has been a ministerial portfolio since, and the Deputy Premier is appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Premier.

The current Deputy Premier is James Merlino of the Labor Party.

Edwin Mackrell

Edwin Joseph Mackrell (16 December 1878 – 24 March 1965) was an Australian politician.

He was born in Strathbogie to farmer George Mackrell and Mary Ann Perkins. He attended state school until the age of fourteen, when he began work in a butter factory at Mansfield. By 1896 he was managing a butter factory at Fish Creek. He went to the goldfields in Western Australia in 1901, returning to Victoria in 1905 but travelling to South Africa in 1908. On 15 July 1910 he married Elsie Flora Harris, with whom he had three daughters. He remained in South Africa until 1916, when he returned to farm at first Boho and then, from 1918, Strathbogie. In 1920 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Upper Goulburn, representing the Country Party. He was Assistant Minister of Railways from 1924 to 1927, and later served as Minister of Sustenance from 1935 to 1936, Minister of Labour from 1936 to 1943, Minister of Public Health from 1942 to 1943, and Minister of Water Supply and Decentralisation in Ian Macfarlan's stop-gap ministry in 1945. In supporting Macfarlan against Albert Dunstan he had been expelled from the Country Party, and he was defeated contesting Goulburn in 1945. Mackrell died in Canterbury in 1965.

Finlay Cameron

Finlay Arthur Cameron (22 June 1886 – 21 February 1959) was an Australian politician.

He was born in Wauraltee in South Australia to farmer George Muir Cameron and Elizabeth Jane Miller. His family moved to Victoria in 1891 and Cameron attended state schools before inheriting property at Bangerang in 1909. In 1911 he married May Victoria Marshman, with whom he had seven children. As a farmer he was an executive member of the Victorian Wheatgrowers' Association from 1927 to 1932. A member of the Country Progressive Party in the 1920s, he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly in 1935 as the Country Party member for Kara Kara and Borung. He supported the party executive against Albert Dunstan in 1939. Cameron's seat was abolished in 1945 and he was defeated contesting Borung. He moved to Cheltenham in 1948 and served on Moorabbin City Council from 1949 to 1952. Cameron died in Cheltenham in 1959.

First Cain Ministry

The First Cain Ministry was the 50th ministry of the Government of Victoria (Australia). It was led by the Premier of Victoria, John Cain of the Labour Party. The ministry was sworn in on 14 September 1943, but lasted less than four days. On 15 September, barely 24 hours after Governor of Victoria Sir Winston Dugan had sworn-in the cabinet, the government was defeated in the Legislative Assembly. Cain's motion to adjourn the parliament for over a week was defeated by the Country Party and the UAP, and Opposition Leader, Albert Dunstan, moved that Parliament resume the next day, giving notice that he would move a motion of no confidence against Cain's government, confident it would be carried by the CP–UAP alliance. Cain indicated that he would request a dissolution of parliament from the Governor, but if his request was refused, he would resign as Premier. On 17 September, Cain visited the Governor who refused his request for a dissolution—Cain then resigned and the Governor commissioned Dunstan to form a government, which was sworn in on Saturday 18 September.

First Dunstan Ministry (Victoria)

The First Dunstan Ministry was the 49th ministry of the Government of Victoria. It was led by the Premier of Victoria, Albert Dunstan. The ministry was sworn in on 2 April 1935, and was the first Country Party ministry in the history of Victoria.

Ian Macfarlan

Ian Macfarlan (born John Robert Macfarlan; 21 November 1881 – 19 March 1964) was the Deputy Leader of the Australian Liberal Party in the Australian state of Victoria during 1945. He was briefly commissioned as the 35th Premier of Victoria by the Governor and formed a government which brought about the end of the Dunstan Ministry.MacFarlan was the Member for Brighton from 1928 until 1945 and was Attorney-General and Solicitor-General on 3 occasions, from 26 November 1928 until 11 December 1929 in the government of William McPherson, from 25 July 1934 until 1 April 1935 in the government of Stanley Argyle and from 8 September 1943 until 20 November 1945 in the government of Albert Dunstan.At the end of September 1945, the government of Albert Dunstan was defeated in the Legislative Assembly, when it voted to refuse Supply to his government. Five Liberals, two Country Party members and one Independent voted with the Labor Opposition, on the grounds of dissatisfaction with the government's legislative program and opposition to Dunstan's leadership.

Instead of resigning, however, Dunstan persuaded the Governor, Sir Winston Dugan, to grant him a dissolution of Parliament, conditional on the budget being passed. These terms drew fire from the Opposition who claimed that the Governor in his letter to the Premier had left himself open to the charge of instructing the Assembly to grant Supply to a ministry which had already been refused it and to no other.

When it became clear that the Assembly would not grant Supply to the Dunstan Ministry, the Governor commissioned as Premier Ian Macfarlan, the Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party, who had been Attorney-General and Solicitor-General in Dunstan's Ministry, on the production of written assurances of support from the Labor Opposition and from members of the Liberal Party, the Country Party and the Independents whose revolt had led to Dunstan's defeat. Macfarlan formed a government, both Houses passed Votes of Supply, and the dissolution took immediate effect.

At the subsequent state election in November, the Labor Party obtained a majority (with the support of two Independents) and formed a government. The state of parties was Labor 32, United Country Party 18, Liberals 13, Independents 2. Macfarlan was one of the defeated candidates.

Members of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, 1947–1950

This is a list of members of the Victorian Legislative Assembly from 1947 to 1950, as elected at the 1947 state election:

1 On 15 May 1948, the Liberal member for Toorak, Robert Bell Hamilton, died. Liberal candidate Edward Reynolds won the resulting by-election on 19 June 1948.

2 On 10 October 1948, the Labor member for Geelong, Fanny Brownbill, died. Liberal candidate Edward Montgomery won the resulting by-election on 13 November 1948.

3 On 16 November 1948, the Labor member for Prahran, Bill Quirk, died. Labor candidate Frank Crean won the resulting by-election on 22 January 1949.

4 On 14 May 1949, the Labor member for Brunswick, James Jewell, died. Labor candidate Peter Randles won the resulting by-election on 16 July 1949.

5 On 31 October 1949, three members resigned to contest seats at the 1949 election and by-elections were held on 17 December 1949 to fill the vacancies.

Jack Cremean, the Labor member for Clifton Hill, contested and won Division of Hoddle. Labor candidate Joseph O'Carroll was elected in his stead.

Wilfrid Kent Hughes, the Liberal member for Kew, contested and won Division of Chisholm. Liberal candidate Arthur Rylah was elected in his stead.

Stan Keon, the Labor member for Richmond, contested and won Division of Yarra. Labor candidate Frank Scully was elected in his stead.

6 On 14 April 1950, the former Premier of Victoria and Country Party member for Korong, Sir Albert Dunstan, died. No by-election was held due to the proximity of the 1950 election.

National Party of Australia – Victoria

The National Party of Australia – Victoria is a political party in Victoria, which forms the state branch of the federal Nationals. Traditionally representing graziers, farmers and rural voters generally. The Victorian Farmer's Union formed in 1914 was the precursor to the Victorian Country Party, later the Nationals.

The party, commonly referred to as "The Nationals," is presently the junior partner in a centre-right Coalition with the Liberal Party, forming a joint Opposition bench. During periods of conservative government, the leader also serves as Deputy Premier of Victoria.

Second Dunstan Ministry (Victoria)

The Second Dunstan Ministry was the 51st ministry of the Government of Victoria. It was led by the Premier of Victoria, Albert Dunstan. The ministry was sworn in on 18 September 1943, just several days after the formation of the First Cain Ministry, and consisted of members of the Country Party and the United Australia Party (UAP).

Stanley Argyle

Sir Stanley Seymour Argyle KBE (4 December 1867 – 23 November 1940), Australian politician, was the 32nd Premier of Victoria.

Tom Tunnecliffe

Thomas Tunnecliffe (13 July 1869 – 2 February 1948) was an Australian politician. He was a member of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, representing the districts of West Melbourne (1903–1904), Eaglehawk (1907–1920) and Collingwood (1921–1947) for the Labor Party.In February 1932 Edmond Hogan, the Premier of Victoria and leader of the Labor Party, travelled to London to talk to the banks about Victoria's desperate economic plight during the Great Depression. While he was away Tunnecliffe was acting Premier, and he was much more willing than Hogan to reject the Premiers' Plan. As a result, the Country Party withdrew its support from Hogan's minority government, and in April the government was defeated in a confidence vote.

Tunnecliffe, as acting leader, led the Labor campaign in the May 1932 state election, now completely rejecting the Premiers's Plan, which was the main issue at the election. The Labor Party Executive expelled everyone who had supported the Premier's Plan, including Hogan, although it did not run a candidate against him. Tunnecliffe was elected leader of the party. At the elections the United Australia Party won 31 seats to Labor's 16 and the reunited Country Party's 14. Hogan and one of his ex-ministers were elected as "Premiers' Plan Labor" candidates. The UAP's Stanley Argyle became Premier of Victoria, and Tunnecliffe was Opposition leader until the 1935 state election, when Labor won only 17 seats and finished with-third party status, thereby not even qualifying as the official Opposition. (Due to the weighting of country votes, at the 1935 election the United Country Party polled only 13.7% of the popular vote and won 20 seats, whereas Labor's 37.9% only garnered it 17 seats.) Tunnecliffe was a close friend of the gambling boss John Wren, (in the view of most historians, Tunnecliffe was, in fact, under Wren's control) who was also very close to United Country Party leader Albert Dunstan. Due to Wren's influence, Labor supported Dunstan's minority government from 1935 onwards.

Following the 1937 state election, Tunnecliffe was succeeded as leader of the Labor Party in Victoria by John Cain, Snr. Tunnecliffe was Speaker of the Victorian Legislative Assembly from 1937 to 1940, and continued as the member for Collingwood until August 1947, when he resigned due to ill-health. Labor's support for Dunstan continued until 1943.

William Moncur

William Anderson Moncur (14 July 1886 – 20 November 1962) was an Australian politician.

He was born in Thoona to schoolteacher Alexander Moncur and Margaret Ann Snow. He attended state schools and then University High School, becoming a schoolteacher. He taught across regional Victoria until 1914; he then served with the 6th Battalion during World War I. On 12 October 1918 he married Laura Dorothea Savige, with whom he had two sons. On his return he resumed teaching and also acquired a farm at Thorpdale. In 1927 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Walhalla, representing the Country Party. In 1940 he unsuccessfully challenged Albert Dunstan for the party leadership. His seat was abolished in 1945 and he was defeated contesting Gippsland North. Moncur served on Narracan Shire Council from 1936 to 1945. He died at Traralgon in 1962.

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