Al-Qurtubi

Imam Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi or Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr al-Ansari al-Qurtubi (Arabic: أبو عبدالله القرطبي‎) was a famous mufassir, muhaddith and faqih scholar from Cordoba of Maliki origin. He is most famous for his commentary of the Quran, Tafsir al-Qurtubi.

Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi
Personal
Born1214
Died29 April 1273
ReligionIslam
EraIslamic golden age
DenominationSunni
JurisprudenceMaliki[1]
Main interest(s)Tafsir, fiqh and hadith

Biography

He was born in Córdoba, Al-Andalus in the 13th century. His father was a farmer and died during a Spanish attack in 1230. During his youth, he contributed to his family by carrying clay for use in potteries. He finished his education in Cordoba, studying from renowned scholars ibn Ebu Hucce and Abdurrahman ibn Ahmet Al-Ashari. After Cordoba's capture in 1236 by king Ferdinand III of Castile, he left for Alexandria, where he studied hadith and tafsir. He then passed to Cairo and settled in Munya Abi'l-Khusavb where he spent the rest of his life. Known for his modesty and humble lifestyle, he was buried in Munya Abi'l-Khusavb, Egypt in 1273. His grave was carried to a mosque where a mausoleum was built under his name in 1971,[2] still open for visiting today.

Views

He was very skilled in commentary, narrative, recitation and law; clearly evident in his writings, and the depth of his scholarship has been recognized by many scholars.[3] In his works, Qurtubi defended the Sunni point of view and criticized the Mu'tazilah.[4]

Reception

The hadith scholar Dhahabi said of him, ..he was an imam versed in numerous branches of scholarship, an ocean of learning whose works testify to the wealth of his knowledge, the width of his intelligence and his superior worth.[1]

Works

  1. Tafsir al-Qurtubi: the most important and famous of his works, this 20 volume commentary has raised great interest, and has had many editions.[5] Contrary to what its name implies, the commentary is not limited to verses dealing with legal issues,[6] but is a general interpretation of the whole of Quran with a Maliki point of view. Any claims made about a verse are stated and thoroughly investigated.
  2. al-Tadhkirah fī Aḥwāl al-Mawtá wa-Umūr al-Ākhirah (Reminder of the Conditions of the Dead and the Matters of the Hereafter): a book dealing with the topics of death, the punishments of the grave, the end times and the day of resurrection
  3. Al-Esna fi Sherh al-asma al-Husna
  4. Kitab-üt-Tezkar fi Efdal-il-Ezkar
  5. Kitabü Şerh-it-Tekassi
  6. Kitabü Kam-il-Hırs biz-Zühdi vel-Kanaati
  7. Et-Takrib li Kitab-it-Temhid

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (1986). Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume V (Khe-Mahi). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 512. ISBN 9004057455.
  2. ^ 26, el-Kasabî Mahmûd Zelat. p. 30
  3. ^ Al-Qurtubi's depth of scholarship
  4. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (1986). Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume V (Khe-Mahi). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 513. ISBN 9004057455.
  5. ^ * MV, Kahire 1950; 1353-1369/1935-1950; 1380; I-XX, 1386-1387/1966-1967; nşr. Muhammed İbrahim el-Hifnâvî ve Mahmûd Hâmid Osman, l-XXll, Kahire 1414/1994, 1416/1996
  6. ^ Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedisi, Tayyar Altıkulaç, 26 Kurtubi mad

External links

Abd al-Aziz ibn Shu'ayb

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Shuʿayb ibn ʿUmar al-Qurṭubī, also Kouroupas (Greek: Κουρουπᾶς) in the Byzantine sources, was the last Emir of Crete, ruling from 949 to the Byzantine reconquest of the island in 961.

The surviving records on the internal history and rulers of the Emirate of Crete are very fragmentary. Following the studies of George C. Miles with the aid of numismatic evidence, he is tentatively identified as a son of the eighth emir, Shu'ayb II, who ruled ca. 940–943, himself the great-great-grandson of the conqueror of Crete and founder of the Emirate of Crete, Abu Hafs Umar. The beginning of his reign is placed in 949, in succession to his uncle Ali. By the Byzantine chroniclers he is chiefly called "Kouroupas", apparently from an Arabic surname al-Qurtubi, "from Cordoba", whence the family had originally come.The 14th-century Egyptian historian al-Nuwayri reports that the Byzantine emperor Romanos II dispatched three embassies to the island seeking to conclude a peace treaty in exchange for the payment of an annual sum to Abd al-Aziz, with the purpose of concealing the ongoing preparations for a campaign to recover the island. This report is mostly considered legendary by modern scholars. At the head of a huge fleet and army, Nikephoros Phokas sailed in June or July 960, landed on the island, and defeated the initial Muslim resistance. A long siege of the emirate's capital of Chandax followed, which dragged over the winter into 961. The city was finally stormed on 6 March 961. At this time, Abd al-Aziz is described by Theodosios the Deacon as small, pale, bald, and very ill, but an eloquent and flattering speaker. In vain, the emir sent for aid to the Fatimids in Ifriqiya and the Emirate of Cordoba in Spain; the Muslim rulers sent envoys to him, but, impressed by the Byzantine might, they refrained from intervening.After the capture of Chandax Abd al-Aziz was taken captive with his family to Constantinople, where they were paraded at Nikephoros Phokas' triumphal procession. They were then given rich presents and an estate to settle by Romanos II, and the Byzantine sources report that the emperor considered making Abd al-Aziz a senator, but the latter refused to convert to Christianity. One of his sons, however, al-Nu'man, or Anemas in Greek, converted and entered Byzantine service until he was killed at the Siege of Dorostolon in 971. Some modern researchers consider it possible that the later Byzantine aristocratic family of Anemas descended from him.

Abu al-Walid al-Baji

Abu al-Walid al-Baji (or Sulayman ibn Khalaf ibn Sa`d or Sa`dun ibn Ayyub, al-Qadi Abu al-Walid al-Tujaybi al-Andalusi al-Qurtubi al-Baji al-Tamimi al-Dhahabi al-Maliki) (1013–1081) was a famous Maliki scholar and poet from Beja, Al-Andalus.Al-Baji worked at various times as a watchman and a goldsmith to support himself. He was a contemporary of the jurist Ibn Hazm. He died in 1081.

Al-Mumtahanah

Sūrat al-Mumtaḥanah (Arabic: سورة الممتحنة‎, translated "She That Is To Be Examined", "Examining Her") is the 60th chapter (sura) of the Quran, a Medinan sura with 13 verses.

Al-Qurtubi (surname)

The Arabic nisbah (attributive title) Al-Qurtubi (Arabic: القرطبي‎) denotes an origin from Córdoba, Spain.

Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi was a famous mufassir, muhaddith and maliki faqih scholar from Cordoba.Al-Qurtubi may also refer to:

Ibn Abi al-Shukr: 13th-cetnruy astronomer, astrologer and mathematician of the Islamic Golden Age.

Ibn Hayyan: 11th-century Muslim historian.

Muhammad al-Idrisi: 12th-century Muslim geographer, cartographer, Egyptologist and traveller who lived in Sicily.

Anemas (died 971)

An-Nu'mān ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Shuʿayb ibn ʿUmar al-Qurṭubī, known by the Byzantines as Anemas (Greek: Ἀνεμᾶς), was the son of the last Emir of Crete, Abd al-Aziz ibn Shu'ayb. Following the Siege of Chandax and the reconquest of Crete by the Byzantines, Anemas and his father were taken as prisoners to Constantinople and displayed during the triumph of the conqueror and future emperor Nikephoros II Phokas.Upon settling in Constantinople, Anemas converted to Christianity and joined the Byzantine army as a member of the imperial bodyguard.When the emperor John I Tzimiskes campaigned against the Kievan Rus in 971, Anemas joined the expedition and went on to fight in a number of engagements during the Siege of Dorostolon. According to Leo the Deacon, during a sally of the besieged Rus, Anemas personally engaged and killed their second-in-command, Ikmor. On the next day (Leo gives it as Friday the 24th of July, but the 24th was a Monday) the Rus launched a determined all-out attack around sunset, hoping to break through. Anemas charged the Rus leader, Sviatoslav, and struck him on the neck, throwing him off his horse; his armour however saved Sviatoslav, and the Rus quickly came to his aid and attacked Anemas. The latter was able to kill several, but in the end was killed himself. The Rus then charged with renewed confidence, but were beaten back with heavy casualties, forcing Sviatoslav to capitulate and sign a treaty with Tzimiskes.It is possible that the Anemas family that appears in the Byzantine aristocracy in the 11th–12th centuries were his descendants.

Ashʿari

Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (; Arabic: الأشعرية‎ al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by the Arab theologian Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324). The disciples of the school are known as Ashʿarites, and the school is also referred to as the Ashʿarite school, which became the dominant strand within Sunni Islam. It is considered one of the orthodox schools of theology in Sunni Islam, alongside the Maturidi school of theology.Amongst the most famous Ashʿarites are Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Nawawi, Al-Ghazali, Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam, Al-Suyuti, Ibn 'Asakir, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Qurtubi and Al-Subki.

Charles Pellat

Charles Pellat (28 September 1914 – 28 October 1992) was a French Arabist. He was a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, and an editor of the Encyclopaedia of Islam.

Ibn 'Abd al-Barr

Yusuf ibn Abdallah ibn Mohammed ibn Abd al-Barr, Abu Umar al-Namari al-Andalusi al-Qurtubi al-Maliki, commonly known as Ibn Abd-al-Barr (Arabic: ابن عبدالبر‎) was an eleventh-century Maliki judge and scholar in Lisbon. He died in December 2, 1071(1071-12-02) (aged 93).

Ibn Hayyan

Abū Marwān Ḥayyān ibn Khalaf ibn Ḥusayn ibn Ḥayyān al-Qurṭubī (987–1075), usually known as Ibn Hayyan, was a Muslim historian from Al-Andalus.

Born at Córdoba, he was an important official at the court of the Andalusian ruler al-Mansur and published several works on history which have only survived in part. His books constitute one of the most important sources for the study of the Andalusian history, especially the history of Córdoba and the kings of the taifas.

Like Ibn Hazm he defended the dynasty of the Umayyads and deplored its fall and the following dissolution of the Andalusian state and the coming of the taifas.

He died in Córdoba in 1075.

Ibn Maḍāʾ

Abu al-Abbas Ahmad bin Abd al-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Sa'id bin Harith bin Asim al-Lakhmi al-Qurtubi, better known as Ibn Maḍāʾ (Arabic: ابن مضاء‎; 1116–1196) was an Arab Muslim polymath from Córdoba in Islamic Spain. Ibn Mada was notable for having challenged the traditional formation of Arabic grammar and of the common understanding of linguistic governance among Arab grammarians, performing an overhaul first suggested by Al-Jahiz two-hundred years prior. He is considered the first linguist in history to address the subject of dependency in the grammatical sense in which it is understood today, and was instrumental during the Almohad reforms as chief judge of the Almohad Caliphate.

Ma'ariful Qur'an

Ma'ariful Qur'an (Urdu: معارف القرآن‬‎) is an eight-volume tafsir (exegesis) of the Quran written by Pakistani Islamic scholar Mufti Muhammad Shafi (1897–1976). Originally written in Urdu, it is the most prominent work of its author.

Maimonides

Moses ben Maimon (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מַיְמוּן‬ Mōšeh ben-Maymūn; Arabic: موسى بن ميمون‎ Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides ( my-MON-i-deez; Greek: Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Latin: Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (; רַמְבַּ״ם‬, for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses, son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages. In his time, he was also a preeminent astronomer and physician. Born in Córdoba, Almoravid Empire (present-day Spain) on Passover Eve, 1135 or 1138, he worked as a rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Morocco and Egypt. He died in Egypt on December 12, 1204, whence his body was taken to the lower Galilee and buried in Tiberias.During his lifetime, most Jews greeted Maimonides' writings on Jewish law and ethics with acclaim and gratitude, even as far away as Iraq and Yemen. Yet, while Maimonides rose to become the revered head of the Jewish community in Egypt, his writings also had vociferous critics, particularly in Spain. Nonetheless, he was posthumously acknowledged as among the foremost rabbinical arbiters and philosophers in Jewish history, and his copious work comprises a cornerstone of Jewish scholarship. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah still carries significant canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law. He is sometimes known as "ha Nesher ha Gadol" (the great eagle) in recognition of his outstanding status as a bona fide exponent of the Oral Torah.

Aside from being revered by Jewish historians, Maimonides also figures very prominently in the history of Islamic and Arab sciences and is mentioned extensively in studies. Influenced by Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and his contemporary Averroes, he in his turn influenced other prominent Arab and Muslim philosophers and scientists. He became a prominent philosopher and polymath in both the Jewish and Islamic worlds.

Maslama al-Majriti

Maslama al-Majriti or Abu al-Qasim al-Qurtubi al-Majriti (full name: Abu ’l-Qāsim Maslama ibn Aḥmad al-Faraḍī al-Ḥāsib al-Maj̲rīṭī al-Qurṭubī al-Andalusī; Arabic: أبو القاسم مسلمة بن أحمد المجريطي‎, Latin: Methilem) (c. 950 in Madrid – 1007 in Córdoba) was an Arab Muslim astronomer, chemist, mathematician, economist and Scholar in Islamic Spain, active during the reign of Al-Hakam II.

Muhammad al-Idrisi

Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي‎; Latin: Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II. Muhammed al-Idrisi was born in Ceuta, then belonging to the Almoravids.

Mussa

Mussa may refer to:

Aisha Mohammed Mussa, Ethiopian engineer and politician

Ali Mussa Daqduq (21st century), Hezbollah explosives expert

Abu Imran Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Qurtubi al-Israili (1135-1204), rabbi, physician, and philosopher

Haji Mussa Kitole (21st century), Zanzibari politician

Meryce Mussa Emmanuel (21st century), Tanzanian politician

Mohammed Mussa Yakubi (21st century), Afghan extrajudicial prisoner of the United States

Omar Mussa (footballer, born 1980), Burundian footballer

Omar Mussa (footballer, born 2000), Belgian footballer

Mussa, Mozambique

Mussa (genus), a stony coral genus

Picatrix

Picatrix is the name used today, for a 400-page book of magic and astrology originally written in Arabic under the title غاية الحكيم Ghāyat al-Ḥakīm, which most scholars assume was originally written in the middle of the 11th century, though an argument for composition in the first half of the 10th century has been made. The Arabic title translates as The Aim of the Sage or The Goal of The Wise. The Arabic work was translated into Spanish and then into Latin during the 13th century, at which time it got the Latin title Picatrix. The book's title Picatrix is also sometimes used to refer to the book's author.

Picatrix is a composite work that synthesizes older works on magic and astrology. One of the most influential interpretations suggests it is to be regarded as a "handbook of talismanic magic". Another researcher summarizes it as "the most thorough exposition of celestial magic in Arabic", indicating the sources for the work as "Arabic texts on Hermeticism, Sabianism, Ismailism, astrology, alchemy and magic produced in the Near East in the ninth and tenth centuries A.D." Eugenio Garin declares, "In reality the Latin version of the Picatrix is as indispensable as the Corpus Hermeticum or the writings of Albumasar for understanding a conspicuous part of the production of the Renaissance, including the figurative arts." It has significantly influenced West European esotericism from Marsilio Ficino in the 15th century, to Thomas Campanella in the 17th century. The manuscript in the British Library passed through several hands: Simon Forman, Richard Napier, Elias Ashmole and William Lilly.

According to the prologue of the Latin translation, Picatrix was translated into Spanish from the Arabic by order of Alphonso X of Castile at some time between 1256 and 1258. The Latin version was produced sometime later, based on translation of the Spanish manuscripts. It has been attributed to Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (an Andalusian mathematician), but many have called this attribution into question. Consequently, the author is sometimes indicated as "Pseudo-Majriti".

The Spanish and Latin versions were the only ones known to Western scholars until Wilhelm Printz discovered an Arabic version in or around 1920.

Saba (surah)

Sūrat Sabaʼ (Arabic: سورة سبأ‎, "Sheba") is the 34th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 54 verses (ayat), and is a Meccan sura. It discusses the lives of Solomon and David, a story about the people of Sheba, challenges and warnings against the disbelievers as well as the promises related to the Day of Judgment.

Said al-Andalusi

Abū al-Qāsim Ṣāʿid ibn Abū al-Walīd Aḥmad ibn Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Ṣāʿid ibn ʿUthmān al-Taghlibi al-Qūrtūbi, often referred to as Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, (1029–July 6,1070; 420- 6th Shawwal, 462) was an Andalusian-Arab Muslim Qadi. He was born in Almería, Spain during the Banu Dhiʼb-n-Nun dynasty, and died in Toledo, Spain. He belonged to the Arab tribe of Taghlib.Said Al-Andalusi was a historian, philosopher of science and thought, and mathematical scientist with a special interest in astronomy. As an acclaimed Qadi in the functionary court at Toledo, he assembled a well-educated group of young, precision instrument makers, astronomers and scientists, the most renowned of whom was Al-Zarqali. He was the author of the treatise Rectification of Planetary Motions and Exposition of Observers' Errors and contributed to the Tables of Toledo.The only work of Ṣāʿid's to survive intact is what has often been called his "history of science": Ṭabaqāt al-ʼUmam (Categories of Nations) of 1068. The "nations" being those who cultivated learning, such as Indians, Persians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Greeks, Byzantines, Arabs and Jews (in contrast to others not disposed, such as Norsemen, Chinese, Africans, Russians, Alains and Turks. In the Tabaqāt,there are three of Ṣāʿid al‐Andalusī's other works mentioned. The Jawāmiʿ akhbār al‐umam min al‐Arab wa‐l Ajam (Compendious History of Nations – Arab and Non‐Arab), the Maqālāt ahl al‐milal wa-l-nihal (Doctrines of the Adherents of Sects and Schools), and the Iṣlāh Ḥarakāt an-Najūn (Corrections of the Movement of Stars). While these three works have not physically survived the ages, what we know of them shows that Ṣāʿid al‐Andalusī specialized in history and astronomy.

Tafsir al-Qurtubi

Tafsir al-Qurtubi (Arabic: تفسير القرطبي‎) is a work of Qur'an exegesis (Arabic: tafsir) by the classical scholar Al-Qurtubi. Tafsir al-Qurtubi is also known as Al-Jami'li-Ahkam or Al-Jami' li Ahkam al-Qur'an or Tafsir al-Jami' .

The basic objective of this tafsir was to deduce juristic injunctions and rulings from the Quran yet, while doing so, al-Qurtubi has also provided the explanation of verses, research into difficult words, discussion of diacritical marks and elegance of style and composition. The book has been published repeatedly.

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