Al-Raghib al-Isfahani

Abul-Qasim al-Hussein bin Mufaddal bin Muhammad, better known as Raghib Isfahani (Persian: ابوالقاسم حسین ابن محمّد الراغب الاصفهانی‎), was an eleventh-century Muslim scholar of Qur'anic exegesis and the Arabic language.[2][3]

Abul-Qasim al-Hussein bin Mufaddal bin Muhammad
DiedAH 502 (1108/1109)[2]
EraMedieval era
RegionAbbasid Caliphate scholar
Senior posting


Al-Raghib Al-Isfahani - meaning "the Isfahanian monk" - was born in Isfahan as his name suggests, though his exact date of birth is not known.[4]

He died in the Hijri year 502, corresponding to 1108 on the Gregorian calendar.[4][5][6]

Al-Isfahani's theological stance seems to have been close to that of the Ash'ari school. In one of his works entitled al-I'tiqadat, Al-Isfahani attacks both the Mu'tazila and the Shi'a showing that questions about his adherence to either of these positions is groundless.[1]

Al-Isfahani was opposed to the emanationism of the Brethren of Purity, preferring creationism instead.[7] The concept of justice, according to al-Isfahani's definition, is "equal retaliation" for wrongdoing.[8]


His work covered topics ranging from ethics to linguistics to Muslim philosophy.[9] One of his most famous works was Al-Mufradat fi Gharib al-Quran.

As a man of letters, al-Isfahani was also well-versed in Arabic literature. His literary anthology, which was carefully organized by topic, carried much weight and respect in intellectual circles.[10][11] He was also noted as an early Muslim writer on the topic of blending religious and philosophical ethics.[12]

See also


  1. ^ a b Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P.; Lecomte, G. (1995). Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume VIII (Ned-Sam). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 390. ISBN 9004098348.
  2. ^ a b "Islamic Manuscripts at the University of Michigan: Handlist Accessions 160-192". Archived from the original on 2007-05-13. Retrieved 2006-11-20.
  3. ^ S. Nomanul Haq, "Islamic Religious Doctrine." Taken from Religious Truth: A Volume in the Comparative Religious Ideas Project, pg. 129. Ed. Robert C. Neville. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001. ISBN 9780791491607
  4. ^ a b al-Raghib al-Isfahani, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. Oliver Leaman. Oxford: Oxford Reference, 2012. ISBN 9780199754731
  5. ^ Sarra Tlili, Animals in the Qur'an, pg. 226. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. ISBN 9781107023703
  6. ^ Hamid Mavani, Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism: From Ali to Post-Khomeini, pg. 42. Volume 9 of Routledge Studies in Political Islam. London: Routledge, 2013. ISBN 9781135044732
  7. ^ Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān, pg. 156. Ed. Oliver Leaman. London: Routledge, 2005. ISBN 9781134339754
  8. ^ Asghar Ali Engineer, "Islam, Women and Gender Justice." Taken from Liberating Faith: Religious Voices for Justice, Peace, and Ecological Wisdom, pg. 355. Ed. Roger S. Gottlieb. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. ISBN 9780742525351
  9. ^ Ethics in Islamic philosophy
  10. ^ The Muslim Jesus: Sayings and Stories in Islamic Literature, pg. 149. Ed. and trns. Tarif Khalidi. Dissertation series / Society of Biblical Literature. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 9780674004771
  11. ^ Sahar Amer, Crossing Borders: Love Between Women in Medieval French and Arabic Literatures, pg. 24. The Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. ISBN 9780812201086
  12. ^ Rita Sommers-Flanagan and John Sommers-Flanagan, Becoming an Ethical Helping Professional: Cultural and Philosophical Foundations, pg. 38. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. ISBN 9780470080108


Abu Turab

Abu Turab (Arabic: أبو تراب‎) or Father of Soil, is a title attributed to Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Caliph. According to narrations the title was given to Ali by Muhammad, when he found Ali sleeping while covered with soil.Abu Turab means "Father of Soil". There is a verse in Quran that says,' Indeed, We have warned you of a near punishment on the Day when a man will observe what his hands have put forth and the disbeliever will say, "Oh, I wish that I were dust!" 'Some scholars has interpreted this verse by that tradition and also another tradition in which Muhammad has said, 'Ali and I are the father of this People[ i.e., Muslims ]' as the following,

Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Malik Ibn Saʿīd

Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Malik Ibn Saʿīd (died 1163) is best known as a poet, and lover of Ḥafṣa bint al-Ḥājj ar-Rakūniyya (c. 1135-1191).

Al-Isfahani (disambiguation)

The name Al-Isfahani means someone from the city of Isfahan, Iran.

People with this name include:

Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, an Arab scholar, a member of the tribe of the Quraysh

Abu-l-Fath Mahmud ibn Mohammed ibn Qasim ibn Fadl al-Isfahani, a 10th-century Persian mathematician

Al-Raghib al-Isfahani, an Islamic scholar

Ghiyath al-Din 'Ali ibn Amirin al-Husayni al-Isfahani, a 15th-century Persian physician and scientist from Isfahan

Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani, a 12th-century historian

Jalal al-Din Muhammad al-Isfahani, a 19th-century Persian physician from Isfahan

Al-Mufradat fi Gharib al-Quran

Al-Mufradat fi Gharib al-Quran (Arabic: المفردات في غريب القرآن‎) is a dictionary of Qur'anic terms by Islamic scholar Al-Raghib al-Isfahani.It is widely considered by Shia Muslims to hold the first place among works of Arabic lexicography in regard to the Qur'an.


Shihab al-Din abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ben Ali ben Ahmad Abd Allah al-Qalqashandi al-Fazari (1355 or 1356 – 1418) was a medieval Egyptian writer and mathematician.

Born in a village in the Nile Delta, al-Qalqashandi was scribe of the scroll (katib al-darj) in the Mamluk chancery in Cairo. He is the author of Subh al-a 'sha, completed in fourteen volumes in 1412, "one of the final expressions of the genre of Arabic administrative literature".The Subh al-a 'sha included a section on cryptology. This information was attributed to Ibn al-Durayhim who lived from 1312 to 1361, but whose writings on cryptology have been lost. The list of ciphers in this work included both substitution and transposition, and for the first time, a cipher with multiple substitutions for each plaintext letter. Also traced to Ibn al-Durayhim is an exposition on and worked example of cryptanalysis, including the use of tables of letter frequencies and sets of letters which can not occur together in one word.

Buthaina bint al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad

Buthaina bint al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad (Arabic: بثينة بنت المعتمد بن عباد‎,) was a poet of Al-Andalus. She was born in 1070 and was the daughter of Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad, the king of Spain. One of her poems, "Listen to my words", is about being sold into slavery after her father was overthrown.

Despondence in Islam

Despondence (Persian: قنوط‎) is one of the Major sins in Islam. Disappointment and its derivatives are repeated six times in the Quran. In some sources it is written that there is a difference between disappointment and despair (Persian: يأس‎) and that despondency is tougher than despair.

Fadl Ashsha'ira

Faḍl al-Shāʻirah (Arabic: فضل الشاعرة‎ "Faḍl the Poet", d. 871) was one of "three early ʻAbbasid singing girls ... particularly famous for their poetry" and is one of the pre-eminent medieval Arabic female poets whose work survives.

Ibn Abi Hasina

Abu'l Fatḥ al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Jabbār ibn al-Ḥaṣīna al-Sulamī, better known as Ibn Abī Ḥaṣīna (also spelled Ibn Abī Ḥuṣayna; 998–22 July 1065), was an 11th-century Arab poet, who specialized in panegyrics. He benefited from the patronage of the Mirdasid dynasty, whose emirs (princes) he frequently praised in his poetry. His works were published as Diwan Ibn Abi Hasina in 1956.

Ibn Baqi

Ibn Baqi or Abu Bakr Yahya Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Rahman Ibn Baqi (died 1145 or 1150) was an Arab poet from Córdoba or Toledo in al-Andalus. Baqi is one of the best-known strophic poets and songwriters of Al-Andalus. He moved between Morocco and Al-Andalus and wrote several poems honoring members of a Moroccan family, the Banu Asara, qadis of Salé. He is especially famous for his muwashshahat.

In the anthology of Al-Maqqari we find a considerable number of his poems.

Ibn Zamrak

Ibn Zamrak (also Zumruk) or Abu Abduallah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Surayhi, (1333–1393) was an Arab Andalusian poet and statesman from Granada, Al-Andalus. Some his poems still decorate the fountains and palaces of Alhambra in Granada.

He was of humble origin but thanks to his teacher Ibn al-Khatib he was introduced at the court of the Nasrids. He accompanied Sultan Abu Abd Allah Mohammed V to Morocco and when Mohammed was reinstated on the throne in Granada in 1361 he was appointed as his private secretary and a court poet. When Ibn al-Khatib was dismissed as vizier in 1371, Ibn Zamrak succeeded him and hired a group of assassins to kill him in prison after his arrest in Fez. Later, Ibn Zamrak himself was imprisoned for nearly two years by Yusuf II and was assassinated on the orders of Sultan Muhammad VII while he was reading the Qur'an at home in 1393.

Ibn al-Zaqqaq

For the Maliki scholar see Ali ibn Qasim al-Zaqqaq.

Ali ibn Attiya ibn al-Zaqqaq (علي إبن عطيّة إبن الزقّاق البلنسي اللخمي) (ca. 1100 Valencia - 1133 or 1134) was one of the great poets of Al-Andalus during the reign of the Almoravids. He was an Arab from Banu Lakhm

The patrons of Ibn al-Zaqqaq were two Valencian families, a governor, a family of Almoravid dignitaries, probably the supreme Almoravid judge of the East and perhaps the Almoravid ruler Ali ibn Yusuf himself.Sueno de al Zaqqaq by Luis Delgado is a collection of the works of Ibn Al-Zaqqaq set to music.

Ibrahim ibn al-Mudabbir

Abū Isḥāq (or Abū Yusr) Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Mudabbir, commonly simply known as Ibrahim ibn al-Mudabbir, was a senior courtier and fiscal administrator for the Abbasid Caliphate.


Isfahani (Persian: اصفهانی‎) or Ispahani is a surname of Iranian origin. It may refer to the following:


Al-Raghib al-Isfahani

Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani

Jalal al-Din Muhammad al-Isfahani

Maria Alphaizuli

Mariam bint Abu Ya'qub Ashshilbi (Arabic: مريم بنت أبي يعقوب الشَّلْبي) was an 8th-century Arabic-language poet of al-Andalus. She was born in Shilb (modern Silves, Portugal) and settled in Seville, where she became a tutor of noblewomen.Living during the time of the Moors, she has been referred to as the Arabian Sappho. During her time, many women of the Andalusian area cultivated the arts. Some well-preserved examples of her work survive in the library of the Escorial.

Muhya bint Al-Tayyani

Muhya Bint Al-Tayyani (Arabic: مهجةبنت التيابي القرطبية‎, born in Córdoba, died in Córdoba 1097 CE) was an eleventh-century Andalusian poet.

Hardly any information is available about her life. She was the daughter of a merchant who was engaged in the sale of figs. She met Princess Wallada, who took her to her house and educated her. She became a poet, a profession that had a great recognition in Andalusian society.


Ragheb or Raghib may refer to:

Ali Abu al-Ragheb (born 1946), the Prime Minister of Jordan from June 19, 2000 to October 25, 2003

Awad Ragheb (born 1982), Jordanian footballer of Palestinian origin

Mehrnoush Najafi Ragheb (born 1979), Iranian lawyer, Persian blogger, women's right activist and member of the city council of Hamedan

Ragheb Aga (born 1984), Kenyan cricketer and allrounder

Ragheb Alama (born 1962), Lebanese singer, composer, television personality, and philanthropist

Ragheb Harb (1952–1984), Lebanese resistance leader and Muslim cleric

Ragheb Moftah (1898–2001), Egyptian musicologist and scholar of the Coptic music heritage

Raghib al-Nashashibi (1881–1951), wealthy landowner and public figure during the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate and the Jordanian administration

Al-Raghib al-Isfahani, Islamic scholar

Raghib Ismail (born 1969), retired professional American and Canadian football player

Raghib Pasha (1819–1884), Greek Ottoman politician who served as Prime Minister of Egypt

Waddah al-Yaman

Waddah al-Yaman (Arabic: وضّاح اليمن‎), born Abdul Rahman bin Isma’il al-Khawlani (Arabic: عبدالرحمن بن اسماعيل الخولاني) (died 708), was an Arab poet.

Yunus Al-Katib Al-Mughanni

Yunus Al-Katib Al-Mughanni was a well-known musician and writer on music in the first half of the 2nd/8th century. He was the son of a jurist (fakih) of Persian origin and a mawla of the family of al-Zubayr b. al-Awwam. Beside music, he was also a famous poet.

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