Alabanda

Alabanda (Ancient Greek: Ἀλάβανδα) or Antiochia of the Chrysaorians was a city of ancient Caria, Anatolia, the site of which is near Doğanyurt, Çine, Aydın Province, Turkey.

The city is located in the saddle between two heights. The area is noted for its dark marble and for gemstones that resembled garnets. Stephanus of Byzantium claims that there were two cities named Alabanda (Alabandeus) in Caria, but no other ancient source corroborates this.

Alabanda
Ἀλάβανδα (in Ancient Greek)
Alabanda Bouleuterion
Remains of Alabanda's bouleuterion
Alabanda is located in Turkey
Alabanda
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameAntiochia of the Chrysaorians
LocationDoğanyurt, Aydın Province, Turkey
RegionCaria
Coordinates37°35′30″N 27°59′08″E / 37.59167°N 27.98556°ECoordinates: 37°35′30″N 27°59′08″E / 37.59167°N 27.98556°E
TypeSettlement

History

Alabanda Tiyatro
Ancient Greek theatre

According to legend, the city was founded by a Carian hero Alabandus. In the Carian language, the name is a combination of the words for horse ala and victory banda. On one occasion, Herodotus mentions Alabanda being located in Phrygia, instead of in Caria, but in fact the same city were meant.[1] Amyntas II, son of the Achaemenid Persian official Bubares, is known to have been given the rule over the city by king Xerxes I (r. 486-465 BC).[2][3]

In the early Seleucid period, the city was part of the Chrysaorian League, a loose federation of nearby cities linked by economic and defensive ties and, perhaps, by ethnic ties. The city was renamed Antiochia of the Chrysaorians in honor of Seleucid king Antiochus III who preserved the city's peace. It was captured by Philip V of Macedon in 201 BC. The name reverted to Alabanda after the Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. The Romans occupied the city shortly thereafter.

According to Cicero in Greece they worshiped a number of deified human beings, at Alabanda there was Alabandus.[4]

In 40 BC, the rebel Quintus Labienus at the head of a Parthian army took the city. After Labienus's garrison was slaughtered by the city's inhabitants, the Parthian army stripped the city of its treasures. Under the Roman Empire, the city became a conventus (Pliny, V, xxix, 105) and Strabo reports on its reputation for high-living and decadence. The city minted its own coins down to the mid-third century. During the Byzantine Empire, the city was a created a bishopric.

Famous residents included the orators Menecles and Hierocles, who were brothers.

The ruins of Alabanda are 8 km west of Çine and consist of the remains of a theatre and a number of other buildings, but excavations have yielded very few inscriptions.

Ecclesiastical history

The names of some bishops of Alabanda are known because of their participation in church councils. Thus Theodoret was at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Constantine at the Trullan Council in 692, another Constantine at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, and John at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879). The names of two non-orthodox bishops of the see are also known: Zeuxis, who was deposed for Monophysitism in 518, and Julian, who was bishop from around 558 to around 568 and was a Jacobite.[5][6] No longer a residential diocese, Alabanda is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[7][8]

Bishops

  • Theodoret (mentioned in 451)
  • Zeuxis (? – 518 deposed) (Monophysite)
  • Julian (about 558 – about 568) (Jacobite)[9]
  • Constantine (mentioned in 692)
  • Constantine II (mentioned in 787)
  • John (mentioned in 879)
  • Saba (9th–10th century)
  • Nicephorus (11th century)
  • Anonymous (mentioned 11th century)
  • William O'Carroll, (February 3, 1874 – October 13, 1880)[10][11][12]
  • Rocco Leonasi (March 30, 1882 – March 14, 1883)
  • Giuseppe Francica-Nava de Bontifè (August 9, 1883 – May 24)
  • Nicola Lorusso (June 23, 1890 – June 8, 1891)
  • John Brady (June 19, 1891 – January 6, 1910)
  • Joseph Lang (February 26, 1915 – 1 November 1924)
  • François Chaize,(May 12, 1925 – February 23, 1949)
  • José María García Grain,(March 10, 1949 – May 27, 1959)
  • Michel Ntuyahaga (June 11, 1959 – November 10, 1959
  • James William Malone (January 2, 1960 – May 2, 1968)

Bibliography

  • Turkey: The Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts, Blue Guides ISBN 978-0-393-30489-3, pp. 349–50.
  • J. Ma, Antiochos III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor, ISBN 978-0-19-815219-4, p. 175

External links

References

  1. ^ BEAN, G.E. "ALABANDA (Araphisar) Caria, Turkey". perseus.tufts.edu. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Retrieved 18 September 2016. Herodotos describes Alabanda in one case as in Caria, in the other as in Phrygia, but there is no doubt that the same city is meant.
  2. ^ Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 136.
  3. ^ Briant 2002, p. 350.
  4. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum. "In Greece they worship a number of deified human beings, Alabandus at Alabanda, Tennes at Tenedos, Leucothea, formerly Ino, and her son Palaemon throughout the whole of Greece."
  5. ^ Michel Le Quien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 909-910
  6. ^ Sophrone Pétridès, v. Alabanda, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. I, Paris 1909, col. 1285
  7. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 828
  8. ^ Vincenzo Ruggiari, A historical Addendum to the episcopal Lists of Caria, in Revue des études byzantines, Année 1996, Volume 54, Numéro 54, pp. 221-234 (in particular p. 232)
  9. ^ Michel Le Quien, Oriens Christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Volume I, coll. 909–910.
  10. ^ Alabanda at catholic-hierarchy.org.
  11. ^ /t0083.htm Alabanda at GCatholic.org.
  12. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series Episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 447.

Sources

1977 Copa del Rey Final

The 1977 Copa del Rey Final was the 75th final of the Copa del Rey. The final was played at Vicente Calderón Stadium in Madrid, on 25 June 1977, being won by Real Betis, who beat Athletic Bilbao on the penalties after 2–2.

Alabanda coat of arms

Alabanda is a Polish nobility coat of arms, used by several szlachta families in the times of the Kingdom of Poland.

Almandine

Almandine (), also known incorrectly as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. The name is a corruption of alabandicus, which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet, of deep red color, inclining to purple. It is frequently cut with a convex face, or en cabochon, and is then known as carbuncle. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light, it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands.Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series, with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition.

Almandine, Fe2+3Al2Si3O12, is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-forming silicates, which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust, upper mantle and transition zone. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d, with unit-cell parameter a ≈ 11.512 Å at 100 K.Almandine is antiferromagnetic with the Néel temperature of 7.5 K. It contains two equivalent magnetic sublattices.

Amyntas II (son of Bubares)

Amyntas II was the son of the Persian official Bubares by his Macedonian wife Gygaea. He was named after his maternal grandfather, Amyntas I of Macedon, who ruled Macedon as a Persian subject since 512/511 BC. Later, king Xerxes I (r. 486-465 BC) gave him the Carian city of Alabanda. Amyntas was possibly the direct successor of the tyrant Aridolis.

Bubares, a Persian, had taken to wife Gygaea, Alexander's sister and Amyntas' daughter, who had borne to him that Amyntas of Asia who was called by the name of his mother's father, and to whom the king gave Alabanda, a great city in Phrygia, for his dwelling.

Apaturius

Apaturius of Alabanda was a scene-painter of ancient Greece, whose mode of painting the scene of the little theatre at Tralles is described by Vitruvius, with the criticism made upon it by Licinius.A different, unrelated Apaturius was a Gaul who, with Nicanor of Syria, assassinated Seleucus III Ceraunus in the 3rd century BCE.

Apollonius Molon

Apollonius Molon or Molo of Rhodes (or simply Molon; Ancient Greek: Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Μόλων), was a Greek rhetorician. He was a native of Alabanda, a pupil of Menecles, and settled at Rhodes, where he opened a school of rhetoric. Prior to that, he twice visited Rome as an ambassador from Rhodes. Marcus Tullius Cicero studied with him during his trip to Greece in 79-77 BC, as did Gaius Julius Caesar a few years later. Perhaps it is at least partially due to Apollonius Molon's instruction that Caesar, and Cicero especially, achieved fame as orators in the Roman Republic. Molon is reputed to have quoted Demosthenes in telling his pupils that the first three elements in rhetoric were "Delivery, Delivery and Delivery." He had a stellar reputation in Roman Law courts, and was even invited to address the Roman Senate in Greek - an honor not usually bestowed upon foreign ambassadors.

Molon wrote on Homer and endeavored to moderate the florid Asiatic style of rhetoric. According to Josephus, in Against Apion, Apollonius Molon slandered the Jews.

Apollonius the Effeminate

Apollonius the Effeminate (Ancient Greek: Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Μαλακος) was a Greek rhetorician of Alabanda in Caria who flourished about 120 BC.

After studying under Menecles, chief of the Asiatic school of oratory, he settled in Rhodes, where he taught rhetoric. Among his pupils were Q. Mucius Scaevola the augur, and Marcus Antonius, the grandfather of Mark Antony.

Aridolis

Aridolis (Ancient Greek: Ἀρίδωλις) was a tyrant of Alabanda in Caria, who accompanied the Achaemenid king Xerxes I in his expedition against Greece, and was taken by the Greeks off Artemisium in 480 BCE, and sent to the isthmus of Corinth in chains. His successor may have been Amyntas II (son of Bubares).

They took in one of these ships Aridolis, the despot of Alabanda in Caria, and in another the Paphian captain Penthylus son of Demonous; of twelve ships that he had brought from Paphos he had lost eleven in the storm off the Sepiad headland, and was in the one that remained when he was taken as he bore down on Artemisium. Having questioned these men and learnt what they desired to know of Xerxes' armament, the Greeks sent them away to the isthmus of Corinth in bonds.

Aydın Archaeological Museum

Aydın Archaeological Museum (Turkish: Aydın Arkeoloji Müzesi) is in Aydın, western Turkey. Established in 1959, it contains numerous statues, tombs, columns and stone carvings from the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods, unearthed in ancient cities such as Alinda, Alabanda, Amyzon, Harpasa, Magnesia on the Maeander, Mastaura, Myus, Nisa, Orthosia, Piginda, Pygela and Tralleis. The museum also has a section devoted to ancient coin finds.

Aydın Province

Aydın Province (Turkish: Aydın ili) is a province of southwestern Turkey, located in the Aegean Region. The provincial capital is the city of Aydın which has a population of approx. 150,000 (2000). Other towns in the province include the summer seaside resorts of Didim and Kuşadası.

Chrysaorian League

The Chrysaorian League (Ancient Greek: σύστημα Χρυσαορικόν, systema Chrysaorikon) was an informal loose federation of several cities in ancient region of Caria, Anatolia that was apparently formed in the early Seleucid period and lasted at least until 203 BC. The League had its primary focus on unified defense, and secondarily on trade, and may have been linked by ethnic bonds (the Chrysaorians). It had an assembly and financial institutions, and a form of reciprocal citizenship whereby a citizen of a member city was entitled to certain rights and privileges in any other member city. The capital of the League was Chrysaorium where the assembly met. [1]

Other member cities included: Alabanda (renamed Antiochia of the Chrysaorians), Alinda, Amyzon, Ceramus, Mylasa, Kaunos, Stratonicea, Thera.

For periods of time, some of the member cities were subject to Rhodes as part of the Rhodian Peraea.

Cistophorus

The cistophorus (Ancient Greek: κιστοφόρος, kistophoros) was a coin of ancient Pergamum. It was introduced sometime in the years 175–160 BC at that city to provide the Attalid kingdom with a substitute for Seleucid coins and the tetradrachms of Philetairos. It was also used by a number of other cities that were under Attalid control. These cities included Alabanda and Kibyra. It continued to be minted and circulated down to the time of Hadrian, long after the kingdom was bequeathed to Rome. It owes its name to a figure, on the obverse, of the sacred chest (Latin: cista) of Dionysus.

Euromus

Euromus or Euromos (Ancient Greek: Εὔρωμος) – also, Europus or Europos (Εὐρωπός), Eunomus or Eunomos (Εὔνωμος), Philippi or Philippoi (Φίλιπποι); earlier Kyromus and Hyromus – was an ancient city in Caria, Anatolia; the ruins are approximately 4 km southeast of Selimiye and 12 km northwest of Milas (the ancient Mylasa), Muğla Province, Turkey. It was situated at the foot of Mount Grium, which runs parallel to Mount Latmus, and was built by one Euromus, a son of Idris, a Carian.Probably dating from the 6th century BC, [1] Euromus was a member of the Chrysaorian League during Seleucid times. Euromus also minted its own coins from the 2nd century BCE to the 2nd century CE. Under the Roman dominion Euromus belonged to the conventus of Alabanda.The ruins contain numerous interesting buildings, the most outstanding of which is the temple of Zeus Lepsinos from the reign of Emperor Hadrian. [2] Archaeologists have found terra cotta shards indicating that the temple site had its origins back at least to the 6th century BC. The temple is one of the best preserved classical temples in Turkey: sixteen columns remain standing and most of the columns are inscribed in honour of the citizen who commissioned their construction. Carian rock-cut tombs are also found at Euromus.

Gygaea of Macedon

Gygaea (Greek: Γυγαίη) was a daughter of Amyntas I and sister of Alexander I of Macedon. She was given away in marriage by her brother to the Persian General Bubares. Herodotus also mentions a son of Bubares and Gygaea, called Amyntas, who was later given the city Alabanda in Caria by Xerxes I (r. 486-465).There is also another Gygaea, second wife of Amyntas III of Macedon, whose son Menelaus was put to death by his half-brother Philip II in 347 BC.

John Brady (bishop of Boston)

Fr. John Brady DD (February 11, 1842 – January 6, 1910) was a Roman Catholic bishop.

Brady was born at Crosserlough, Co. Cavan, Ireland, 11 April 1842. Educated at the local diocesan schools and then completed his theological course at the Missionary College of All Hallows, Dublin, which trained priests for English Speaking communities, where he was ordained priest for the Diocese of Boston, 4 December 1864.

He served as a curate in Boston and at Newburyport until 1868, when he was made pastor at Amesbury. He continued in this charge until he was nominated Titular Bishop of Alabanda and Auxiliary Bishop of Boston appointed on 19 June 1891; he was consecrated 5 August 1891.

He died while still in office on 6 January 1910 after a short illness, his funeral mass was celebrated by Archbishop William O'Connell

List of ancient Greek tyrants

This is a list of tyrants from Ancient Greece.

Malacus

Malacus (Greek: Μάλακος) may refer to:

Malacus synonym of adjective Malakos

Malacus or Malakos Macedonian Dolichos winner in Amphiarian games 329 BC

Malacus a Greek historian, the author of a work entitled Sifnion oroi (terms of Sifnians) which is quoted by Athenaeus (vi. p. 267). It has been conjectured by some that he is the same with Apollonius of Alabanda, who was surnamed Malacus.

Astragalus malacus a species of Astragalus plant

Sebastián Alabanda

Sebastián Alabanda Fernández (31 October 1950 – 10 June 2014) was a Spanish professional footballer who played as a midfielder.

Thydonos

Thydonos was a town of ancient Caria, mentioned by Pliny the Elder. Thydonos was a member of the Delian League since it appears in tribute records of Athens for 451/0 BCE.Its site is unlocated, but Pliny's recitation of Thydonos among Euromus, Heraclea, Amyzon, and Alabanda, indicates that it was in the northern part of Caria.

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