Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail

Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail is a 175-mile (282 km) long trail located on the island of Hawaii. It is not yet a continuous "trail", but can be accessed at several broken segments along the coastline of the Big Island. The trail was established to access the traditional Ancient Hawaiian culture along with the natural geology of the island. The trail was established 14 November 2000 as a National Historic Trail which is managed under the National Park Service.[2] The trail has received funds from the Land and Water Conservation Fund.[3]

Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail
ALKA trailsection
Restored section of the trail
Map showing the location of Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail
Map showing the location of Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail
Map of the United States
LocationHawaii, US
Nearest cityKailua, Hawaii County, Hawaii
Coordinates18°54′40″N 155°40′52″W / 18.9111111°N 155.6811111°WCoordinates: 18°54′40″N 155°40′52″W / 18.9111111°N 155.6811111°W[1]
Length175 mi (282 km)
Established2000
Governing bodyNational Park Service
WebsiteAla Kahakai National Historic Trail

Geography

Ala kaha kai means "shoreline trail" in the Hawaiian Language. The trail follows the coastline over ancient fishermen's trails through over 200 ahupuaʻa, the traditional sea to mountain land divisions. In ancient times travel would often cover both land, and sea in canoes for portions of the journey. It passes through both public and private lands, providing access to numerous beaches and resorts.[4]

Much of the trail receives only limited maintenance and sections have been eroded or developed into roads. Only the one section of the trail has signage.[5]

The Northern end of the trail is in Upolu Point in the North Kohala District at the Moʻokini Heiau, coordinates 20°15′28″N 155°52′37″W / 20.25767°N 155.87707°W.

A part of the trail called Ala Loa (meaning "long trail" in the Hawaiian Language, another name for the same network of trails) was added to the state registry of historic places as site 10-10-11,334 on January 14, 1989,[6] and to the National Register of Historic Places as number 87001127 in 1987. This runs from Kiholo Bay to Kalahuipauaʻa near Puakō.

After passing through the west side of island, the trail ends in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Starting in 2002, a comprehensive management plan and environmental impact statement were prepared and published in 2008.[7]

Trail map

Ala Kahakai Districts
Map of the trail zones, from National Park Service

References

  1. ^ "Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  2. ^ Ala Kahakai on official National Park Service web site
  3. ^ "Sen. Hirono Secures Important Hawai'i Priorities". Big Island Now. February 12, 2019. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  4. ^ Determining Significance: Hawaiʻi’s Ala Kahakai Archived 2009-01-09 at the Wayback Machine by Helen Dunbar, National Park Service
  5. ^ Description of Kawaihae-Anaehoomalu section on Hawaii Trails web site
  6. ^ registry of historic places on Hawaiʻi State web site
  7. ^ PDF of management documentation from National Park Service

See also

Hapuna Beach State Recreation Area

Hāpuna Beach State Recreation Area is a large park and sandy beach on the Big Island of Hawaii. The Hapuna Beach Prince Hotel is also located adjacent to the beach. Hāpuna (literally, "spring" or "pool" in Hawaiian) is popular with residents and visitors.

This is one of a few other white sand beaches on the west coast of the Big Island. The few others include Kua Bay (Manini'owali Beach), Kaunaʻoa Bay, known as Mauna Kea Beach, and Samuel M. Spencer Beach Park. It was named the Best Beach in America by Florida International University professor Stephen Leatherman, known as "Dr Beach", in 1993.The 61.8-acre (25.0 ha) park is located at coordinates 19°59.4789′N 155°49.3809′W, west of Hawaii Belt Road (Route 19, called Queen Kaʻahumanu Highway) on Hapuna Beach Road. It is about 2.3 miles (3.7 km) south of Kawaihae, Hawaii. A part of the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail runs through the park from Spencer Beach to the north, to Puako to the south.Hāpuna beach has lifeguards, but can be hazardous during high surf conditions since the beach is not protected from the open ocean.

Hawaii

Hawaii ( (listen) hə-WY-ee; Hawaiian: Hawaiʻi [həˈvɐjʔi]) is a state of the United States of America. It is the only state located in the Pacific Ocean and the only state composed entirely of islands.

The state encompasses nearly the entire Hawaiian archipelago, 137 islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). The volcanic archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are, in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group; it is often called the "Big Island" or "Hawaiʻi Island" to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago.

Hawaii is the 8th smallest geographically and the 11th least populous, but the 13th most densely populated of the 50 states. It is the only state with an Asian American plurality. Hawaii has over 1.4 million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. The state capital and largest city is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. The state's ocean coastline is about 750 miles (1,210 km) long, the fourth longest in the U.S., after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida, and California. Hawaii is the most recent state to join the union, on August 21, 1959. It was an independent nation until 1898.

Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists. Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is strongly influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture.

Hawaii (island)

Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian pronunciation: [həˈvɐjʔi]) anglicized Hawaii ( (listen) hə-WY-ee) is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2), it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, and is the largest island in the United States. However, it has only 13% of Hawaiʻi's people. The island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand.The island is often referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi, the Big Island, or Hawaiʻi Island to distinguish it from the state. Administratively, the whole island encompasses Hawaiʻi County.

As of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County (see List of counties in Hawaii).

Hawaii Belt Road

The Hawaiʻi Belt Road is a modern name for the Māmalahoa Highway and consists of Hawaiʻi state Routes 11, 19, and 190 that encircle the Island of Hawaiʻi. The southern section, between Hilo and Kailua-Kona is numbered as Route 11. The section between Hilo and Waimea is Route 19. Between Waimea and Kailua-Kona, the road is split in two: the original "mauka" route (now Route 190) and a "makai" Route 19, completed in 1975, which serves as access to the Kona and Kohala Coast resorts. In the Hawaiian language, mauka means "towards the mountain" and makai means "towards the sea". These terms are commonly used in travel directions.

Parts of the southern half of the Hawaiʻi Belt Road were known during the Territorial days as the Kaʻū Belt Road. The names "Hawaiʻi Belt Road" and "Māmalahoa Highway" refer to the road system that encircles the entire island; many sections are also referenced by local names.

Hawaii County, Hawaii

Hawaiʻi County is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands. It is coterminous with the Island of Hawaiʻi, often called the "Big Island" to distinguish it from the state as a whole. As of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County (see Hawaii Counties). The Hilo Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Hawaiʻi County. Hawaiʻi County has a mayor-council form of government. Hawaii County is the largest county in the state in terms of geography.

The mayor of Hawaii County is Harry Kim, who took office in 2016. Legislative authority is vested in a nine-member Hawaii County Council.

Hawaii County is one of seven counties in the United States to share the same name as the state they are in (the other six are Arkansas County, Idaho County, Iowa County, New York County, Oklahoma County, and Utah County).

Honokōhau Settlement and Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park

Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located in the Kona District on the Big island of Hawaiʻi in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi. It includes the National Historic Landmarked archaeological site known as the Honokōhau Settlement. The park was established on November 10, 1978, for the preservation, protection and interpretation of traditional native Hawaiian activities and culture.

Kaunaoa Bay

Kaunaʻoa Bay has one of the few white sand beaches of the Kohala Coast, the western side of the island of Hawaiʻi. A historic hotel, the Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, is located on beautiful Kauna'oa.

Kaupulehu, Hawaii

Kaʻūpūlehu is the site of a historic settlement on the west coast of Hawaiʻi island, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands.

Devastated by a lava flow, the area is now the home of luxury hotels such as the Four Seasons Resort Hualalai.

Keawaiki Bay

Keawaiki Bay is on the western coast of Hawaiʻi Island.

It is the site of a residential complex built for Francis Hyde ʻĪʻī Brown (1892–1976) who was a champion golf player and legislator.

List of acts of the 106th United States Congress

The list of acts of the 106th United States Congress includes all Acts of Congress and ratified treaties by the 106th United States Congress, which lasted from January 3, 1999 to January 3, 2001.

Acts include public and private laws, which are enacted after being passed by Congress and signed by the President, however if the President vetoes a bill it can still be enacted by a two-thirds vote in both houses. The Senate alone considers treaties, which are ratified by a two-thirds vote.

List of areas in the United States National Park System

The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. The collection includes all national parks and most national monuments, as well as several other types of protected areas of the United States.

As of March 2019, there are 419 units of the National Park System. However, this number is somewhat misleading. For example, Denali National Park and Preserve is counted as two units, since the same name applies to a national park and an adjacent national preserve. Yet Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve is counted as one unit, despite its double designation. Counting methodology is rooted in the language of a park's enabling legislation.

In addition to areas of the National Park System, the National Park Service also provides technical and financial assistance to several affiliated areas authorized by Congress. Affiliated areas are marked on the lists below.

The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), which contains nearly 79,000 entries, is administered by the National Park Service. All historically significant park units are automatically included on the NRHP—i.e., all national historical parks and historic sites, national battlefields and military parks, and national memorials, as well as some national monuments.

National Park System units are found in all 50 states, in Washington, D.C., and in the U.S. territories of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.

Nearly all units managed by the National Park Service participate in the National Park Passport Stamps program.

Mauna Loa

Mauna Loa ( or ; Hawaiian: [ˈmɐwnə ˈlowə]; English: Long Mountain) is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean. The largest subaerial volcano in both mass and volume, Mauna Loa has historically been considered the largest volcano on Earth, dwarfed only by Tamu Massif. It is an active shield volcano with relatively gentle slopes, with a volume estimated at approximately 18,000 cubic miles (75,000 km3), although its peak is about 125 feet (38 m) lower than that of its neighbor, Mauna Kea. Lava eruptions from Mauna Loa are silica-poor and very fluid, and they tend to be non-explosive.

Mauna Loa has probably been erupting for at least 700,000 years, and may have emerged above sea level about 400,000 years ago. The oldest-known dated rocks are not older than 200,000 years. The volcano's magma comes from the Hawaii hotspot, which has been responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian island chain over tens of millions of years. The slow drift of the Pacific Plate will eventually carry Mauna Loa away from the hotspot within 500,000 to one million years from now, at which point it will become extinct.

Mauna Loa's most recent eruption occurred from March 24 to April 15, 1984. No recent eruptions of the volcano have caused fatalities, but eruptions in 1926 and 1950 destroyed villages, and the city of Hilo is partly built on lava flows from the late 19th century. Because of the potential hazards it poses to population centers, Mauna Loa is part of the Decade Volcanoes program, which encourages studies of the world's most dangerous volcanoes. Mauna Loa has been monitored intensively by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory since 1912. Observations of the atmosphere are undertaken at the Mauna Loa Observatory, and of the Sun at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, both located near the mountain's summit. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park covers the summit and the southeastern flank of the volcano, and also incorporates Kīlauea, a separate volcano.

National Register of Historic Places listings on the island of Hawaii

This is a list of properties and districts on the island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaii that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The island is coterminous with Hawaii County, the state's only county that covers exactly one island. There are 86 properties and districts on the island, including 10 historic districts, six National Historic Landmarks, and one National Historic Landmark District.

National Trails System

The National Trails System was created by the National Trails System Act (Pub.L. 90–543, 82 Stat. 919, enacted October 2, 1968), codified at 16 U.S.C. § 1241 et seq.

The Act created a series of National trails "to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, and enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation." Specifically, the Act authorized three types of trails: the National Scenic Trails, National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails. The 1968 Act also created two national scenic trails: the Appalachian and the Pacific Crest; and requested that an additional fourteen trail routes be studied for possible inclusion.

In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their historic associations, a fourth category of trail was added: the National Historic Trails. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system. Of these studied trails, twenty-one have been established as part of the system. Today, the National Trails System consists of 30 National Scenic and Historic Trails and over 1,000 National Recreation Trail and two connecting-and-side trails, with a total length of more than 50,000 miles (80,000 km). These National Trails are more than just for hiking, many are also open for horseback riding, mountain biking, camping and/or scenic driving.

As Congressionally established long-distance trails, each one is administered by a federal agency, either the Bureau of Land Management, United States Forest Service, or National Park Service. Two of the trails are jointly administered by the BLM and the NPS. Occasionally, these agencies acquire lands to protect key sites, resources and viewsheds. More often than not, they work in partnership with the states, local units of government, land trusts and private landowners, to protect lands and structures along these trails, enabling them to be accessible to the public. National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture. All of the National Trails are supported by private non-profit organizations that work with the various federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System (PNTS).

The Act is codified as 16 U.S.C. §§ 1241–1251. However, it has been amended numerous times since its passage, most recently on October 18, 2004 (Pub.L. 108–342).

National Geologic Trail
National Historic Trails
National Scenic Trails
National Water Trails
National Recreation Trails
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