Alamgir II

Aziz-ud-din Alamgir II (Urdu: عالمگير ثانی) (6 June 1699 – 29 November 1759) was the Mughal Emperor of India from 3 June 1754 to 29 November 1759. He was the son of Jahandar Shah.

Aziz-ud-Din, the second son of Jahandar Shah, was raised to the throne by Imad-ul-Mulk after he deposed Ahmad Shah Bahadur in 1754. On ascending the throne, he took the title of Alamgir and tried to follow the approach of Aurangzeb Alamgir. At the time of his accession to throne he was an old man of 55 years. He had no experience of administration and warfare as he had spent most of his life in jail. He was a weak ruler, with all powers vested in the hand of his vizier, Ghazi-ud-Din Imad-ul-Mulk.

In 1756, Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India once again and captured Delhi and plundered Mathura. Marathas became more powerful because of their collaboration with Imad-ul-Mulk, and dominated the whole of northern India. This was the peak of Maratha expansion, which caused great trouble for the Mughal Empire, already weak with no strong ruler. Relations between Alamgir II and his usurping vizier, Imad-ul-Mulk had now deteriorated. He was murdered by Imad-ul-Mulk. Alamgir II's son Ali Gauhar escaped persecution from Delhi, while Shah Jahan III was placed on the throne.

Alamgir II
عالمگير ثانی
Mughal Emperor
Brooklyn Museum - Emperor Alamgir II - Sukha Luhar
14th Mughal Emperor
Reign3 June 1754 – 29 November 1759
PredecessorAhmad Shah Bahadur
SuccessorShah Jahan III
RegentImad-ul-Mulk (1754–1756)
Najib-ul-Daula (1756–1759)
Imad-ul-Mulk (1759)
Born6 June 1699
Multan, Mughal Empire
Died29 November 1759 (aged 60)
Kotla Fateh Shah, Mughal Empire
Burial
SpouseZinat Mahal
Faiz Bakht Begum
Azizabadi Mahal
Latifa Begum
Zinat Afruz Begum
Aurangabadi Mahal
IssueShah Alam II
Mirza Muhammad Ali Asghar Bahadur
Mirza Muhammad Harun Hidayat Bakhsh Bahadur
Mirza Tali Murad Shah Bahadur
Mirza Jamiyat Shah Bahadur
Mirza Muhammad Himmat Shah Bahadur
Mirza Ahsan-ud-Din Muhammad Bahadur
Mirza Mubarak Shah Bahadur
Full name
Aziz-ud-din Alamgir II
HouseTimurid
FatherJahandar Shah
MotherAnup Bai
ReligionIslam

Early life

He was born on 6 June 1699 at Multan and was the second son of Maaz-ud-Din, the son of future Emperor Bahadur Shah I. Alamgir II was 7 when his great-grandfather Aurangzeb died in the Deccan. After the death of his grandfather, Bahadur Shah I, and the war of succession that followed, his father, Maaz-ud-Din, was defeated, by the next Mughal Emperor, Farrukhsiyar.

Aziz-ud-Din was then imprisoned in 1714 and released in 1754, by usurping Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk, he perceived Aziz-ud-Din as a frail personality who would not object his regime. Therefore, on 2 June 1754, Aziz-ud-Din was given the title Alamgir II by the vizier out of his own recommendation, as he wanted to follow the centralised approach of Aurangzeb.

Succession to throne

Imadulmulk
Imad-ul-Mulk, a persecutor of the Mughal imperial family, holds a banquet.

Imad-ul-Mulk was clearly a man of no principles and was commonly criticised for his extreme selfishness. he hired Maratha mercenaries to do his bidding[1] and put all the imperial revenues into his own pocket and starved Alamgir II's family. He persecuted Ali Gauhar, the elder son of Muhy-us-Sunnat.

Since then, relations between Alamgir II and Imad-ul-Mulk's regime were so bad that the latter got him assassinated in November 1759.

Reign

After the emergence of Alamgir II the Mughal Empire had impulsively began to re-centralize, particularly when many Nawabs sought the gratification of the Mughal Emperor and his co-ordination regarding their resistance to the Maratha. This development was clearly unwelcome by Imad-ul-Mulk who sought to strengthen his authoritarianism with the undaunted support of the Marathas.

Alliance with the Durrani Emirate

In the year 1755, the acclaimed Mughal viceroy of Punjab, Muin ul-Mulk died his widow Mughlam Begum desperately sought the assistance of Ahmad Shah Durrani to halt any succession struggle and to quell the Sikh rebels in the eastern regions.

Ahmad Shah Durrani and his forces then marched into Lahore in the year 1756 and appointed his son Timur Shah Durrani as the new viceroy at Lahore, under the protection of the commander Jahan Khan and also placed Adina Beg as the Faujdar of Doab. Ahmad Shah Durrani then plundered Sikh and Hindu inhabitants in the unstable and outlawed eastern regions of the Punjab.

He then marched towards Delhi, in October 1757, the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II with courtiers such as Shah Waliullah, nobles such as Najib-ul-Daula, and the imperial family went to meet Ahmad Shah Durrani, whose forces then engaged the Marathas in combat and threatened to overthrow and execute the regime of Imad-ul-Mulk.

Ahmad Shah Durrani's relations with the Mughal Emperor, strengthened further when his son Timur Shah Durrani was chosen as the suitor of Alamgir II's daughter Zuhra Begum. Ahmad Shah Durrani himself also married Hadrat Begum the daughter of the former Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah. [2]

Durrani's harry the Punjab

Ahmad Shah Durrani returned to Kabul leaving his forces led by his son Timur Shah Durrani consolidating themselves inside the garrisons of Lahore where they founded the Zamzama cannon with the assistance of Mughal Metalsmiths.

He was supported by Mohammad Bahawal Khan II (Nawab Amir of Bhawalpur) and Muhammad Nasir Khan I (Khanate of Kalat).[3]

Siege of Delhi (1757)

Patthargarh fort outside Najibabad, 1814-15
Patthargarh fort (literally meaning: "stone stronghold") outside Najibabad, built by Najib ad-Dawlah in 1755, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II.

In July 1757, the Maratha's led by Raghunathrao rejected the alliance established between the Durrani Empire and the Mughal Empire, they were assisted by Imad-ul-Mulk and encamped 30 km opposite to the Red Fort and occupied all the villages by the Jamuna they began to stage the Siege of Delhi (1757).

The Marathas fought against Alamgir II's incumbent Mir Bakshi ("Paymaster") Najib-ul-Daula along with his lieutenants Qutub Shah and Aman Khan and a Mughal Army of 2,500 garrisoned inside the metropolis of Delhi.

The angry Maratha set ferries ablaze and stopped food supplies from entering Delhi, while Najib-ul-Daula positioned his heavy artillery outside the vicinity of the Red Fort.

Unable to gain any assistance form Ahmad Shah Durrani, who was engaged in quelling various rebellions near Herat; Najib-ul-Daula surrendered after resisting the combined brigands of Maratha Confederacy for more than five months, he conceded defeat and withdrew to Najibabad.

When the Marathas entered Delhi the emperor Alamgir II and his royal family had somehow fled to Bharatpur State.

The Marathas looted and plundered the city and the people of Delhi. Mosques and Shrines built by the Mughals were desecrated; and the Peshwa conspired to place Vishwasrao upon the Mughal throne.

Imad-ul-Mulk was reappointed Mir Bakshi and with the support of the Marathas.[4]

Not long after entering Delhi the Marathas encountered a Jat regiment sent by Suraj Mal who now began to claim sovereignty over Delhi.

The Jat also plundered Delhi but soon afterwards made it possible for Alamgir II and the Mughal royal family to return to Delhi from Bharatpur.

However, despite losing control of Delhi, Najib-ul-Daula and his associates, such as Qutub Khan and Abdus Samad Khan the Mughal Faujdar of Sirhind, continued to challenge the Maratha Confederacy and its allies during confrontations at Saharanpur and Shahabad Markanda. In response the Marathas sacked the inhabitants of Taraori, Karnal and Kunjpura.[4]

The Maratha attack upon Kunjpura triggered a military response by Ahmad Shah Durrani. Whose forces crossed the sacred rivers of India in search of their Maratha opponents.

Subjects opposing the Maratha Confederacy

In the year 1756, Alamgir II sympathised with the cause of his loyal Nawabs of Kurnool, Cuddapah and Savanur, when their assigned territories were ravaged and plundered until 1757 by the Maratha chieftain Balaji Baji Rao.

Third Carnatic War (1757–1763)

The Nawab's artillery at Plassey
Mughal artillerymen at Plassey during the Carnatic Wars.

Loss of Bengal

Alamgir II grieved the death of Alivardi Khan the famous Nawab of Bengal, who annually pledged 5 million dams to the imperial court. His successor Siraj-ud-Daula was recognised as the next Nawab of Bengal, but he faced internal rivals who refused to consider the Firman granted by Alamgir II to Siraj-ud-Daula. These internal conflicts would lead Siraj-ud-Daula to hastily annex Calcutta from the English East India Company, without the permission of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II and Salabat Jung. Siraj-ud-Daula was quickly defeated by Clive who recaptured Calcutta and defeated Siraj-ud-Daula during the Battle of Plassey in the year 1757. After the annihilation of his entire army Siraj-ud-Daula fled and was killed by the forces of the treacherous Mir Jafar. The deceased Siraj-ud-Daula's pretensions were criticised in the Mughal imperial court by Ghulam Husain Tabatabai, and Alamgir II refused to recognise Mir Jafar as the next Nawab of Bengal. In response to the imperial court's decision Mir Jafar thus consolidated and alliance with the manipulative Imad-ul-Mulk against he imperial family.

Authority in the Deccan

Throughout Alamgir II's reign French commandant de Bussy and Lally and their allies such as Salabat Jung and Hyder Ali greatly contributed to the advancement of forces in the Deccan opposed to the utter dominance of the Maratha renegades, their achievements had earned them fame throughout the influential circles within the Mughal Empire. In the year 1756, Salabat Jung's forces utilised heavy muskets known as Catyocks, which were attached to the ground, it was known to have fired more rapidly than a cannon.[5] These new weapons would completely reverse fortunes of the Maratha rebels. Soon after the Battle of Plassey, the French commander De Bussy, also entitled Saif-ud-Daula Umdat-ul-Mulk and Mansabdar of 7000, by the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II. He captured the Northern Circars from the British along with his assistant Hyder Jung the "Vakil" (attorney) representing the French within the Mughal Empire and Salabat Jung. However the Northern Circars were retaken by Forde in the year 1758 and De Bussy was recalled to France. Fearing the worst Salabat Jung reconciled with the English East India Company and recognised their protectorate and was soon overthrown by his own brother Nizam Ali Khan.

Nawab of Bhopal

In the year 1758, the Mughal Army of Faiz Mohammad Khan the Nawab of Bhopal was treacherously attacked by his step-mother Mamola Bai who suddenly besieged the Mughal garrison at Fortress of Raisen in 1758, according to the layout of the Marathas. The outraged Mughal Emperor Alamgir II, then issued a Firman supporting Faiz Mohammad Khan was the Nawab of Bhopal the only chosen administrator of Raisen, the emperor also granted the title Bahadur to Faiz Mohammad Khan the Nawab of Bhopal. However the fort remained under the control of Mamola Bai and the renegade Nanasaheb Peshwa. The fortress of Raisen was quickly retaken by Faiz Mohammad Khan in the year 1760, after the tragic assassination of Alamgir II and after Sadashivrao Bhau threatened to ravage Bhopal prior to the Third Battle of Panipat. It is believed that Faiz Mohammad Khan's Sepoy's were among those who had cut off the various supply routes of the Marathas just before the Third Battle of Panipat.

"Nawab of Mysore"

In 1758, Hyder Ali and his Sepoy captured Bangalore from "Khande Rao of the Maratha Confederacy".

In honour of his achievements during the Seven Years' War, the king gave him the title "Nawab Haider Ali Khan Bahadur".

Zenith of the Maratha Confederacy

Marathas
Maratha Confederacy at its zenith in 1760, the Peshwa discussed abolishing the Mughal Empire and placing Vishwasrao on the imperial throne in Delhi.

In 1758 the Marathas led by Raghunathrao occupied Lahore after extracted an extortion of imperial wealth from Imad-ul-Mulk, together they conspired the overthrow of young Timur Shah Durrani. Raghunathrao drove out Jahan Khan and Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Timur Shah Durrani and his forces were forced to retreat from Lahore to Peshawar under the force of attacks from Sikhs and Marathas. This victory made the belligerent Peshwa, grandiosely sack Delhi and hype their intentions of placing Vishwasrao on the Mughal throne.[6]

Assassination

Many of his actions had angered the people of India. Fearing a backlash in the summer of the year 1759 Prince Ali Gauhar escaped from Delhi.

Agitated by the daring escape Imad-ul-Mulk and Sadashivrao Bhau reckoned that Alamgir II was about to advance his son Prince Ali Gauhar, to dispossess and overthrow their regime.

After detailed consideration Imad-ul-Mulk and an angry mob of various ethnic groups plotted to murder the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II and the assassinations of prominent members of his family in the winter of 1759.[7]

Alamgir II was murdered because he refused to lower the Afghan flag.

According to legend

During his reign religious feuds became common among the individuals of the Durbar, and communal duels between rivals became a common occurrence during his reign.

After his assassination Maratha women set out on a pilgrimage to Northern India, specifically Delhi where the Mughals mourned their slain emperor.

Aftermath

Sadashivrao Bhau then personally chose the usurping, Shah Jahan III as the new Mughal Emperor and began a campaign of plundering the Jewels and ornaments of the Mughal imperial court, he also defaced mosques, tombs and shrines that the Mughals had built in Agra and Delhi, he then desecrated the imperial Moti Masjid and looted its exquisite jewelled decorations into booty for the ravaging Marathas.[8]

The defeat of Alamgir II's son-in-law, Timur Shah Durrani by the Marathas in the year 1760, provoked the wrath of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who launched a massive campaign gathering more troops than ever before. In response to the atrocious crimes committed by Imad-ul-Mulk and Sadashivrao Bhau; Najib-ud-Daula and his firm alliance of principal Muslim nobles in the Mughal Empire recaptured Delhi and placed it under the nominal authority of Shah Alam II. In the south Hyder Ali and his Mysore Army ferociously attacked the Maratha. Meanwhile, Shah Alam II anticipated the collapse of the Maratha and declared Shuja-ud-Daula his Grand Vizier and Najib-ud-Daula as his honorary Mukhtar Khas (Chief Representative).[9][10] These developments eventually culminated into rise of religious and political loyalties that eventually clashed at the "Third Battle of Panipat" in the year 1761.

Foreign relations

Seven Years' War

In 1756, the Seven Years' War had broken out and Alamgir II was supported by various international belligerents of that war.

It was the first global war in which the Great Mogul had his involvement apart from the boundaries of India.

In 1755, De Bussy received letter from new Mughal Emperor Alamgir II requesting French assistance to put down the Maratha Confederacy. Alamgir II asked if it was possible for De Bussy to dispatch a French contingent of 1000 strong to protect the Mughal Empire's capitol at Delhi. Alamgir II also promised to pay a hefty sum for the maintenance of the French and even promised to settle disputes in the Carnatic Wars in favour of the French East India Company.[11]

In 1757, Alamgir II had successfully achieved peace between the Durrani Emirate and the Mughal Empire. Alamgir II even secured a matrimonial alliance[12] when Timur Shah Durrani married Gauhar Afroz Begam the daughter of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II in February 1757 and Ahmad Shah Durrani married Hazrat Begum the daughter of the former Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1757.[13]

in the year 1751, the Swedish East India Company was operating in Surat as a co-bellegerent of Alamgir II. They were probably instrumental in assisting the first Nawab of Junagadh.

It is believed that Alamgir II even tried to reconcile the English East India Company and the French East India Company before his death in 1759.

Death

Silver Rupee Madras Presidency
Silver rupee issued in the name of Alamgir II, date of AH 1172 (c. 1758).

The newly appointed Mughal Grand Vizier after Ahmad Shah Durrani's invasion was Najib-ud-Daula who tried to consolidate the remains of the Mughal Empire by uniting distant Faujdars, Nawab's and Nizams into a common cause against the Marathas. Fearing their wrath the deposed Imad-ul-Mulk aligned himself with the Maratha leader Sadashivrao Bhau and launched an counterattack agianst Najib-ud-Daula which lasted 15 days and resulted in the defeat of Najib-ud-Daula who was drriven North.

Imad-ul-Mulk then feared that the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II would recall Ahmad Shah Durrani, or use his son Prince Ali Gauhar, to dispossess him of his newfound power with the Marathas. Therefore, Imad-ul-Mulk plotted to murder the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II and his family. A few Mughal Princes, including Ali Gauhar desperately managed to escape before assassination. In November 1759, the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II was told that a pious man had come to meet him, Alamgir II, ever so eager to meet holy men, set out immediately to meet him at Kotla Fateh Shah, he was stabbed repeatedly by Imad-ul-Mulk's assassins. The Mughal Emperor Alamgir II's death was mourned throughout the Mughal Empire, particularly by the Muslim populace.

After the assassination of Alamgir II in 1759, the Peshwa under the sway of Sadashivrao Bhau had reached the peak of its short-lived power particularly when their involvement in the assassination had become eminent when he discussed abolishing the Mughal Empire and placing Vishwasrao on the throne in Delhi by bribing or deposing Imad-ul-Mulk.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.emotional-literacy-education.com/classic-books-online-a/tfmeh10.htm
  2. ^ https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.99051/2015.99051.Mughal-Rule-In-India_djvu.txt
  3. ^ http://thebaluch.com/documents/Nasir%20Khan%20Noori.pdf
  4. ^ a b Jaswant Lal Mehta. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  5. ^ Kaushik Roy (30 March 2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  6. ^ a b Elphinstone, Mountstuart (1841). History of India. John Murray, Albermarle Street. p. 276.
  7. ^ "Alamgir II (Mughal emperor) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  8. ^ Shaharyar M. Khan (20 October 2000). The Begums of Bhopal: A History of the Princely State of Bhopal. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  9. ^ Raghunath Rai. History. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  10. ^ Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  11. ^ Sarojini Regani. Nizam-British Relations, 1724–1857. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  12. ^ S.R. Sharma. Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  13. ^ Students' Britannica India. Retrieved 31 January 2014.

External links

Media related to Alamgir II at Wikimedia Commons

Alamgir II
Preceded by
Ahmad Shah Bahadur
Mughal Emperor
2 June 1754– 29 November 1759
Succeeded by
Shah Jahan III
Balwant Singh of Benares

Rafa'at wa Awal-i-Martabat Raja Sri Balwant Singh Sahib Bahadur, known as Balwant Singh, (born 1711, died 1770) was a ruler of Benares State in northern India.

Balwant Singh succeeded his father, Mansa Ram, as Raja of Kaswar and Nazim of Benares in 1738. During the 18th century the Mughal Empire was weakening, and the British were expanding from their base in Bengal. Mansa Ram's territory included most of present-day Bhadohi, Chandauli, Jaunpur, Mirzapur, Sonbhadra, and Varanasi districts, including the city of Varanasi. Leading a much more martial life, he built a fort and established a capital at Gangapur, but later moved to Ramnagar, across the Ganges River from Benares. Balwant Singh expelled Fazl Ali from present-day Ghazipur and Ballia districts, and added the area to his domains. In 1751, he expelled the representative of the Nawab of Awadh in an attempt to carve out a principality at Benares, but had to flee after a fierce fight when the Nawab invaded his domain in March 1752; a settlement was made between the two and he was restored to his titles by the Nawab. Emperor Alamgir II granted him a jagir in Bihar two years later. The first of his house to fight with the East India Company, he joined Shah Alam and Shuja ud-Daula in their 1763 invasion of Bengal. Following the Battle of Buxar in 1764, Emperor Shah Alam transferred Balwant Singh's zamindari to the Company, but the Company refused it along with the Treaty of Benares signed by the Emperor the same year. Instead, the zamindari reverted once again to the Nawab of Awadh in 1765, five years before Balwant Singh's death in 1770.

Balwant Singh had built Ramnagar Fort.

Balwant Singh was succeeded by his son Chait Singh.

Battle of Delhi (1757)

The Battle of Delhi, 1757, also referred to as the Second Battle of Delhi, was a battle fought on 11 August 1757 between Maratha Empire under the command of Raghunath Rao and Rohillas under Najib-ud-Daula, who was under the Afghan suzerainty. The battle was waged by the Marathas for the control of Delhi, the former Mughal capital which was now under the control of Rohilla chief Najib-ud-Daula, as a consequence of fourth invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali.

Gujarat under Alamgir II

The Mughal Empire's province Gujarat (now in India) was under attack of the Marathas since last half century. The chief Maratha houses, Gaikwar and Peshwa had made peace with each other and driven out the Mughal nobles under the emperor Alamgir II. One such noble, Momin Khan, had countered their advances and recovered Ahmedabad in 1756 lost to the Marathas few years ago. After a long siege, Ahmedabad fell again in hands of the Marathas. The Marathas levied tributes across Gujarat. In 1759, the English of the British East India Company captured Surat. Sadashiv Ramchandra was appointed as a viceroy by Peshwa in 1760 followed by Apa Ganesh in 1761. Following defeat of Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), the nobles briefly recovered towns from the Marathas but soon had to surrender. Thus the Marathas firmly established themselves in Gujarat.

Gujarat under Mughal Empire

In 1573, Akbar (1573–1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III. Muzaffar tried to regain the Sultanate in 1584 but failed. Gujarat remained the Mughal province (subah) governed by the viceroys and officers appointed by the Mughal emperors from Delhi. Akbar's foster brother Mirza Aziz Kokaltash was appointed as the viceroy who strengthened Mughal hold over the region. The nobles of former Sultanate continued to resist and rebel during the reign of the next emperor Jehangir (1605–1627) but Kokaltash and his successor viceroys subdued them. Jehangir also permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. The next emperor Shah Jahan (1627–1658) expanded his territories in south and his viceroys made hold over Kathiawar peninsula including Nawanagar. Shah Jahan had also appointed his prince Aurangzeb, who was involved in religious disputes, prince Dara Shikoh and later prince Murad Bakhsh as viceroys. Following battle of succession, Aurangzeb (1658–1707) came to the Mughal throne and his policies resulted in revolts and discontent. During his reign, the Marathas under Shivaji raided Surat (1666) and their incursions in Gujarat started. Till then Gujarat prospered due to political stability, peace and growing international trade.During the next three emperors (1707–1719) who had brief reigns, the nobles became more and more powerful due to instability in the Delhi. The royals of Marwar were appointed viceroys frequently. During the reign of the emperor Muhammad Shah (1719–1748), the struggle between the Mughal and Maratha nobles were heightened with frequent battles and incursions. The south Gujarat was lost to the Marathas and the towns in north and central Gujarat was attacked on several occasions with frequent demand of tributes. The Marathas continued to grow their hold and the frequent change of viceroys did not reverse the trend. The competing houses of Marathas, Gaikwars and Peshwas engaged between themselves which slow down their progress for a while. They later made peace between themselves. During the reign of the next emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748–1754), there was nominal control over the nobles who acted on their own. There were frequent fights between themselves and with Marathas. Ahmedabad, the capital of province, finally fell to the Marathas in 1752. It was regained by noble Momin Khan for a short time but again lost to the Marathas in 1756 after a long siege. Finding opportunity, the British captured Surat in 1759. After a setback at Panipat in 1761, the Marathas strengthened their hold on Gujarat. During this fifty years, the power struggle between the Mughal nobles and Marathas caused disorder and the decline in prosperity.

Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech

Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech (1723 – April 1774) was Regent of Rohilkhand in North India, from 1749 to 1774. He was a Pashtun by background, ruling over Rohillas. Hafiz Rahmat Khan had served honorably throughout the reign of three Mughal Emperors: Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Alamgir II and Shah Alam II. He was also a mentor of Prince Mirza Jawan Bakht.

Jahandar Shah

Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Muhammed Khan (Persian: میرزا معزلدین بیگ محمد خان‎ ;9 May 1661 – 12 February 1713), more commonly known as Jahandar Shah (Persian: جهاندار شاه‎), was a Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713. His full title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Quran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah). Sailendra Sen describes him as "a worthless debauch [who] became emperor after liquidating his three brothers".

Khosa Gotra

Khoshya (Hindi: खोश्या) is a gotra of Yaduvanshi Ahirs of Haryana. According to historian Richard Gabriel Fox, Khoshya was dominant clan in Ahirwal whose ancestors occupied by force some Gujjar villages in Jharawas. One of the descendants of this clan, Chowdhari Deepchand was a sardar in the army of Emperor Alamgir II (1754–59).It is considered a Gotra in Haryana, but on a different note, it is also found as a surname in the Brahmin community of Kashmir, known as the Kashmiri Pandits

Kumher

Kumher (formerly Kumbher) is a historical city and land of Sinsinwars the initial name of this city was Kuber. It is located in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan, India.

Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau

Charles Joseph Patissier, Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau (1718 – 7 January 1785) or Charles Joseph Patissier de Bussy was the Governor General of the French colony of Pondicherry from 1783 to 1785. He served with distinction under Joseph François Dupleix in the East Indies, receiving the Order of Saint Louis. He contributed to the recovery from Britain of Pondicherry in 1748, and was named in 1782 to lead all French military forces beyond the Cape of Good Hope. He coordinated his operations with Pierre André de Suffren and fought with distinction against the numerically superior British during the Indian campaigns of the American War of Independence.

Mirza Jawan Bakht (born 1749)

Shahzada Mirza Jawan Bakht Bahadur (Persian, Urdu: شہزادہ مرزا جوان بخت بہادر‎) alternative spelling Mirza Javan Bakht, Mirza Jewan Bakht also known as Mirza Jahandar Shah (A.D. 1749 - 31 May 1788 A.D., 25th Shaban 1202 A.H.,) born at the Red Fort, Delhi. He was the eldest son of Emperor Shah Alam II and the grandson of Emperor Alamgir II, Jawan Bakht was a very influential Timurid Prince of the Mughal Empire.

Mughal-Mongol genealogy

The rulers of the Mughal Empire shared certain genealogical relations with the Mongol royals. As they emerged in a time when this distinction had become less common, the Mughals identification as such has stuck and they have become known as one of the last Mongol successor states. As descendants of Timur, they are also members of the Timurid Dynasty, and therefore were connected to other royal families in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Far East.

Babur was also directly descended from Genghis Khan through his son Chagatai Khan.

Raghunathrao

Raghunathrao (a.k.a. Ragho Ballal or Ragho Bharari) (18 August 1734 – 11 December 1783) was a Peshwa of the Maratha Empire for a brief period from 1773 to 1774.

Shah Alam II

Ali Gohar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. His power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in the Persian language, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, 'The empire of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam', Palam being a suburb of Delhi.Shah Alam faced many invasions, mainly by the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat between the Maratha Empire, who maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi and the Afghans led by Abdali. In 1760, the invading forces of Abdali were driven away by the Marathas, led by Sadashivrao Bhau, who deposed Shah Jahan III, the puppet Mughal emperor of Feroze Jung III, and installed Shah Alam II as the rightful emperor under the Maratha suzerainty.Shah Alam II was considered the only and rightful emperor, but he wasn't able to return to Delhi until 1772, under the protection of the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde. He also fought against the British East India Company at the Battle of Buxar.

Shah Alam II authored his own Diwan of poems and was known by the pen-name Aftab. His poems were guided, compiled and collected by Mirza Fakhir Makin.

Shah Jahan III

Shah Jahan III (1711 – 1772), (شاه جہان ۳) also known as Muhi-ul-millat was Mughal Emperor briefly. He was the son of Muhi-us-sunnat, the eldest son of Muhammad Kam Bakhsh who was the youngest son of Aurangzeb. He was placed on the Mughal throne in December 1759 as a result of the intricacies in Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk. He was later deposed by Maratha Sardars.

Shahzada Muhammad Hidayat Afshar, Ilahi Bakhsh Bahadur

Shahzada Muhammad Hideyat Afza (1809-21 March 1878), the 23rd head of the Mughal Dynasty, was born in Delhi in the reign of Akbar Shah II, the son of Mirza Muhammad Shuja'at Afza Bahadur(c.1750-1833). Through him, he was a great-great-great grandson in a direct male line from Bahadur Shah I; as well, through his paternal grandmother Nawab Umdat us-Zamani Begum Sahiba, he was a great-grandson of Alamgir II. Little is known of his early life. During the First War of Independence, he assisted the British forces in their efforts, provided intelligence on the activities of the revolutionaries, attempted to save Christians caught in the fighting and organised the peaceful surrender of Bahadur Shah II. For his services, Muhammad Hideyat Afza was given the title of Chief Representative and Head of the Royal House of Timur in 1858, along with the title of Shahzada and a pension of Rs.22,830. He was granted a jagir of several villages in Delhi and Meerut districts three years later-a far cry from the vast empire his ancestors had ruled. In India and Pakistan, he is widely seen as "traitor". He died in his seventieth year on 21 March 1878.

Shuja-ud-Daula

Shuja-ud-Daulah (b. (1732-01-19)19 January 1732 – d. (1775-01-26)26 January 1775) was the Subedar Nawab of Oudh from 5 October 1754 to 26 January 1775 .

Though a minor royal, he is best known for his key roles in two definitive battles in Indian history – the Third Battle of Panipat which temporarily halted Maratha domination of the northern regions of the Mughal Empire and overthrew Shah Jahan III and reaffirmed Shah Alam II as the rightful emperor of the Mughal Empire. He had allied himself with Mir Qasim and took part in the Battle of Buxar, which ended in defeat.

Timur Shah Durrani

Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic: تیمور شاہ درانی ; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the second child and eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani.

Treaty of Allahabad

The Treaty of Allahabad was signed on 12 August 1765, between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, son of the late Emperor Alamgir II, and Robert Clive, of the East India Company, as a result of the Battle of Buxar of 22 October 1764. The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of British rule in India. Based on the terms of the agreement, Alam granted the East India Company Diwani rights, or the right to collect taxes on behalf of the Emperor from the eastern province of Bengal-Bihar-Orissa. Thus East India Company were appointed as the imperial tax collector for the Eastern province (Bengal-Bihar-Orissa). These rights allowed the Company to collect revenue directly from the people of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. In return, the Company paid an annual tribute of twenty-six lakhs of rupees (equal to 260,000 pounds sterling) while securing for Shah Alam II the districts of Kora and Allahabad. The tribute money paid to the emperor was for the maintenance of the Emperor's court in Allahabad. The accord also dictated that Shah Alam be restored to the province of Varanasi as long as he continued to pay certain amount of revenue to the Company. Awadh was returned to Shuja-ud-Daulah, but Allahabad and Kora were taken from him. The Nawab of Awadh also had to pay fifty lakhs of rupees as war indemnity to the East India Company.

The Nawab of Awadh, Shuja ud Daulah, was made to pay a war indemnity of 5 million rupees to the Company. Moreover, the two signed an alliance by which the Company promised to support the Nawab against an outside attack provided he paid for services of the troops sent to his aid. This alliance made the Nawab dependent on the Company. This was a turning point in Indian history.

Emperors
Battles andconflicts
Architecture
Adversaries
Provinces
See also
Successor states

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