Albanian Fascist Party

The Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian: Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë, or PFSh) was a Fascist organization active during World War II which held nominal power in Albania from 1939, when the country was conquered by Italy, until 1943, when Italy capitulated to the Allies. Afterwards, Albania fell under German occupation, and the PFSh was replaced by the Guard of Greater Albania.

Albanian Fascist Party

Partia Fashiste Shqiptare
LeaderTefik Mborja
FoundedJune 2, 1939
DissolvedJuly 27, 1943
HeadquartersTirana
NewspaperTomori
Youth wingDjelmnia e Liktorit Shqiptar (GLA)
Paramilitary wingAlbanian Fascist Militia
Membership (1940)13,500
IdeologyAlbanian nationalism
Greater Albania
Italian Fascism
Political positionFar-Right
National affiliationNational Fascist Party
Colors          Black, red
Party flag
Flag of Albania (1939–1943)

History

Establishment

On 25 March 1939, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini gave Albanian King Zog I an ultimatum demanding the acceptance of an Italian military protectorate over Albania.[1] When Zog refused to accept, the Italians invaded on 7 April, and deposed him.[2] Zog subsequently fled the country.[3] Afterwards, the Italians re-established the Albanian state as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy.[2]

On 11 April, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Galeazzo Ciano arranged for a group of well-known Albanians to "request" the formation of the Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian: Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë, or PFSh). By the end of April, the government of Italy approved of its creation. On 23 April, Italian Fascist Party secretary Achille Starace, accompanied by two Italian warships, arrived in Albania to officially announce the establishment of the PFSh,[4] which was founded on 2 June.[5] However, it did not receive its constitution until 6 June, and was not presented with an organized directorate and central council until March 1940.[4]

Italian rule

The PFSh enacted laws that prevented Jews from joining it and excluded them from professions such as education.[6] Composed of ethnic Albanians and Italians residing in Albania,[7] the party existed as a branch of the Italian Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF), and members were required to swear an oath of loyalty to Mussolini.[8] All Albanians serving the Italian occupiers were required to join it, and it became the only legal political party in the country.[9]

List of Ministers

Ministers Secretaries of the Albanian Fascist Party

  • 1939-1941 – Tefik Mborja
  • 1941-1943 – Jup Kazazi
  • 1943 – Kol Bib Mirakaj

Ministers Secretaries of the Guard of Great Albania

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, pp. 30–31.
  2. ^ a b Fischer 1999, pp. 21–57.
  3. ^ Lemkin 2008, p. 99.
  4. ^ a b Fischer 1999, p. 45.
  5. ^ Elsie 2012, p. 426.
  6. ^ Frank 2010, p. 97.
  7. ^ Fischer 1999, pp. 45–46.
  8. ^ Lemkin 2008, p. 102.
  9. ^ Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, p. 31.

References

  • Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2007). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-96911-3.
  • Elsie, Robert (2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-431-3.
  • Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (1999). Albania at War, 1939–1945. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue Research Foundation. ISBN 1-55753-141-2.
  • Frank, Chaim (2010). Petersen, Hans-Christian; Salzborn, Samuel (eds.). Antisemitism in Eastern Europe: History and Present in Comparison. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-631-59828-3.
  • Lemkin, Raphael (2008). Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Clark, New Jersey: The Lawbook Exchange. ISBN 978-1-58477-901-8.

External links

Albanian Fascist Militia

The Albanian Fascist Militia (Milizia fascista albanese, MFA) was an Albanian fascist paramilitary group formed in 1939 following the Italian invasion of Albania in April 1939, part of the Italian Blackshirts (MVSN). It was initially recruited from Italian colonists in Albania, and later on Albanians were also recruited. It was headquartered in Tirana and consisted of four legions:

First Legion – Tirana

Second Legion – Korçë

Third Legion – Vlorë

Fourth Legion – ShkodërIt was disbanded in 1943 following the surrender of Italy in World War II.

Albanian Lictor Youth

Albanian Lictor Youth (Albanian: Djelmnia e Liktorit Shqiptar, Italian: Gioventù del Littorio Albanese, abbreviated G.L.A.) was a youth organization, the youth wing of the Albanian Fascist Party. The Albanian Youth of the Lictor was one of the associated organizations of the Albanian Fascist Party, as stipulated in its statute, which was formulated in a decree of the Italian vicegerent issued on June 2, 1939.Giovanni Giro, an Italian fascist official, had been sent to Albania to organize a fascist youth movement there prior to the Italian annexation of the country. However, these efforts had been largely unsuccessful. On the contrary, his activities created various diplomatic incidents.Following the Italian invasion of Albania in April 1939, Achille Starace, a leading fascist organizer, was sent to Albania to set up the Albanian Fascist Party and the Albanian Fascist Youth. ENGA, an Albanian youth organization modelled after the Italian Opera Nazionale Balilla organization merged into GLA. After the founding of the GLA, Giro remained the main organizer of the movement. The GLA was modelled after the Italian Youth of the Lictor, and was politically under the command of its Italian counterpart. The uniforms of GLA were similar to those used in Italy. Girls were organized in Female Youth of the Lictor (Gioventù Femminile del Littorio) and boys under fourteen years of age were organized in Balilla groups. Parallel to the Youth of the Lictor there were also groups of university fascists, but these groups were rather marginal as Albania had few universities.The Italian authorities built a marble palace for the GLA in Tirana, in the same complex as the Casa del Fascio, one of a series of lavish façades that popped up in the city during Italian rule.The organization's press organ was Liktori (Lictor) newspaper, with Ligor Buzi as editor.Ramiz Alia, who served as head of state of Albania in 1985-1992, had been a member of the fascist youth movement, but later left it and in 1943 he joined the Communist resistance movement.

Devič

Devič (Serbian Cyrillic: Девич) is a Serbian Orthodox abbey in Kosovo. It was built in 1434 and is dedicated to St Joanikije of Devič. Devič was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by the Republic of Serbia.

Eqrem Libohova

Eqrem Libohova (24 February 1882, Gjirokastër – 7 June 1948, Rome) was an Albanian politician and Axis collaborator. He served as the Prime Minister of Albania on two occasions during the Italian occupation of Albania.

Fashizmi

Fashizmi ('Fascism') was a daily Albanian-Italian bilingual newspaper published from Tirana, Albanian Kingdom 1939-1940. It functioned as the official organ of the Albanian Fascist Party. Fejzi Alizoti was the editor of Fashizmi. Vangjel Koça served as the managing director of the newspaper.After Albania fell to Italian rule in 1939, the Italian authorities banned the two daily newspapers of Tirana (Shtypi and Drita) and Fashizmi was set up to fill the void and convey the official Italian positions to the Albanian populace. The newspaper was set up by the General Directorate for Press, Propaganda and Tourism. The first issue was published on May 24, 1939. It was the sole daily newspaper published in Albania at the time. Through an agreement between the (Italian) National Fascist Party inspector and the General Directorate four regional weekly and biweekly bilingual fascist organs were set up as well.The newspaper covered political, social, economical and literary affairs. The issues of Fashizmi contained both Gheg and Tosk orthography, as well as material in Italian on its last page (with the title Il Fascismo). Issues contained 4-6 pages, with a format of 42 by 57.2 centimetres (16.5 in × 22.5 in).Fashizmi failed to gain wide readership in Tirana. In a move to downplay concerns that the newspaper was merely a propaganda mouthpiece Fashizmi was closed down in March 1940 and replaced by Tomori (the name of an Albanian mountain). However, the Italian authorities gave no official explanation to the closure of Fashizmi.

Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943)

The Italian protectorate of Albania, also known as Greater Albania, existed as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy. It was practically a union between Italy and Albania, officially led by Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III and its government: Albania was led by Italian governors, after being militarily occupied by Italy, from 1939 until 1943. During this time, Albania ceased to exist as an independent country and remained as an autonomous part of the Italian Empire led by Italian government officials, who intended to make Albania part of a Greater Italy by assimilating Albanians as Italians and colonizing Albania with Italian settlers from the Italian Peninsula to transform it gradually into an Italian land.In the Treaty of London during World War I, the Triple Entente had promised to Italy, central and southern Albania as a possession; as a reward for fighting alongside the Entente. In June 1917, after Italian soldiers seized control of substantial areas of Albania, Italy formally declared a protectorate over central and southern Albania; however this was overturned in September 1920 when Italy was pressured to remove its army from Albania. Italy was enraged with the minimal gains that it received from peace negotiations, which it regarded as having violated the Treaty of London. Italian Fascists claimed that Albanians were ethnically linked to Italians through links with the prehistoric Italiotes, Illyrian and Roman populations, and that the major influence exerted by the Roman and Venetian empires over Albania justified Italy's right to possess it. Italy also justified the annexation of Albania on the basis that because several hundred thousand people of Albanian descent had been absorbed into society in southern Italy already, that the incorporation of Albania was a reasonable measure that would unite people of Albanian descent into one state. Italy supported Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo in Yugoslavia and Epirus in Greece, particularly the border area of Chameria, inhabited by the Cham Albanian minority.

Jani Minga

Jani Minga (1 August 1872–7 May 1947) was a patriot Albanian teacher and a notable follower of the National Renaissance of Albania. He was one of the signatories of Albanian Declaration of Independence.

Këmisha e zezë

Këmisha e zezë ('Blackshirts') was a weekly Albanian-Italian bilingual newspaper published from Vlorë during the Italian occupation of Albania. The newspaper was founded on August 12, 1939. It was the organ of the Vlorë provincial federation of the Albanian Fascist Party. Jup Kazazi served as its managing director and Sezai Kemal was the editor-in-chief of the newspaper.Its issues contained two or four pages, 42x58 centimetres. Këmisha e zezë used Tosk orthography. One page was printed in Italian.It was one of five newspapers published in Albania at the time (all bilingual fascist organs).

Liktori

Liktori ('Lictor') was a twice-weekly Albanian-Italian bilingual newspaper published from Korçë during the Italian occupation of Albania. The newspaper was founded on July 9, 1939, replacing Korça fashiste ('Fascist Korçë') of Zhan Gorguzi (founded just a few days before). Initially Dr. Guljelm Deba served as the director of Liktori. On September 14, 1940 (issue no. 124) Lluka Bibi took over as director.Liktori was the organ of the Korçë provincial federation of the Albanian Fascist Party. It was one of five newspapers published in Albania at the time (all bilingual fascist organs).The format of the newspaper varied between 36x58 centimetres and 40x58 cm. The newspaper used Tosk orthography. The newspaper carried four or pages, one of them in Italian language. It was published on Thursdays and Sundays.Liktori continued publication until 1943.

List of fascist movements by country

This is a list of political parties, organizations, and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology. Since definitions of fascism vary, entries in this list may be controversial. For a discussion of the various debates surrounding the nature of fascism, see fascism and ideology and definitions of fascism.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of fascist movements by country A–F

List of fascist movements by country G–M

List of fascist movements by country N–T

List of fascist movements by country U–Z

List of fascist movements by country A–F

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

Maliq Bushati

Maliq Bushati (8 February 1880 in Shkodër, Scutari Vilayet – 15 February 1946), was an Albanian Axis collaborator, Prime Minister of Albania during the Italian occupation, from 13 February to 12 May 1943.Along with two other Axis Collaborators Lef Nosi and father Anton Harapi , he was sentenced to death by communist Albania.

Mborje

Mborje is a settlement in the Korçë County, southeastern Albania. At the 2015 local government reform it became part of the municipality Korçë. It is a southeastern suburb of Korçë.

It is said that thousands of years ago, when the field of Korce was covered by water, (Kenete), Mborje was the center of the civilization. This is also testified by many Palofites (houses built in the water) found there.The area contains some very ancient churches.

The Holy Resurrection Church (Albanian: Kisha e Ristozit), a 14th-century church, is one of the most important cultural monuments of the settlement.

Mustafa Merlika-Kruja

Mustafa Merlika-Kruja (March 15, 1887, Akçahisar, Ottoman Empire (modern-day Krujë, Albania) – December 27, 1958, Niagara Falls, New York) was one of the signatories of the Albanian Declaration of Independence. He served as Prime Minister of Albania during the Italian occupation from December 4, 1941 to January 19, 1943.

Qazim Koculi

Qazim Koculi (August 22, 1887 – January 2, 1943) was an Albanian politician of the early 20th century and one-day acting Prime Minister of Albania. He was also the principal military commander of the Albanian forces during the Vlora War in 1920.

Shefqet Vërlaci

Shefqet bej Vërlaci (Albanian pronunciation: [ʃɛfcɛt vəɾlat͡si]; 15 December 1877, Elbasan, Manastir Vilayet, Ottoman Empire – 21 July 1946, Zürich, Switzerland) was an Albanian politician and wealthy landowner.

Tefik Mborja

Tefik Selim Mborja (6 November 1891-1 July 1954) was an Albanian politician and lawyer. He served as the general secretary of the Albanian Fascist Party during the Second World War.

Xhafer bej Ypi

Xhafer bej Ypi (Albanian pronunciation: [ˈdʒafɛɾ ˈbɛj ˈypi] January 12, 1880, Starje - December 17, 1940) was an Albanian politician.

Ypi's parents were Asilan (a landowner) and Zavalani. He was educated at a university in Istanbul. In 1920-1921 he was Minister of Internal Affairs and Minister of Justice. He also held the position of Minister of Public Instruction.

As the leader of the Popular Party, in late December 1921 he formed a government where Fan S. Noli was the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Ahmed Zogu was the Minister of Internal Affairs. Until December 4, 1922, Ypi was Prime Minister, in 1922 after Noli's resignation he was also acting Minister of Foreign Affairs.

From December 2, 1922, to January 31, 1925, Ypi was a member of the High Council (the collegial Head of State, formally for William of Wied). In June 1924 he left Albania because of Noli's revolt, but he kept holding the post formally.

During Zog's Kingdom, Ypi was Chief Inspector of the Royal Court.

When the Italian occupation began, Ypi saluted the Italians who had "liberated" Albania "from the heavy slavery of the sanguinary Zogu". After King Zog had fled, from April 9 to April 12 Ypi was Chairman and Plenipotentiary for Justice of the Provisional Administration Committee, and as such acting head of state. From April 12, he was the Minister of Justice in Shefqet Verlaci's government. He was killed by an aerial bomb.

Parliament
Non-parliamentary
Dissolved

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