Albany /ˈælbəni/ is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 418 km SE of Perth, the state capital. Albany is the oldest colonial settlement in Western Australia, predating Perth and Fremantle by over two years.
The city centre is at the northern edge of Princess Royal Harbour, which is a part of King George Sound. The central business district is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east and Mount Melville to the west. The city is in the local government area of the City of Albany.
The Albany settlement was founded on 26 December 1826, as a military outpost of New South Wales as part of a plan to forestall French ambitions in the region. To that end, on 21 January 1827, the commander of the outpost, Major Edmund Lockyer, formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown.
The settlement was initially named Frederick Town in honour of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony and renamed Albany by Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling.
During the last decade of the 19th century the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields. For many years, it was the colony's only deep-water port, having a place of eminence on shipping services between Britain and its Australian colonies. The opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897, however, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the town's industries turned primarily to agriculture, timber and later, whaling.
Today as a city it is the southern terminus for tourism in the region, and the state's South West, which is known for its natural environment and preservation of heritage. The town has a role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War. Also an auxiliary submarine base for the US Navy's 7th Fleet was developed during the Second World War in the event the submarine base at Fremantle was lost. Also in the harbour was an RAN Naval Installation which provided for alongside refuelling from four 5000 ton fuel tanks.
York Street in Albany
|Population||33,145 (2016 census) (43rd)|
|• Density||111.524/km2 (288.85/sq mi)|
|Established||26 December 1826|
|Area||297.2 km2 (114.7 sq mi) (2011 urban)|
|Time zone||AWST (UTC+8)|
|LGA(s)||City of Albany|
Kinjarling (Albany) was home to Menang Noongar indigenous tribes during the summer season. They called the area Kinjarling which means "the place of rain". Many town names in South-Western Australia end in "up" or "ing", which means "place of" in the Noongar language. They would sometimes camp near "Boondie Yokine" – roughly translated as Dog Rock. Early European explorers discovered evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on the French, now the Kalgan, River. Vancouver made attempts to find the inhabitants of the area but only found bark dwellings that were unoccupied. Later explorers made contact and were told to leave, but were accepted when they didn't. Most of the exploration was made to survey the land and sea and assess the resources for further exploitation. The explorers only occasionally noted the Noongars they encountered. Native treatment laws and programs have affected the tribes since settlement.
The following Information is derived from the State Heritage Register where these places are registered. The assessment criteria contain more details.
The city centre of Albany is located between the hills of Mount Melville and Mount Clarence, which look down into Princess Royal Harbour. Many beaches surround Albany, with Middleton Beach being the closest to the town centre. Other popular beaches include Frenchman Bay and Muttonbird Island.
The Albany coastline is notorious for deaths due to king waves washing people off rocks. The Torndirrup National Park features some of the more rugged coastline in the area. However, there are many beaches that are safe and usable:
Albany has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) with dry, warm summers, mild, wet winters, and pleasant springs and autumns. Summers have short spells of very hot weather, but cool ocean breeze brings relief, especially during evenings and nights. The city is situated on what is promoted as the "Rainbow Coast", an appropriate title given the frequency of days with both sun and drizzle or showers. Albany has 44.8 clear days annually.
July is the wettest month, with a long-term average of 144.0 mm (5.67 in). Rain in excess of 0.2 mm (0.01 in) occurs on two days out of every three during an average winter. The driest month is February with a mean of 22.9 mm (0.90 in).
Albany received a record amount of rain on 20 November 2008 when violent storms swept across the Great Southern region. The town was flooded after 113.8 mm (4.48 in) of rain fell in a 24-hour period, the highest amount recorded since rainfall records began in 1877. The wettest month on record was June 1920 when 292.8 mm (11.5 in) fell, while February 1877 and February 1879 remain the only rainless months.
|Climate data for Albany|
|Record high °C (°F)||41.7
|Average high °C (°F)||22.8
|Average low °C (°F)||15.2
|Record low °C (°F)||7.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||23.7
|Average rainy days||7.9||7.6||11.0||14.1||18.1||20.0||21.5||21.0||18.3||16.3||12.2||9.5||177.5|
|Average afternoon relative humidity (%)||67||67||69||69||70||70||70||68||69||70||68||67||69|
|Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology|
|Climate data for Albany Airport|
|Record high °C (°F)||45.6
|Average high °C (°F)||24.8
|Average low °C (°F)||13.7
|Record low °C (°F)||4.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||23.6
|Average precipitation days||8.2||8.0||10.9||13.9||17.0||19.0||20.3||20.8||18.3||15.8||13.0||9.6||174.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||251.1||209.1||204.6||186.0||167.4||153.0||170.5||189.1||189.0||210.8||222.0||244.9||2,397.5|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Albany's main industries are tourism, fishing, timber (wood chips) and agriculture. From 1952 to 1978 whaling was a major source of income and employment for the local population.
The Whaling Station, which closed operations in 1978, has been converted to a museum of whaling, and features one of the 'Cheynes' whale chasers that were used for whaling in Albany. The station was the last operating whaling station in the southern hemisphere and the English-speaking world at the time of closure.
The Western Power Wind Farm is located at Sand Patch, to the west of Albany. The wind farm, originally commissioned in 2001 with 12 turbines, now has 18 turbines, driven by strong southerly winds, and can generate up to 80% of the city's electricity usage.
Albany has a number of historical sites including the Museum, Albany Convict Gaol, The Princess Royal Fortress (commonly known as The Forts) and Patrick Taylor Cottage, one of the oldest dwellings in Western Australia, c1832. Albany has a great deal of historical significance to Western Australia.
Natural sights along the rugged coastline include the 'Natural Bridge' and the 'Gap'. The beaches have pristine white sand. The destroyer HMAS Perth was sunk in King George Sound in 2001 as a dive wreck. Albany is also close to two low mountain ranges, the Porongurups and Stirling Ranges.
Albany has a city bus service run by Love's Bus Service with five town routes. Albany is connected to Perth with road-coach services via Walpole and Bunbury; via Katanning and Northam; via Kojonup and Williams. Transwa coaches also serve Jerramungup, Ravensthorpe and Hopetoun.
Albany radio stations include 783 Triple M (formerly 6VA and RadioWest), GOLD MX, Rete Italia, Vision FM, Fly FM Albany, HitFM (formerly HOT FM), ABC South Coast, ABC News, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, Triple J, Racing Radio & Albany Community Radio.
Below is a table showing the broadcast frequencies on which these services can be received.
|ABC Local Radio||630 kHz AM|
|783 Triple M||783 kHz AM|
|GOLD MX||1611 kHz AM|
|Rete Italia||1629 kHz AM|
|Vision FM (Local)||87.6 MHz FM|
|Fly FM||88.0 MHz FM|
|ABC News||92.1 MHz FM|
|Triple J||92.9 MHz FM|
|Vision FM||93.7 MHz FM|
|ABC Classic FM||94.5 MHz FM|
|HitFM||95.3 MHz FM|
|ABC Radio National||96.9 MHz FM|
|Albany Community Radio||100.9 MHz FM|
|Racing Radio||104.9 MHz FM|
|HitFM (Local)||106.5 MHz FM|
Localised television stations available in Albany include GWN7, WIN Television Western Australia, West Digital Television, SBS and ABC Television Western Australia. GWN7 broadcasts a half-hour news program for regional WA, GWN7 News, at 5:30pm on weeknights with a district newsroom covering Albany and surrounding areas based in the city.
Below is a table showing the full suite of digital television services available in Albany. These services are broadcast from Mount Clarence and cover the majority of the geographic area with some areas requiring signal to be received from the Southern Agricultural site at Mount Barker. Both these transmission sites employ vertical polarity. Furthermore, a number of residents rely on receiving these services via satellite using the Viewer Access Satellite Television (VAST) system.
|LCN||Channel name||Broadcast ch. no.||Broadcast frequency|
|2||ABC||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|3||SBS||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|5||NINE||UHF 44||641.5 MHz|
|6||GWN7||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|8||WIN||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|20||ABC HD||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|21||ABC||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|22||ABC COMEDY/KIDS||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|23||ABC ME||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|24||ABC NEWS||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|30||SBS HD||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|31||SBS VICELAND HD||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|32||SBS VICELAND||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|33||SBS Food||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|34||NITV||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|50||9Gem||UHF 44||641.5 MHz|
|55||9Go!||UHF 44||641.5 MHz|
|62||7TWO||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|63||7mate||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|65||ishop tv||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|68||RACING.COM||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|80||WIN HD||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|81||10 BOLD||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|82||10 Peach||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|83||Sky News on WIN||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|84||TVSN||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
Local newspapers are the Albany Advertiser (established 1888) and The Extra, (owned by Seven West Media Limited, publishers of The West Australian), and The Great Southern Weekender, independently owned by Beaconwood Holdings Pty. Ltd. The Great Southern Weekender also owns local radio stations GOLD MX and Fly FM.
There are currently several primary schools, eight high schools and one university campus in the Albany area.