Al Smith

Alfred Emanuel Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was an American politician who was elected Governor of New York four times and was the Democratic Party's candidate for President in 1928.

Smith was the foremost urban leader of the Efficiency Movement in the United States and was noted for achieving a wide range of reforms as governor in the 1920s. The son of an Irish-American mother and a Civil War veteran father, he was raised in the Lower East Side of Manhattan near the Brooklyn Bridge, where he resided for his entire life. Like many other New York politicians of his era, he was also linked to the notorious Tammany Hall political machine that controlled New York City's politics, although he remained personally untarnished by corruption.[1] Smith was a strong opponent of Prohibition, which he did not think could be enforced, and viewed it as an over-extension of the government's constitutional power. He was also the first Catholic nominee for President. His candidacy mobilized Catholic votes, especially from women, who had only recently received federal suffrage. It also brought out the anti-Catholic vote, which was especially strong among white conservative Democrats in the South, although Smith was still successful within the states of the Deep South.[2][3]

As a committed "wet" who opposed the prohibition laws, Smith attracted two groups: those who wanted their beer, wine and liquor and did not like dealing with criminal bootleggers, and those who were outraged that new criminal gangs had taken over the streets in most large and medium-sized cities.[4] Many Protestants feared his candidacy, including German Lutherans and Southern Baptists, believing that the Pope in Rome would dictate his policies. Incumbent Republican President Herbert Hoover was greatly aided by national prosperity and the absence of American involvement in war; Smith lost in a landslide to him, losing six southern states but carrying the Deep South. Four years later, Smith sought the 1932 nomination but was defeated by Franklin D. Roosevelt, his former ally and successor as Governor of New York. Smith entered business in New York City, became involved in the construction and promotion of the Empire State Building, and became an increasingly vocal opponent of Roosevelt's New Deal.

Al Smith
42nd Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1923 – December 31, 1928
LieutenantGeorge R. Lunn
Seymour Lowman
Edwin Corning
Preceded byNathan L. Miller
Succeeded byFranklin D. Roosevelt
In office
January 1, 1919 – December 31, 1920
LieutenantHarry C. Walker
Preceded byCharles S. Whitman
Succeeded byNathan L. Miller
8th President of the New York City Board of Aldermen
In office
January 1, 1917 – December 31, 1918
Preceded byFrank Dowling
Succeeded byRobert L. Moran
Sheriff of New York County
In office
Preceded byMax Samuel Grifenhagen
Succeeded byDavid H. Knott
Member of the New York Assembly
from New York County's 2nd district
In office
January 1, 1904 – December 31, 1915
Preceded byJoseph Bourke
Succeeded byPeter J. Hamill
Personal details
Alfred Emanuel Smith

December 30, 1873
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedOctober 4, 1944 (aged 70)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Catherine Dunn

Early life

St James School - New York
Al Smith attended St. James school through the eighth grade, his only formal education.

Smith was born at 174 South Street, and raised in the Fourth Ward on the Lower East Side of Manhattan; he resided here for his entire life.[5] His mother, Catherine (née Mulvihill), was the daughter of Maria Marsh and Thomas Mulvihill, who were immigrants from County Westmeath, Ireland.[6] His father, Alfred Emanuele Ferraro, took the anglicized name Alfred E. Smith ('ferraro' means 'blacksmith' or 'smith' in Italian). The elder Alfred was the son of Italian and German[7][8] immigrants. He served with the 11th New York Fire Zouaves in the opening months of the Civil War.

Smith grew up with his family struggling financially in the Gilded Age; New York City matured and completed major infrastructure projects. The Brooklyn Bridge was being constructed nearby. "The Brooklyn Bridge and I grew up together", Smith would later recall.[9] His four grandparents were Irish, German, Italian, and Anglo-Irish,[10] but Smith identified with the Irish-American community and became its leading spokesman in the 1920s.

His father Alfred owned a small trucking firm, but died when the boy was 13. Aged 14, Smith had to drop out of St. James parochial school to help support the family, and worked at a fish market for seven years. Prior to dropping out of school, he served as an altar boy, and was strongly influenced by the Catholic priests he worked with.[11] He never attended high school or college, and claimed he learned about people by studying them at the Fulton Fish Market, where he worked for $12 per week (equivalent to $323 today). His acting skills made him a success on the amateur theater circuit. He became widely known, and developed the smooth oratorical style that characterized his political career. On May 6, 1900, Al Smith married Catherine Ann Dunn, with whom he had five children.[1]

Political career

Smith at his desk in the New York Assembly in 1913

In his political career, Smith built on his working-class beginnings, identifying himself with immigrants and campaigning as a man of the people. Although indebted to the Tammany Hall political machine, particularly to its boss, "Silent" Charlie Murphy, he remained untarnished by corruption and worked for the passage of progressive legislation.[1] It was during his early unofficial jobs with Tammany Hall that he gained renown as an excellent speaker.[12] Smith's first political job was in 1895, as an investigator in the office of the Commissioner of Jurors as appointed by Tammany Hall.

State legislature

Smith was first elected to the New York State Assembly (New York Co., 2nd D.) in 1904, and was repeatedly elected to office, serving through 1915.[11] After being approached by Frances Perkins, an activist to improve labor practices, Smith sought to improve the conditions of factory workers. He served as vice chairman of the state commission appointed to investigate factory conditions after 146 workers died in the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Meeting the families of the deceased Triangle factory workers left a strong impression on him. Together with Perkins, Smith crusaded against dangerous and unhealthy workplace conditions and championed corrective legislation.[12][13]

The Commission was chaired by State Senator Robert F. Wagner and co-chaired by Smith. They held a series of widely publicized investigations around the state, interviewing 222 witnesses and taking 3500 pages of testimony. They hired field agents to do on-site inspections of factories. Starting with the issue of fire safety, they studied broader issues of the risks of injury in the factory environment. Their findings led to thirty-eight new laws regulating labor in New York State, and gave each of them a reputation as leading progressive reformers working on behalf of the working class. In the process, they changed Tammany's reputation from mere corruption to progressive endeavors to help the workers.[14] New York City's Fire Chief John Kenlon told the investigators that his department had identified more than 200 factories where conditions resulted in risk of a fire like that at the Triangle Factory.[15] The State Commission's reports led to the modernization of the state's labor laws, making New York State "one of the most progressive states in terms of labor reform."[16][17] New laws mandated better building access and egress, fireproofing requirements, the availability of fire extinguishers, the installation of alarm systems and automatic sprinklers, better eating and toilet facilities for workers, and limited the number of hours that women and children could work. In the years from 1911 to 1913, sixty of the sixty-four new laws recommended by the Commission were legislated with the support of Governor William Sulzer.[18]

In 1911, the Democrats obtained a majority of seats in the State Assembly, and Smith became Majority Leader and Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means. The following year, following the loss of the majority, he became the Minority Leader. When the Democrats reclaimed the majority after the next election, he was elected Speaker for the 1913 session. He became Minority Leader again in 1914 and 1915. In November 1915, he was elected Sheriff of New York County, New York. By now he was a leader of the Progressive movement in New York City and state. His campaign manager and top aide was Belle Moskowitz, a daughter of Jewish immigrants.[1]

Governor (1919–20, 1923–28)

Al Smith, governor of New York (portrait by Douglas Volk)
Gubernatorial portrait of Al Smith by Douglas Volk

After serving in the patronage-rich job of Sheriff of New York County, Smith was elected President of the Board of Aldermen of the City of New York in 1917. Smith was elected Governor of New York at the New York State election of 1918 with the help of Murphy and James A. Farley, who brought Smith the upstate vote.

In 1919, Smith gave the famous speech "A man as low and mean as I can picture",[19] making a drastic break with William Randolph Hearst. Publisher Hearst, known for his notoriously sensationalist and largely left-wing position in the state Democratic Party, was the leader of its populist wing in the city. He had combined with Tammany Hall in electing the local administration, and had attacked Smith for starving children by not reducing the cost of milk.[20]

Smith lost his bid for re-election at the New York State election of 1920, but was again elected governor in 1922, 1924 and 1926, with James A. Farley managing his campaign. In his 1922 re-election, he embraced his position as an anti-prohibitionist. Smith offered alcohol to guests at the Executive Mansion in Albany, and repealed the Prohibition enforcement statute: the Mullan-Gage law.[21] Governor Smith became known nationally as a progressive who sought to make government more efficient and more effective in meeting social needs. Smith's young assistant Robert Moses built the nation's first state park system and reformed the civil service, later gaining appointment as Secretary of State of New York. During Smith's term, New York strengthened laws governing workers' compensation, women's pensions and children and women's labor with the help of Frances Perkins, soon to be President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Labor Secretary.

In 1924, Smith unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president, advancing the cause of civil liberty by decrying lynching and racial violence. Roosevelt delivered the nominating speech for Smith at the 1924 Democratic National Convention in which he saluted Smith as "the Happy Warrior of the political battlefield."[1] Smith represented the urban, east coast wing of the party as an anti-prohibition "wet" candidate while his main rival for the nomination, President Woodrow Wilson's son-in-law William Gibbs McAdoo (a former Secretary of the Treasury), stood for the more rural tradition and prohibition "dry" candidacy.[22] The party was hopelessly split between the two. An increasingly chaotic convention balloted 100 times before both men accepted that neither would be able to win the two-thirds majority required to win, and so each withdrew. The exhausted party nominated the little-known John W. Davis of West Virginia. Davis lost the election by a landslide to the Republican Calvin Coolidge, who won in part because of the prosperous times.

Undeterred, Smith returned to fight a determined campaign for the party's nomination in 1928.

1928 election

Reporter Frederick William Wile made the oft-repeated observation that Smith was defeated by "the three P's: Prohibition, Prejudice and Prosperity".[23] The Republican Party was still benefiting from an economic boom, as well as a failure to reapportion Congress and the electoral college following the 1920 census, which had registered a 15 percent increase in the urban population. The party was biased toward small-town and rural areas. Its presidential candidate Herbert Hoover did little to alter these events.

Historians agree that prosperity, along with widespread anti-Catholic sentiment against Smith, made Hoover's election inevitable.[24] He defeated Smith by a landslide in the 1928 election, carrying five southern states in crossover voting by conservative white Democrats (since disenfranchisement of blacks in the South at the turn of the century, whites dominated voting).

Political cartoon suggesting the Pope was the force behind Al Smith. The Good Citizen, November 1926. Publisher: Pillar of Fire Church, New Jersey.

The fact that Smith was Catholic and the descendant of Catholic immigrants was instrumental in his loss of the election of 1928.[11] Historical hostilities between Protestants and Catholics had been carried by national groups to the United States by immigrants, and centuries of Protestant domination allowed myths and superstitions about Catholicism to flourish. Long established Protestants had viewed the waves of Catholic immigrants from Ireland, Italy and Eastern Europe since the mid-19th century with suspicion. In addition, many Protestants carried old fears related to extravagant claims of one religion against the other dating from the European national wars of religion. They feared that Smith would answer to the Pope and not the US Constitution. White rural conservatives in the South also believed that his close association with Tammany Hall, the Democratic machine in Manhattan, showed he tolerated corruption in government (and overlooking their own brands). Another major controversial issue was the continuation of Prohibition, which was widely considered a problem to enforce. Smith was personally in favor of relaxation or repeal of Prohibition laws, as they had given rise to more criminality. The Democratic Party split North and South on the issue, with the more rural South continuing to favor Prohibition. During the campaign, Smith tried to duck the issue with non-committal statements.[25]

Smith was an articulate proponent of good government and efficiency, as was Hoover. Smith swept the entire Catholic vote, which had been split in 1920 and 1924 between the parties; he attracted millions of Catholics, generally ethnic whites, to the polls for the first time, especially women, who were first allowed to vote in 1920. He lost important Democratic constituencies in the rural North and in southern cities and suburbs. He did succeed in the Deep South, thanks in part to the appeal of his running mate, Senator Joseph Robinson from Arkansas, but he lost five southern states to Hoover. Smith carried the ten most populous cities in the United States, an indication of the rising power of the urban areas and their new demographics. In addition to these issues, Smith was not a very good campaigner. His campaign theme song, "The Sidewalks of New York", had little appeal for rural folks, and they found his 'city' accent, when heard on the "raddio", seemed slightly foreign. Smith narrowly lost New York State, whose electors were biased against rural upstate and largely Protestant districts. However, in 1928 his fellow Democrat Roosevelt (a Protestant of Dutch old-line stock) was elected to replace him as governor of New York.[26] James A. Farley left Smith's camp to run Franklin D. Roosevelt's successful campaign for Governor, and later Roosevelt's successful campaigns for the Presidency in 1932 and 1936.

Al Smith - Bain News Service
Al Smith giving a speech

Voter realignment

Some political scientists believe that the 1928 election started a voter realignment that helped develop the New Deal coalition of Franklin D. Roosevelt.[27] As one political scientist explains, "...not until 1928, with the nomination of Al Smith, a northeastern reformer, did Democrats make gains among the urban, blue-collar and Catholic voters who were later to become core components of the New Deal coalition and break the pattern of minimal class polarization that had characterized the Fourth Party System."[28] However, Allan Lichtman's quantitative analysis suggests that the 1928 results were based largely on religion and are not a useful barometer of the voting patterns of the New Deal era.[29]

Finan (2003) says Smith is an underestimated symbol of the changing nature of American politics in the first half of the last century. He represented the rising ambitions of urban, industrial America at a time when the hegemony of rural, agrarian America was in decline, although many states had legislatures and congressional delegations biased toward rural areas because of lack of redistricting after censuses. Smith was connected to the hopes and aspirations of immigrants, especially Catholics and Jews from eastern and southern Europe. Smith was a devout Catholic, but his struggles against religious bigotry were often misinterpreted when he fought the religiously inspired Protestant morality imposed by prohibitionists.

Opposition to Roosevelt and the New Deal

Smith felt slighted by Roosevelt during the latter's governorship. They became rivals for the Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1932 after Smith decided to run for the nomination. At the convention, Smith's animosity toward Roosevelt was so great that he put aside longstanding rivalries and managed to work with William Gibbs McAdoo and William Randolph Hearst to try to block FDR's nomination for several ballots. This unlikely coalition fell apart when Smith refused to work on finding a compromise candidate; instead, he maneuvered to become the nominee. After losing the nomination, Smith eventually campaigned for Roosevelt in 1932, giving a particularly important speech on behalf of the Democratic nominee at Boston on October 27 in which he "pulled out all the stops."[30]

Governor Roosevelt and Al Smith
Franklin D. Roosevelt (left) and Al Smith (right) in Albany, New York

Smith became highly critical of Roosevelt's New Deal policies, which he deemed a betrayal of good-government progressive ideals and ran counter to the goal of close cooperation with business. Smith joined the American Liberty League, an organization founded by conservative Democrats who disapproved of Roosevelt's New Deal measures and tried to rally public opinion against the New Deal. In 1934, Smith joined forces with wealthy business executives, who provided most of the League's funds. The League published pamphlets and sponsored radio programs, arguing that the New Deal was destroying personal liberty. However, the League failed to gain support in the 1934 and 1936 elections and rapidly declined in influence. It was officially dissolved in 1940.[31][32] Smith's antipathy to Roosevelt and his policies was so great that he supported Republican presidential candidates Alfred M. Landon (in the 1936 election) and Wendell Willkie (in the 1940 election).[1]

Although personal resentment was one factor in Smith's break with Roosevelt and the New Deal, Christopher Finan (2003) argues that Smith was consistent in his beliefs and politics—suggesting that Smith always believed in social mobility, economic opportunity, religious tolerance, and individualism. Despite the break between the men, Smith and Eleanor Roosevelt remained close. In 1936, while Smith was in Washington making a vehement radio attack on the President, she invited him to stay at the White House. To avoid embarrassing the Roosevelts, he declined. Historian Robert Slayton notes that Smith and Franklin Roosevelt did not reconcile until a brief meeting in June 1941, and suggests that during the early 1940s the antipathy Smith held toward his former ally had waned.[33] Upon the death of Smith's wife Katie in May 1944, FDR sent Smith a note of personal condolences; Smith's grandchildren later recalled that Smith was "greatly touched by it."[34]

Business life and later years

Babe Ruth Gov
Smith golfing with baseball great Babe Ruth in Coral Gables, Florida, in 1930.

After the 1928 election, Smith became the president of Empire State, Inc., the corporation that built and operated the Empire State Building. Construction for the building began symbolically on March 17, 1930, St. Patrick's Day, per Smith's instructions. Smith's grandchildren cut the ribbon when the world's tallest skyscraper opened on May 1, 1931, which was May Day, an international labor celebration. It had been completed in 13 months, a record for such a large project. As with the Brooklyn Bridge, which Smith had seen being built from his Lower East Side boyhood home, the Empire State Building was a vision and an achievement constructed by combining the interests of all, rather than being divided by interests of a few. Smith continued to promote the Empire State Building, derided as the "Empty State Building" due to a lack of tenants, in the years following its construction.[35][36]

Al Smith and Charles Francis Adams III
Al Smith (right) in December 1929 during his time as director for Empire State, Inc.

In 1929 Smith was elected as President of the Board of Trustees of the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University.[37]

Smith was an early and vocal critic of the Nazi regime in Germany. He supported the Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933 and addressed a mass-meeting at Madison Square Garden against Nazism that March.[38] His speech was included in the 1934 anthology Nazism: An Assault on Civilization.[39] In 1938, Smith took to the airwaves to denounce Nazi brutality in the wake of the Kristallnacht. His words were published in The New York Times article "Text of the Catholic Protest Broadcast" of November 17, 1938.[40][41]

Like most New York City businessmen, Smith enthusiastically supported American military involvement in World War II. Although he was not asked by Roosevelt to play any role in the war effort, Smith was an active and vocal proponent of FDR's attempts to amend the Neutrality Act to allow "Cash and Carry" sales of war equipment to the British. Smith spoke on behalf of the policy in October 1939, to which FDR responded directly: "Very many thanks. You were grand."[42]

In 1939 Smith was appointed a Papal Chamberlain of the Sword and Cape, one of the highest honors the Papacy bestowed on a layman. In the early 21st century, this honor is styled a Gentleman of His Holiness.

Smith died at the Rockefeller Institute Hospital on October 4, 1944, of a heart attack, at the age of 70. He had been broken-hearted over the death of his wife from cancer five months earlier, on May 4, 1944.[43] He is interred at Calvary Cemetery.[44]


Alfred E. Smith Memorial at New York Medical College
The Alfred Smith School, PS 163
Alfred E Smith HS 151 E151 St jeh
Alfred E. Smith Career and Technical Education High School in the South Bronx
Alfred E. Smith Building Night
The Alfred E. Smith Building in Albany, New York
Sunken Meadow State Park-Beach
Governor Alfred E. Smith Sunken Meadow State Park in Suffolk County

Electoral history

New York gubernatorial elections, 1918–1926

1918 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alfred E. Smith Harry C. Walker Democratic 1,009,936 (47.37%)
Charles S. Whitman Edward Schoeneck (Republican),
Mamie W. Colvin (Prohibition)
995,094 (46.68%)
Charles Wesley Ervin Ella Reeve Bloor Socialist 121,705 (5.71%)
Olive M. Johnson August Gillhaus Socialist Labor 5,183 (0.24%)


  • 1918 was the first time women voted for governor of New York, and Alfred E. Smith was the first governor elected with more than 1 million votes. But, given the much-expanded electorate, his historic total still represented only a plurality of votes.
  • For comparison, in the New York Gubernatorial Election of 1916, Charles S. Whitman (whom Smith defeated in 1918) had won a 52.63% majority with 850,020 votes.
  • The total ballots cast for governor in 1918 was 2,192,970. Besides the votes for the above candidates, there were 43,630 blank votes; 16,892 spoilt votes; and 530 scattering votes.[45]
  • The Governor's term was extended to four years in 1938, Article IV, New York Constitution.
1920 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Nathan L. Miller Jeremiah Wood Republican 1,335,878 (46.58%)
Alfred E. Smith George R. Fitts Democratic 1,261,812 (44.00%)
Joseph D. Cannon Jessie Wallace Hughan Socialist 159,804 (5.57%)
Dudley Field Malone Farmer-Labor 69,908 (2.44%)
George F. Thompson Edward G. Deltrich Prohibition 35,509 (1.24%)
John P. Quinn Socialist Labor 5,015 (0.17%)
1922 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alfred E. Smith George R. Lunn Democratic 1,397,670 (55.21%)
Nathan L. Miller William J. Donovan Republican 1,011,725 (39.97%)
Edward F. Cassidy Theresa B. Wiley Socialist,
109,119 (4.31%)
George K. Hinds William C. Ramsdell Prohibition 9,499 (0.38%)
Jeremiah D. Crowley John E. DeLee Socialist Labor 9,499 (0.38%)
1924 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alfred E. Smith George R. Lunn Democratic 1,627,111 (49.96%)
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Seymour Lowman Republican 1,518,552 (46.63%)
Norman Mattoon Thomas Charles Solomon Socialist 99,854 (3.07%)
James P. Cannon Franklin P. Brill Workers 6,395 (0.20%)
Frank E. Passonno Milton Weinberger Socialist Labor 4,931 (0.15%)

Note: This was the last time the running mate of the elected governor was defeated, Democrat Smith having Republican Lowman as lieutenant for the duration of this term.

1926 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alfred E. Smith Edwin Corning Democratic 1,523,813 (52.13%)
Ogden L. Mills Seymour Lowman Republican 1,276,137 (43.80%)
Jacob Panken August Claessens Socialist 83,481 (2.87%)
Charles E. Manierre Ella McCarthy Prohibition 21,285 (0.73%)
Benjamin Gitlow Franklin P. Brill Workers 5,507 (0.19%)
Jeremiah D. Crowley John E. DeLee Socialist Labor 3,553 (0.12%)

United States presidential election, 1928

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Herbert Hoover Republican California 21,427,123 58.2% 444 Charles Curtis Kansas 444
Alfred E. Smith Democratic New York 15,015,464 40.8% 87 Joseph Taylor Robinson Arkansas 87
Norman Thomas Socialist New York 267,478 0.7% 0 James H. Maurer Pennsylvania 0
William Z. Foster Communist Illinois 48,551 0.1% 0 Benjamin Gitlow New York 0
Other 48,396 0.1% Other
Total 36,807,012 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266
  • Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1928 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 28, 2005.
  • Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 28, 2005.

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Slayton 2001, ch 1-4
  2. ^ "Deep South". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  3. ^ Neal R. Pierce, The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven States of the Deep South (1974), pp 123-61
  4. ^ Daniel Okrent, Last Call, 2010.
  5. ^ MacAdam, George (January 1920). "Governor Smith of New York". The World's Work. Vol. XXXIX no. 3. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. p. 237. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
  6. ^ Slayton, Robert A. (2001). Empire Statesman: The Rise and Redemption of Al Smith. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-684-86302-3.
  7. ^ Barkan, Elliott Robert (2001). Making it in America: a sourcebook on eminent ethnic Americans. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 350. ISBN 978-1-57607-098-7.
  8. ^ "New York State Census, 1855; pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-25847-12175-45 —".
  9. ^ Slayton (2001), p. 16
  10. ^ Josephsons 1969
  11. ^ a b c Burner, David. "Al Smith". American National Biography. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  12. ^ a b Von Drehle, David (2003). Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. New York, NY: Grove Press New York. pp. 204–210. ISBN 0-8021-4151-X.
  13. ^ "Obama, the Triangle Fire and the Real Father of the New Deal". Retrieved March 25, 2011.
  14. ^ Robert Ferdinand Wagner" in Dictionary of American Biography (1977)
  15. ^ The New York Times: "Factory Firetraps Found by Hundreds," October 14, 1911,
  16. ^ Richard A. Greenwald, The Triangle Fire, the Protocols of Peace, and Industrial Democracy in Progressive Era New York (2005), 128
  17. ^ The Economist, "Triangle Shirtwaist: The Birth of the New Deal", March 19, 2011, p. 39.
  18. ^ Slayton, Empire Statesman (2001) pp 92-92
  19. ^ MacArthur, Brian (May 1, 2000). The Penguin Book of 20th-Century Speeches. Penguin (Non-Classics). ISBN 0-14-028500-8.
  20. ^ Procter, Ben H. (2007). William Randolph Hearst. Oxford University Press US. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-19-532534-8.
  21. ^ Lerner, Michael (2007). Dry Manhattan: Prohibition in New York City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 239–240. ISBN 978-0-674-03057-2.
  22. ^ "Al Smitator h". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  23. ^ reprinted 1977, John A. Ryan, "Religion in the Election of 1928," Current History, December 1928; reprinted in Ryan, Questions of the Day (Ayer Publishing, 1977) p.91
  24. ^ William E. Leuchtenburg, The Perils of Prosperity, 1914–32 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1958) pp. 225–240.
  25. ^ Lichtman (1979);Slayton 2001
  26. ^ Slayton 2001; Lichtman (1979)
  27. ^ Degler (1964)
  28. ^ Lawrence (1996) p 34.
  29. ^ Lichtman (1976)
  30. ^ J. Joseph Huthmacher, Massachusetts People and Politics: The Transition from Republican to Democratic Dominance and Its National Implications (1973), p. 248.
  31. ^ George Wolfskill. The Revolt of the Conservatives: A History of the American Liberty League, 1934–1940. (Houghton Mifflin, 1962).
  32. ^ Jordan A. Schwarz, "Al Smith in the Thirties," New York History (1964): 316-330. in JSTOR
  33. ^ Slayton, Empire Statesman, pp. 397-398.
  34. ^ Slayton, Empire Statesman, pp. 399-400.
  35. ^ "NYT Travel: Empire State Building". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 19, 2010. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
  36. ^ Smith, Adam (August 18, 2008). "A Renters' Market in London". Time. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  37. ^ Reznikoff, Charles, ed. 1957. Louis Marshall: Champion of Liberty. Selected Papers and Addresses. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, p. 1123.
  38. ^ Staff. "35,000 JAM STREETS OUTSIDE THE GARDEN; Solid Lines of Police Hard Pressed to Keep Overflow Crowds From Hall. AREA BARRED TO TRAFFIC Mulrooney Takes Command to Avoid Roughness -- 3,000 at Columbus Circle Meeting. 35,000 IN STREETS OUTSIDE GARDEN", The New York Times, March 28, 1933. Accessed June 7, 2017.
  39. ^ Pierre van Paasen and James Waterman Wise, eds., Nazism: An Assault on Civilization (New York: Harrison Smith and Robert Haas, 1934), pp. 306-310.
  40. ^ David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) ISBN 9780199743827
  41. ^ Slayton, Empire Statesman, p. 391.
  42. ^ Slayton, Empire Statesman, pp. 391-392.
  43. ^ "Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70; 4 Times Governor — End Comes After a Sudden Relapse Following Earlier Turn for the Better — Ran For President in '28 — His Rise From Newsboy and Fishmonger Had No Exact Parallel in U.S. History". New York Times. October 4, 1944. p. 1. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
  44. ^ "U.S. Department of Labor – Labor Hall of Fame – Alfred E. Smith". Archived from the original on February 17, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
  45. ^ "Election result", The New York Times, 31 December 1918


  • Campaign Addresses of Governor Alfred E. Smith, Democratic Candidate for President 1928. Washington, DC: Democratic National Committee, 1929.
  • Progressive Democracy: Addresses & State Papers. 1928.
  • Up to Now: An Autobiography (The Viking Press, 1929)

Further reading

  • Bornet, Vaughn Davis. Labor Politics in a Democratic Republic: Moderation, Division, and Disruption in the Presidential Election of 1928 (1964) online edition
  • Chiles, Robert. "Working-Class Conservationism in New York: Governor Alfred E. Smith and 'The Property of the People of the State'" Environmental History (2013) 18#1 pp: 157-183.
  • Chiles, Robert. 2018. The Revolution of ’28: Al Smith, American Progressivism, and the Coming of the New Deal. Cornell University Press.
  • Colburn, David R. "Governor Alfred E. Smith and the Red Scare, 1919-20," Political Science Quarterly, vol. 88, no. 3 (Sept. 1973), pp. 423–444. In JSTOR.
  • Craig, Douglas B. After Wilson: The Struggle for Control of the Democratic Party, 1920–1934 (1992) online edition see Chap. 6 "The Problem of Al Smith" and Chap. 8 "'Wall Street Likes Al Smith': The Election of 1928"
  • Degler, Carl N. (1964). "American Political Parties and the Rise of the City: An Interpretation". Journal of American History. 51 (1): 41–59. doi:10.2307/1917933. JSTOR 1917933.
  • Eldot, Paula (1983). Governor Alfred E. Smith: The Politician as Reformer. Garland. ISBN 0-8240-4855-5.
  • Finan, Christopher M. (2003). Alfred E. Smith: The Happy Warrior. Hill and Wang. ISBN 0-8090-3033-0.
  • Handlin, Oscar (1958). Al Smith and His America. Little, Brown.
  • Hostetler, Michael J. (1998). "Gov. Al Smith Confronts the Catholic Question: The Rhetorical Legacy of the 1928 Campaign". Communication Quarterly. 46. doi:10.1080/01463379809370081.
  • Josephson, Matthew and Hannah (1969). Al Smith: Hero of the Cities. Houghton Mifflin.
  • Lawrence, David G. (1996). The Collapse of the Democratic Presidential Majority: Realignment, Dealignment, and Electoral Change from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-8984-4.
  • Lichtman, Allan J. (1979). Prejudice and the old politics: The Presidential election of 1928. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1358-3. OCLC 4492475.
  • Lichtman, Allan (1976). "Critical Election Theory and the Reality of American Presidential Politics, 1916–40". The American Historical Review. 81 (2): 317–351. doi:10.2307/1851173. JSTOR 1851173.
    • Carter, Paul A. (1980). "Deja Vu; Or, Back to the Drawing Board with Alfred E. Smith". Reviews in American History. 8 (2): 272–276. doi:10.2307/2701129. JSTOR 2701129.; review of Lichtman
  • Moore, Edmund A. (1956). A Catholic Runs for President: The Campaign of 1928. OCLC 475746. online edition
  • Neal, Donn C. (1983). The World beyond the Hudson: Alfred E. Smith and National Politics, 1918–1928. New York: Garland. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-8240-5658-2.
  • Neal, Donn C. (1984). "What If Al Smith Had Been Elected?". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 14 (2): 242–248.
  • Perry, Elisabeth Israels (1987). Belle Moskowitz: Feminine Politics and the Exercise of Power in the Age of Alfred E. Smith. Oxford University Press. p. 280. ISBN 0-19-504426-6.
  • "Smith to Talk Oct. 23". New York Times. 1940. p. 17.
  • "Smith Says Roosevelt Aroused Spirit of Class Hatred in Nation". New York Times. 1940. p. 1, 18.
  • Rulli, Daniel F. "Campaigning in 1928: Chickens in Pots and Cars in Backyards," Teaching History: A Journal of Methods, Vol. 31#1 pp 42+ (2006) online version with lesson plans for class
  • Schwarz, Jordan A. "Al Smith in the Thirties." New York History (1964): 316-330. in JSTOR
  • Slayton, Robert A. (2001). Empire Statesman: The Rise and Redemption of Al Smith. Free Press. p. 480. ISBN 978-0-684-86302-3., the standard scholarly biography
  • Stonecash, Jeffrey M., et al. "Politics, Alfred Smith, and Increasing the Power of the New York Governor's Office." New York History (2004): 149-179. in JSTOR
  • Sweeney, James R. "Rum, Romanism, and Virginia Democrats: The Party Leaders and the Campaign of 1928." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 90 (October 1982): 403–31.

External links

New York Assembly
Preceded by
Joseph Bourke
Member of the New York Assembly
from New York County's 2nd district

Succeeded by
Peter J. Hamill
Preceded by
Edwin Albert Merritt
Majority Leader of the New York Assembly
Succeeded by
Frank L. Young
Minority Leader of the New York Assembly
Succeeded by
Harold J. Hinman
Preceded by
Harold J. Hinman
Minority Leader of the New York Assembly
Succeeded by
Joseph M. Callahan
Political offices
Preceded by
Edwin Albert Merritt
Speaker of the New York Assembly
Succeeded by
Thaddeus C. Sweet
Preceded by
Frank Dowling
President of the New York City Board of Aldermen
Succeeded by
Robert L. Moran
Preceded by
Charles S. Whitman
Governor of New York
Succeeded by
Nathan L. Miller
Preceded by
Nathan L. Miller
Governor of New York
Succeeded by
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Party political offices
Preceded by
Samuel Seabury
Democratic nominee for Governor of New York
1918, 1920, 1922, 1924, 1926
Succeeded by
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by
John W. Davis
Democratic nominee for President of the United States
1918 New York gubernatorial election

The 1918 New York gubernatorial election took place on November , 1918, to elect the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of New York, concurrently with elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections.

Due to New York having the most electoral votes at the time Al Smith`s victory would lead to his nomination as the Democratic candidate in the 1928 Presidential Election and in 10 years Franklin D. Roosevelt`s victory would lead to him becoming president in 1932.

1920 Democratic National Convention

The 1920 Democratic National Convention was held at the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco, California from June 28 to July 6, 1920. It resulted in the nomination of Governor James M. Cox of Ohio for President and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt from New York for Vice President.

Neither President Woodrow Wilson, in spite of his failing health, nor former Secretary of State and three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan had entirely given up hope that their party would turn to them, but neither was, in the event, formally nominated. In addition to the eventual nominee, Cox, the other high-scoring candidates as the voting proceeded were: Secretary of the Treasury William McAdoo and Attorney General Mitchell Palmer. On the forty-fourth ballot, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio was nominated for the Presidency. Cora Wilson Stewart of Kentucky, head of the National Education Association's new illiteracy commission, was chosen to second the nomination for Governor Cox. Mrs. Stewart was selected to replace Kentucky Congressman J. Campbell Cantrill, highlighting the candidate's support for what would become the 19th Amendment.The platform adopted by the convention supported the League of Nations, albeit with qualifications, and women's suffrage.

1920 New York gubernatorial election

The 1920 New York gubernatorial election took place on November 2, 1920, to elect the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of New York, concurrently with elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections.

Despite losing reelection Al Smith would win the nomination as the Democratic candidate in the 1928 Presidential Election.

1920 United States elections

The 1920 United States elections was held on November 2. In the aftermath of World War I, the Republican Party re-established the dominant position it lost in the 1910 and 1912 elections. This was the first election after the ratification of the 19th Amendment, which granted women the constitutional right to vote.

In the presidential election, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding from Ohio defeated Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Harding won a landslide victory, taking every state outside the South and dominating the popular vote. Harding won the Republican nomination on the tenth ballot, defeating former Army Chief of Staff Leonard Wood, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden, California Senator Hiram Johnson, and several other candidates. Cox won the Democratic nomination on the 44th ballot over former Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, New York Governor Al Smith, and several other candidates. Future president Calvin Coolidge won the Republican nomination for vice president, while fellow future president Franklin D. Roosevelt won the Democratic nomination for vice president. Harding was the first sitting Senator to be elected president.

The Republicans made large gains in the House and the Senate, strengthening their majority in both chambers. They picked up sixty-two seats in the House of Representatives, furthering their majority over the Democrats. The Republicans also strengthened their majority in the Senate, gaining ten seats.

1924 Democratic National Convention

The 1924 Democratic National Convention, held at the Madison Square Garden in New York City from June 24 to July 9, 1924, was the longest continuously running convention in United States political history. It took a record 103 ballots to nominate a presidential candidate. It was the first major party national convention that saw the name of a woman, Lena Springs, placed in nomination for the office of Vice President. John W. Davis, a dark horse, eventually won the presidential nomination on the 103rd ballot, a compromise candidate following a protracted convention fight between distant front-runners William Gibbs McAdoo and Al Smith.

Davis and his vice presidential running-mate, Charles W. Bryan of Nebraska, went on to be defeated by the Republican ticket of President Calvin Coolidge and Charles G. Dawes in the 1924 presidential election.

1924 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1924 Democratic presidential primaries were part of the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1924 U.S. presidential election. The concept of a primary election, where any registered party member would vote for a candidate, was relatively new in the American political landscape. In only 12 states were actual primaries held, and even in those the results were not universally binding for the delegates to the Democratic National Convention, where the presidential candidate would be formally chosen. In most of the country, the selection of delegates was confined to state-level conventions and caucuses, under the heavy hand of local political machines. Though William Gibbs McAdoo won a vast majority of states, and much more than half of the popular vote, in those twelve states that held primary elections, it meant little to his performance nationwide. Many of the delegations from states that did not hold primary elections favored his main rivals, Oscar Underwood of Alabama and Al Smith of New York, neither of which won any primary elections. As well, the primaries that McAdoo did not win were won by "local sons" who stood no chance of winning the nomination, or in some cases were not even formal candidates. Once at the convention, the party was deadlocked for 102 straight ballots, before dark horse candidate John W. Davis, (who was not a formal candidate when he arrived at the convention) was chosen on the 103rd ballot. Davis went on to lose the election to Republican candidate Calvin Coolidge.

1924 United States elections

The 1924 United States elections was held on November 4. The Republican Party retained control of the presidency and both chambers of Congress.

In the presidential election, Republican President Calvin Coolidge (who took office on August 2, 1923, upon the death of his predessor, Warren G. Harding) was elected to serve a full term, defeating Democratic nominee, former Ambassador John W. Davis and Progressive Senator Robert M. La Follette, Sr. from Wisconsin. Coolidge easily won the election, taking almost every state outside the Solid South. Davis won the Democratic nomination after a record 103 ballots, emerging as a compromise candidate between Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo and New York Governor Al Smith. La Follette, a former Republican who had sought the 1912 Republican nomination, drew sixteen percent of the popular vote and won his home state of Wisconsin.

The Republicans gained twenty-two seats in the House of Representatives, increasing their majority over the Democrats. The Republicans also furthered a majority in the Senate, gaining four seats from the Democrats.

1928 Democratic National Convention

The 1928 Democratic National Convention was held at Sam Houston Hall in Houston, Texas, June 26–28, 1928. The convention resulted in the nomination of Governor Alfred E. Smith of New York for President and Senator Joseph T. Robinson of Arkansas for Vice President.

The convention was the first held by either party in the South since the Civil War. It was also the first to nominate a Roman Catholic for President, Al Smith. The Texas delegation, led by Governor Dan Moody, was vehemently opposed to Smith. Therefore, when Smith was nominated, they rallied against his anti-prohibition sentiment by fighting for a "dry", prohibitionist platform. Ultimately, the convention pledged "honest enforcement of the Constitution".

Smith became the first Democrat since Reconstruction to lose more than one southern state in the general election, due to his "wet" stance, his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, and his Catholicism.

1928 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1928 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1928 U.S. presidential election. New York Governor Al Smith was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1928 Democratic National Convention held from June 26 to June 28, 1928, in Houston, Texas.

1928 United States elections

The 1928 United States elections was held on November 6. In the last election before the start of the Great Depression, the Republican Party retained control of the presidency and bolstered their majority in both chambers of Congress.

Republican former Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover defeated Democratic nominee New York Governor Al Smith. Hoover won a landslide victory, taking several Southern states and winning almost every state outside the South. Democrats suffered from voter prejudice against Roman Catholics like Smith. As incumbent President Calvin Coolidge declined to seek re-election, Hoover won the Republican nomination on the first ballot. Like Hoover, Smith also won his party's nomination on the first ballot.

The Republicans gained thirty-two seats in the House of Representatives, furthering a majority over the Democrats. The Republicans also increased a majority in the Senate, gaining eight seats.

1928 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1928 was the 36th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1928. Republican Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover defeated the Democratic nominee, Governor Al Smith of New York. Hoover was the last Republican to win a presidential election until 1952.

After President Calvin Coolidge declined to seek reelection, Hoover emerged as his party's front-runner. As Hoover's intra-party opponents failed to unite around a candidate, Hoover received a large majority of the vote at the 1928 Republican National Convention. The strong state of the economy discouraged some Democrats from running, and Smith was nominated on the first ballot of the 1928 Democratic National Convention. Hoover and Smith had been widely known as potential presidential candidates long before the 1928 campaign, and both were generally regarded as outstanding leaders. Each candidate was a newcomer to the presidential race and presented in his person and record an appeal of unknown potency to the electorate. Each candidate also faced serious discontent within his party membership, and neither had the wholehearted support of his party organization.In the end, the Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s, whereas Smith, a Roman Catholic, suffered politically from anti-Catholic prejudice, his anti-prohibitionist stance, and his association with the legacy of corruption of Tammany Hall. Hoover won a third straight Republican landslide and made substantial inroads in the traditionally Democratic Solid South, winning several states that had not voted for a Republican since the end of Reconstruction. Hoover's victory made him the first president born west of the Mississippi River, and he is the most recent sitting member of the Cabinet to win a major party's presidential nomination.

1928 United States presidential election in California

In the 1928 United States presidential election, California voted for the Republican nominee, former Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover, in a landslide over the Democratic nominee, New York Governor Al Smith.

1932 Democratic National Convention

The 1932 Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois June 27 – July 2, 1932. The convention resulted in the nomination of Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York for President and Speaker of the House John N. Garner from Texas for Vice President. Beulah Rebecca Hooks Hannah Tingley was a member of the Democratic National Committee and Chair of the Democratic Party of Florida. She seconded the nomination of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, becoming the second woman to address a Democratic National Convention.

1932 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1932 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1932 U.S. presidential election. New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1932 Democratic National Convention held from June 27 to July 2, 1932, in Chicago, Illinois.

1932 United States presidential election in Massachusetts

The 1932 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 8, 1932, as part of the 1932 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose seventeen representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Massachusetts voted for the Democratic nominee, Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York, over the Republican nominee, incumbent President Herbert Hoover of California. Roosevelt ran with Speaker of the House John Nance Garner of Texas, and Hoover ran with incumbent Vice President Charles Curtis of Kansas.

Roosevelt carried the state with 50.64 percent of the vote to Hoover’s 46.64 percent, a Democratic victory margin of 4.00 percent. Socialist candidate Norman Thomas came in a distant third, with 2.17 percent.

Massachusetts had once been a typical Yankee Republican bastion in the wake of the Civil War, voting Republican in every election from 1856 until 1928, except in 1912, when former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt had run as a third party candidate against incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft, splitting the Republican vote and allowing Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win Massachusetts with a plurality of only 35.53 percent of the vote.

In 1920 and 1924, Republicans had carried Massachusetts by landslide margins, sweeping every county in the state, including a GOP victory in the city of Boston.

However, in 1928, a coalition of Irish Catholic and other ethnic immigrant voters primarily based in urban areas turned out massively for Catholic Democrat Al Smith, making Massachusetts and neighboring Rhode Island the only states outside of the Solid South to vote Democratic that year, as Herbert Hoover won a third consecutive Republican landslide nationally. After 1912, 1928 was only the second time in history that Massachusetts had voted Democratic, and with 50.24 percent of the vote, Al Smith became the first Democratic presidential candidate ever to win a majority of the vote in Massachusetts.

Although Roosevelt was not a Catholic, the key to his victory in Massachusetts in 1932 was building on Smith’s winning coalition, and bringing ethnic Catholic voters into the broader Democratic coalition. With the embattled incumbent President Hoover failing to adequately address the Great Depression, economic issues would motivate 1928 Smith voters to remain loyal to the Democrats in 1932.

However the state was still closely divided between the newly emerging Democratic majority coalition, and its traditional New England Republican roots, and consequently Massachusetts was one of FDR’s weakest victories. New England as a whole was Hoover's most favorable region, as four of Hoover's six state victories came from New England. So although FDR performed much more strongly than Smith nationwide, he only slightly outperformed Smith in Massachusetts. Thus as Roosevelt was elected nationally in a landslide, Massachusetts weighed in as about 14% more Republican than the national average.

As Roosevelt won the state with the same coalition that had propelled Al Smith to victory four years earlier, the county map in 1932 remained exactly the same as it was in 1928, with only percentages, margins, and turnout shifting. Roosevelt won the state despite carrying only four of the state’s fourteen counties. The most vital component to Roosevelt’s victory was the Democratic dominance in Suffolk County, home to the state's capital and largest city, Boston. Like Smith, Roosevelt took over 60% of the vote in Suffolk County. Another crucial victory for Roosevelt was in Hampden County, home to the city of Springfield. The remaining two counties that went to FDR were Bristol County, south of the Boston area, and rural Berkshire County in the far west of the state.

Al Smith (left-handed pitcher)

Alfred John Smith (October 12, 1907 – April 28, 1977) was an American professional baseball player, a left-handed pitcher for the New York Giants (1934–37), Philadelphia Phillies (1938–39) and Cleveland Indians (1940–45) of Major League Baseball.

Al Smith 1928 presidential campaign

Al Smith, Governor of New York, was a candidate for President of the United States in the 1928 election. His run was notable in that he was the first Catholic nominee of a major party, he opposed Prohibition, and he enjoyed broad appeal among women, who had won the right of suffrage in 1920.

List of people executed in New York

This list of individuals executed in New York gives the names of some of the individuals executed in New York, both before and after statehood in the United States (including as New Amsterdam), as well as the individual's date of execution, method of execution, and the name of the Governor of New York at the date of execution. 1963 marked the last execution in New York State. Some executions recorded during the 17th and 18th centuries do not indicate the name(s) of the executed and are not, therefore, included herein.

Regarding electrocutions, which comprise a large percentage of the executions:

55 people (54 men and 1 woman) were electrocuted at Auburn Correctional Facility

26 men were electrocuted at Clinton Correctional Facility

614 people (including 8 women) were electrocuted at Sing Sing

The West Wing (season 7)

The seventh and final season of the American political drama television series The West Wing aired in the United States on NBC from September 25, 2005 to May 14, 2006 and consisted of 22 episodes. The series changed time slots from Wednesdays at 8:00 pm to Sundays at 8:00 pm, and the series struggled in its new time slot against ABC's Extreme Makeover: Home Edition and CBS's Cold Case.The season was released on DVD as a six-disc boxed set under the title The West Wing: The Complete Seventh Season by Warner Home Video being released first in Region 2 on September 11, 2006 and then in Region 1 on November 7, 2006. All episodes from the season are available to purchase and download to registered users of iTunes Stores in certain countries and in the US through Amazon Video on Demand. In Canada, the seventh season was due to be simulcast on CTV; however, CTV dropped the series. In the United Kingdom the season premiered on March 10, 2006 on More4.

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