Al-Wathbah uprising (Arabic: انتفاضة الوثبة) or simply Al-Wathbah (Arabic: الوثبة), which means The Leap in Arabic, was the term that came to be used for the urban unrest in Baghdad in January 1948. The protests were sparked by the monarchy’s plans to renew the 1930 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty that effectively made Iraq a British protectorate. Nuri al-Said, the Prime Minister of Iraq, was planning on renewing, albeit in a revised form, this 1930 treaty that tied Iraq to British interests, allowed for the unrestricted movement of British troops on Iraqi soil, and provided significant protection to the British-installed Iraqi monarchy.
|Commanders and leaders|
|Nuri al-Said||Yusuf Salman Yusuf (Fahd)|
|Casualties and losses|
In 1947, the Iraqi monarchy entered into secret negotiations with the British government. The various political parties in Iraq were not informed of the negotiations and instead, heard about them on the radio or read about them in the newspapers the following day. Although the news on the treaty sparked the al-Wathbah protests, it soon became clear that there were elements of unrest that went beyond the opposition to the treaty. The participants in the demonstrations included workers, students, and the urban poor, living on the outskirts of Baghdad. Many of the protests were orchestrated by the Iraqi Communist Party. The al-Wathbah “sprang from the same conditions of existence that had since the first years of the forties been making for the advance of communism.” The rigid boundaries of class in Iraqi society, widespread poverty in the urban centers, a growing student population, all these factors contributed to the events of January 1948. In addition the purchasing power of workers was at a historic low, thus contributing to growing frustrations among salaried workers.
On January 3, the Iraqi foreign minister, Fāḍil al-Jamālī, was reported to have said that the Iraqi people were “sensitive to the merits” of the 1930 Anglo-Iraqi treaty. That night, The Independence Party held a secret meeting in its headquarters. They planned a public protest against the government. They understood that they might have to use force against the police.
On the January 4, students from al-Karkh and Al Adhamiya secondary schools joined up to protest the statements of al-Jamālī. They marched toward the School of Law, with the intent on continuing on toward the Royal Palace. When they arrived in the vicinity of the School of Law, police attempted to break up the protest. Students from the School of Law left their classrooms to join the protest (548). The police used clubs and fired shots to disperse the protest. Many students were wounded and thirty-nine were arrested (Six of whom were members of the Iraqi Communist Party or the related party The National Liberation Party), and the School of Law was closed down.
On January 6, students from all colleges went on strike.
On January 8, the authorities released the arrested students. The strike ceased.
On January 16, it was announced that the Iraqi government had signed a treaty in Portsmouth, effectively renewing its alliance with Britain. At the announcement of the treaty a three-day strike of college students began during which they protested in the streets.
On January 16-16, there were large-scale student protests. Although the protests were somewhat spontaneous in nature, they coalesced through the organizing of several political organizations: The communist “Student Cooperation Committee,” the Progressive Democrats, the Populists, the Kurdish Democrats, and the student wings of the National Democratic Party and the Independence Party.
On January 20 there was a large-scale student march. For the first time since the beginning of the unrest, other social groups joined the students: The Schalchiyyah workers and the poor shantytown dwelling migrants from South-Eastern Iraq known as the Shargāwiyyīn. The police responded by firing directly at the demonstrators. The demonstrators, however, did not disperse.
On January 21, the demonstrations escalated. The police fired on students who were transporting those who had been killed the day before. Members of the faculty at the School of pharmacy and medicine resigned from their posts. Protests spread in the streets including non-students and many Communists. “An atmosphere redolent of social revolution enveloped Baghdad.” That night, the king of Iraq annulled the treaty. The king’s disavowal of the treaty split the opposition in two camps: those, like the Independence Party and the National Democrats called on a cease of protests. The Communists called on protesters to continue, seeing that they were close to overthrowing the government.
On January 23, new demonstrations convened, combining students, members of the Independence Party, workers, and Scuffles broke out between members of the Independence party and Communists.
On January 26, Jabr and Nūri returned to Baghdad from London. In a radio address that very night, Jabr asked that the people remain calm and stated that details of the treaty would soon be provided. Immediately, a great number of people went out on the streets. Many reported hearing machine-gun fire in the night.
January 27: In the morning the Central Committee of the Communist Party released and distributed a manifesto that called for continued protests. It claimed that imperialists had infiltrated the demonstrations and acted in such a way as to justify the government’s violent intervention. The manifesto called on the protesters to continue their struggle until the government was toppled and a democratic government established in its wake.
Students and workers, coming from the popular areas of Baghdad, gathered to protest. A large group attempted to cross the bridge into West Baghdad where they would meet with students and the Schalchiyyah rail workers. In Al-Rasafa, the police opened fire on a group of Communists, killing four. Despite their losses, they kept marching forward and arriving in Amīn square, they were stopped by new police reinforcement. On the other side of the river, new clashes broke out between protesters. They moved onto the Ma’mūn Bridge and the police fired directly onto the crowd with machine-guns, killing scores. Many fell into the river. Meanwhile, demonstrations in Amīn square escalated and again, police fired directly onto the crowds. While the demonstrators regrouped in various locations, the police withdrew.
It is estimated that 300 – 400 demonstrators had been killed.
On the evening of January 26, Salih Jabr fled to England. The king entrusted a Shi’ī religious scholar who had been involved in the 1920 uprisings with forming a new government. The Iraqi government blamed foreign agitators for the January uprisings. They pointed to the Saudi support for the Independence Party and the Soviet links to the Communist party. They claimed that the Communist party received major donations from Jewish communists. However, records indicate that the Communist party spent very little money in January 1948, which supports the idea that the demonstrations were spontaneous and enjoyed widespread popular support.
The al-Wathbah uprising strengthened the Communist party. However, the new recruits were not trained and Fahd and 125 other senior communists were in the prison of Kut. The Communist Party more or less merged ideologically with the National Liberation Party and literally with the National Revolutionary Committee.
After the al-Wathbah the Communist party’s ideology was radicalized. One of the major issues that came to the fore was whether the party should cooperate strategically with the national bourgeoisie against the monarchy.
However, in the spring of 1948 a number of protests and strikes took place.
In May, the demonstrations were ended by the government’s declaration of martial law, following the outbreak of war in Palestine.
Although many different factions came together for the al-Wathbah, and the Liberal and National Democrats cooperated with the Communist party, there was no further collaboration on their respective opposition to the monarchy. By the end of 1948, the Communist party was in shambles, many of its leaders in prison. It was ideologically discredited after it had followed the Soviet line of accepting the partition of Palestine and the establishment of Israel in the summer. However, another effect of the al-Wathbah was that "the opposition parties responsible for organizing the demonstrations were discovering new, immediate forms of power, denied to them both by their small numbers and by the rigging of the parliamentary system. The al-Wathbah uprising helped pave the way for the 1952 Intifada, the overthrow of the monarchy in the 14 July Revolution, and the creation of a republic.
The 1935 Yazidi revolt took place in Iraq in October 1935. The Iraqi government, under Yasin al-Hashimi, crushed a revolt by the Yazidi people of Jabal Sinjar against the imposition of conscription. The Iraqi army, led by Bakr Sidqi, reportedly killed over 200 Yazidi and imposed martial law throughout the region. Parallel revolts opposing conscription also broke out that year in the northern (Kurdish populated) and mid-Euphrates (majorly Shia populated) regions of Iraq.
The Yazidis of Jabal Sinjar constituted the majority of Iraqi Yazidi population - the third largest non-Muslim minority within the kingdom, and the largest ethno-religious group in the province of Mosul. In 1939, the region of Jabal Sinjar was once again put under military control, together with the Shekhan District.1959 Mosul uprising
The 1959 Mosul Uprising was an attempted coup by Arab nationalists in Mosul who wished to depose the then Iraqi Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim, and install an Arab nationalist government which would then join the Republic of Iraq with the United Arab Republic. Following the failure of the coup, law and order broke down in Mosul, which witnessed several days of violent street battles between various groups attempting to use the chaos to settle political and personal scores.Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1948)
The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1948, or Portsmouth treaty of 1948, was a treaty between Iraq and United Kingdom signed in Portsmouth, England, on 15 January 1948. The treaty was a revision of the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930).
During World War II, the British had reoccupied Iraq to reverse a pro-Axis coup that had taken place in 1941, and through the Treaty at Portsmouth on 15 January 1948, Sayyid Salih Jabr negotiated British withdrawal from Iraq. However, the agreement consisted of a joint British and Iraqi defense board that oversaw Iraq's military planning. Additionally, the British continued control of Iraqi foreign affairs. Iraq would still be tied to the British for military supplies and training until 1973, a 25-year period that Arab nationalists in Iraq could not accept. As a staunch reaction to the Portsmouth Treaty, Iraqis led the Al-Wathbah uprising in protest of a continued British presence in Iraq. Al-Said repudiated the Portsmouth Treaty as a concession offered to the Iraqi and Arab nationalists, who rebelled.The treaty was repudiated after the Free Officers coup in 1958 removed Faisal II from power, and his pro-Western policies were reversed.Ar-Rashid revolt
The ar-Rashid revolt refers to a 1963 failed uprising against the Baathist government in Iraq. The revolt was plotted by followers of the Iraqi Communist Party in junction with military officers. The revolt failed to spread outside Baghdad and was crushed by the Baathist forces.Corrective Movement (Syria)
The Corrective Movement (Arabic: الحركة التصحيحية al-Ḥaraka at-Taṣ'ḥīḥiya), also referred to as the Corrective Revolution or Glorious Corrective Movement, was a political movement in Syria, initiated by a coup d'état, led by General Hafez al-Assad on 13 November 1970. Al-Assad's program of reform, considered revolutionary in Syria, aimed to sustain and improve the "nationalist socialist line" of the state and the Ba'ath party. Al-Assad would rule Syria until his death in 2000, after which he was succeeded by his son Bashar al-Assad.Guerrilla war in the Baltic states
The Guerrilla war in the Baltic states or the Forest Brothers resistance movement was the armed struggle against Soviet rule that spanned from 1940 to the mid-1950s. After the occupation of the Baltic territories by the Soviets in 1944, an insurgency started. According to some estimates, 10,000 partisans in Estonia, 10,000 partisans in Latvia and 30,000 partisans in Lithuania and many more supporters were involved. This war continued as an organised struggle until 1956 when the superiority of the Soviet military caused the native population to adopt other forms of resistance. While estimates related to the extent of partisan movement vary, but there seems to be a consensus among researchers that by international standards, the Baltic guerrilla movements were extensive. Proportionally, the partisan movement in the post-war Baltic states was of a similar size as the Viet Cong movement in South Vietnam.Johnson Doctrine
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The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (Arabic: المملكة العراقية الهاشمية al-Mamlakah al-‘Irāqiyyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favour of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq was granted full independence in 1932, following the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930). The independent Iraqi Kingdom under the Hashemite rulers underwent a period of turbulence through its entire existence. Establishment of Sunni religious domination in Iraq was followed by Assyrian, Yazidi and Shi'a unrests, which were all brutally suppressed. In 1936, the first military coup took place in the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, as Bakr Sidqi succeeded in replacing the acting Prime Minister with his associate. Multiple coups followed in a period of political instability, peaking in 1941.
During World War II, the Iraqi regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah was overthrown in 1941 by the Golden Square officers, headed by Rashid Ali. The short-lived pro-Nazi government of Iraq was defeated in May 1941 by the allied forces in the Anglo-Iraqi War. Iraq was later used as a base for allied attacks on the Vichy-French-held Mandate of Syria and support for the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union.
In 1945, during the final stages of World War II, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League. In 1948, massive violent protests, known as the Al-Wathbah uprising, broke out across Baghdad as a popular demand against the government treaty with the British, and with communist party support. More protests continued in spring, but were interrupted in May, with the martial law, when Iraq entered the 1948 Arab–Israeli War along with other members of the Arab League.
In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian–Syrian union. The resulting Arab Federation, formed on 14 February 1958, was short-lived. It ended in 1958, when the monarchy was overthrown in a military coup, led by Abd al-Karim Qasim.List of wars involving Iraq
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Sayyid Mohammad Al-Sadr (Arabic: سيد محمد الصدر January 7, 1882 – April 3, 1956) was an Iraqi Shi'ite statesman. He served as Prime Minister of Iraq from 29 January 1948 to 26 June 1948.Muhammad Mahdi al-Jawahiri
Muhammad Mahdi Al-Jawahiri (Arabic: محمد مهدي الجواهري) (26 July 1899 – 27 July 1997) was an Iraqi poet. Considered by many as one of the best and greatest Arabian poets in the 20th century , he was also nicknamed The Greatest Arabian PoetNDF Rebellion
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A number of revolts against the Turkish Revolutionaries broke out during the Turkish War of Independence.
Kemal Atatürk, who was the leader of the nationalist government of Turkey during the war of independence was primarily concerned about subduing the internal revolts and establishing domestic security. To achieve this, the parliament passed the Law of Treachery to the Homeland and established Mobile Gendarmerie Troops. These revolts had the effect of delaying the nationalist movement's struggle against the occupying foreign forces on several fronts. These revolts, such as those by Ahmed Anzavur, were put down with some difficulty by nationalist forces.Salih Jabr
Salih Jabr (or Sayyid Salih Jabr Arabic: سيد صالح جبر) was an Iraqi statesman. In the 1930s and 1940s, he attended the office of minister of justice, education, foreign affairs, interior, and finance. He was the 16th prime minister of Iraq from 29 March 1947 - 27 January 1948 and the first Shiite to become prime minister. He was not accepted by young liberal and nationalist politicians who had been roughly handled when he was wartime minister of interior. During his time in office, the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1948), a revision of the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930), was prepared and signed without consultation of other Iraqi leaders. His government fell after the bloody suppression of the anti-British Al-Wathbah uprising, he had to repudiate the treaty and fled to England on 26 January 1948.
His son Sa'ad Saleh Jabr launched the first Iraqi opposition newspaper Al Tayar from his exile in London in 1984 until the invasion 2003.Southern Abyan Offensive (2016)
The Southern Abyan Offensive refers to a 2016 offensive that AQAP launched in late February, which ended with a victory for AQAP as Yemeni tribal fighters loyal to president Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi were driven out of the Abyan Governorate.Ulbricht Doctrine
The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.
East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.
West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.Western Bloc
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".Yemeni–Adenese clan violence
Yemeni–Adenese clan violence refers to sectarian violence in Yemen and Aden during 1956-60, resulting in some 1,000 deaths.
This list includes post-WWI conflicts (after 1918) of at least 100 fatalities each
Prolonged conflicts are listed in the decade when initiated; ongoing conflicts are marked italic and conflict with +100,000 killed with bold.