Al-Nawawi

Abu Zakaria Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī (Arabic: أبو زكريا يحيى بن شرف النووي‎;‎ 1233–1277), popularly known as al-Nawawī or Imam Nawawī (631–676 A.H./1234–1277), was a Sunni Shafi'ite jurist and hadith scholar.[2] He authored numerous and lengthy works ranging from hadith, to theology, biography, and jurisprudence.[3] Al-Nawawi never married.[4]

Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī
يحيى بن شرف النووي
BornMuharram 631 AH/ October 1233
Nawa, present Syria
Died24 Rajab 676 AH [1]/ 21 December 1277 (age 45)
Nawa, present Syria
Main interests
Hadith studies, Islamic jurisprudence.
Arabic name
Personal (Ism)Yahyah
Patronymic (Nasab)Ibn Sharaf ibn Marri ibn Hassan ibn Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Juma ibn Hazm
Teknonymic (Kunya)Abu Zakaria
Toponymic (Nisba)al-Nawawī

Creed

Nawawi adhered to the orthodox Sunni Ash'ari creed but later in his life he repented for that and adhered to the creed of Ahlul Sunnah Wal Jama’at [5][6] In line with this school, he did not interpret the mutashabihat, or 'unapparent in meaning' verses and hadiths in a literal anthropomorphic way. He states in his commentary of a hadith that:

This is one of the "hadiths of the attributes," about which scholars have two positions. The first is to have faith in it without discussing its meaning, while believing of Allah Most High that "there is nothing whatsoever like unto Him" (Qur'an 42:11), and that He is exalted above having any of the attributes of His creatures. The second is to figuratively explain it in a fitting way, scholars who hold this position adducing that the point of the hadith was to test the slave girl: Was she a monotheist, who affirmed that the Creator, the Disposer, the Doer, is Allah alone and that He is the one called upon when a person making supplication (du'a) faces the sky--just as those performing the prayer (salat) face the Kaaba, since the sky is the qibla of those who supplicate, as the Kaaba is the qibla of those who perform the prayer--or was she a worshipper of the idols which they placed in front of themselves? So when she said, In the sky, it was plain that she was not an idol worshiper.[7]

Early years

Background

He was born at Nawa near Damascus, Syria.[2] As with Arabic and other Semitic languages, the last part of his name refers to his hometown.

Yasin bin Yusuf Marakashi, says: "I saw Imam Nawawi at Nawa when he was a youth of ten years of age. Other boys of his age used to force him to play with them, but Imam Nawawi would always avoid the play and would remain busy with the recitation of the Noble Qur'an. When they tried to domineer and insisted on his joining their games, he bewailed and expressed his no concern over their foolish action. On observing his sagacity and profundity, a special love and affection developed in my heart for young Nawawi. I approached his teacher and urged him to take exceptional care of this lad as he was to become a great religious scholar. His teacher asked whether I was a soothsayer or an astrologer. I told him I am neither soothsayer nor an astrologer but Allah caused me to utter these words." His teacher conveyed this incident to Imam's father and he keeping in view the learning quest of his son, decided to dedicate the life of his son for the service and promotion of the cause of Islam.

Education

He had no academic or scholarly atmosphere and there were no religious academies or institutes where one could earn excellence in religious learning, so his father took him to Damascus, which was considered the center of learning and scholarship, and the students from far and wide gathered there for schooling. During that period, there were more than three hundred institutes, colleges and universities in Damascus. Imam Nawawi joined Madrasah Rawahiyah which was affiliated with the Ummvi University. The founder and patron of this Madrasah was a trader named Zakiuddin Abul-Qassim who was known as Ibn Rawahah. Madrasah was named after him. Noted and eminent teachers of the period taught in that Madrasah. Imam Nawawi says, "I studied in this institution for two years. During my stay in Madrasah Rawahiyah, I never had complete rest and lived on the limited food supplied by the institution." As a routine he used to sleep very little at night. When it became irresistible as a human being, he would lean and slumber for a while against the support of books. After a short duration he would again be hard at his scholastic pursuits.

Life as a scholar

He studied in Damascus from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage in 1253 he settled there as a private scholar.[8] From a young age he showed signs of great intelligence, and so his father paid for a good education. As a judge, he was much sought after for advice and adjudication of disputes.

Notable teachers

During his stay at Damascus, he studied from more than twenty teachers. These teachers were regarded as masters and authority of their subject field and disciplines they taught. Imam studied Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, its principles, syntax and Etymology. Abu Ibrahim Ishaq bin Ahmad AI-Maghribi, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Radiyuddin Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abu Hafs Umar bin Mudar Al-Mudari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi, Abul-Baqa Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Salim Al-Misri, Abu Abdullah Al-Jiyani, Abul-Fath Umar bin Bandar, Abu Muhammad At-Tanukhi, Sharafuddin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad Al-Ansari, Abul-Faraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Maqdisi, Abul-Fada'il Sallar bin Al-Hasan Al Arbali.[9]

Relationship with the Mamluk Sultanate

Nawawi drew the ire of Mamluk Sultan Rukn al-Din Baybars, when he petitioned on behalf of residents of Damascus who sought relief from heavy tax burdens during a drought that lasted many years.[10] This prompted Baybars threatened to expel him from Damascus.[11] To this, he responded:

"As for myself, threats do not harm me or mean anything to me. They will not keep me from advising the ruler, for I believe that this is obligatory upon me and others."[12]

Death and legacy

He died at Nawa at the relatively young age of 44, having never married.

An-Nawawi's lasting legacy is his contribution to hadith literature through his momentous works Forty Hadiths and Riyadh as-Saaliheen.[13] This made him respected in all madhabs, despite of him being of Shafi'i jurisprudence.[14] According to Al-Dhahabi, Imam Nawawi's concentration and absorption in academic love gained proverbial fame. He had devoted all his time for learning and scholarship. Other than reading and writing, he spent his time contemplating on the interacted and complex issues and in finding their solutions. Sheikh Mohiuddin expresses his impression about Imam Nawawi as thus:

Imaam an-Nawawi had three distinctive commendable qualities in his person. If anybody has only one out of these three, people turn to him in abundance for guidance. First, having knowledge and its dissemination. Second, to evade completely from the worldly inclinations, and the third, inviting to all that is good (Islam) enjoining virtue and forbidding vice. Imaam an-Nawawi had all three in him.

Destruction of tomb

In 2015, during the ongoing Syrian Civil War, his tomb was demolished by rebels linked to Al Nusra.[15]

Works

During his life of 45 years[16] he wrote "at least fifty books"[17] on Islamic studies and other topics. These include:

  • Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim شرح صحيح مسلم, making use of others before him, and is considered one of the best commentaries on Sahih Muslim. It is available online.[18]
  • Riyadh as-Saaliheen رياض الصالحين, is a collection of hadith on ethics, manners, conduct, and is very popular in the Muslim world today.
  • al-Majmu' sharh al-Muhadhdhab المجموع شرح المهذب, is a comprehensive manual of Islamic law according to the Shafi'i school has been edited with French translation by van den Bergh, 2 vols., Batavia (1882–1884), and published at Cairo (1888).[8]
  • Minhaj al-Talibin منهاج الطالبين وعمدة المفتين في فقه الإمام الشافعي, a classical manual on Islamic Law according to Shafi'i fiqh.[2]
  • Tahdhib al-Asma wal-Lughat تهذيب الأسماء, has been edited as the Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious Men chiefly at the Beginning of Islam by F. Wüstenfeld (Göttingen, 1842–1847).[8]
  • Taqrib al-Taisir التقريب والتيسير لمعرفة سنن البشير النذير, an introduction to the study of hadith, it is an extension of Ibn al-Salah's Muqaddimah, was published at Cairo, 1890, with Suyuti's commentary "Tadrib al-Rawi". It has been in part translated into French by W. Marçais in the Journal asiatique, series ix., vols. 16–18 (1900–1901).[8]
  • Forty Hadiths (al-arbaʿīn al-nawawiyya) الأربعون النووية, collection of forty (actually forty-two) fundamental traditions, frequently published along with numerous commentaries.[8]
  • Ma Tamas ilayhi hajat al-Qari li Saheeh al-Bukhaari ما تمس إليه حاجة القاري لصـحيح البـخاري,
  • Tahrir al-Tanbih تحرير التنبيه,
  • Kitab al-Adhkar الأذكار المنتخبة من كلام سيد الأبرار, is a collection of supplications of prophet Muhammad.
  • al-Tibyan fi adab Hamalat al-Quran التبيان في آداب حملة القرآن,
  • Adab al-fatwa wa al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti آداب الفتوى والمفتي والمستفتي,
  • al-Tarkhis fi al-Qiyam الترخيص بالقيام لذوي الفضل والمزية من أهل الإسلام,
  • Manasik متن الإيضاح في المناسك, on Hajj rituals.
  • Sharh Sunan Abu Dawood
  • Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari
  • Mukhtasar at-Tirmidhi
  • Tabaqat ash-Shafi'iyah
  • Rawdhat al-Talibeen
  • Bustan al-`arifin

Recent English language editions

  • Bustan al-ʿarifin (The Garden of Gnostics), Translated by Aisha Bewley

Minhaj al-Talibin

  • Minhaj et talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law ; According To The School of Shafi, Law Publishing Co (1977) ASIN B0006D2W9I
  • Minhaj et talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law ; According To The School of Shafi, Navrang (1992) ISBN 81-7013-097-2
  • Minhaj Et Talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law, Adam Publishers (2005) ISBN 81-7435-249-X

The Forty Hadith

  • The Compendium of Knowledge and Wisdom; Translation of Jami' Uloom wal-Hikam by Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali translated by Abdassamad Clarke, Turath Publishing (2007) ISBN 0-9547380-2-0
  • Al-Nawawi Forty Hadiths and Commentary; Translated by Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2010) ISBN 978-1-4563-6735-0
  • Ibn-Daqiq's Commentary on the Nawawi Forty Hadiths; Translated by Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2011) ISBN 1-4565-8325-5
  • Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith, Translated by Ezzeddin Ibrahim, Islamic Texts Society; New edition (1997) ISBN 0-946621-65-9
  • The Forty Hadith of al-Imam al-Nawawi, Abul-Qasim Publishing House (1999) ISBN 9960-792-76-5
  • The Complete Forty Hadith, Ta-Ha Publishers (2000) ISBN 1-84200-013-6
  • The Arba'een 40 Ahadith of Imam Nawawi with Commentary, Darul Ishaat
  • Commentary on the Forty Hadith of Al-Nawawi (3 Vols.), by Jamaal Al-Din M. Zarabozo, Al-Basheer (1999) ISBN 1-891540-04-1

Riyad al-Salihin

  • Gardens of the righteous: Riyadh as-Salihin of Imam Nawawi, Rowman and Littlefield (1975) ISBN 0-87471-650-0
  • Riyad-us-Salihin: Garden of the Righteous, Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah
  • Riyadh-us-Saliheen (Vol. 1&2 in One Book) (Arabic-English) Dar Ahya Us-Sunnah Al Nabawiya

See also

References

  1. ^ "kitaabun-Classical and Contemporary Muslim and Islamic Books". Kitaabun.com. 2003-01-23. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
  2. ^ a b c Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, pp.238-239. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615.
  3. ^ Fachrizal A. Halim (2014), Legal Authority in Premodern Islam: Yahya B Sharaf Al-Nawawi in the Shafi'i School of Law, p. 1. Routledge. ISBN 041574962X.
  4. ^ Abou Al-Fadl, Khaled (2005). The Search for Beauty in Islam: A Conference of the Books. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 174. ISBN 978-0742550940. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
  5. ^ Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 76. ISBN 143845371X.
  6. ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 89. ISBN 0230102794.
  7. ^ Sahih Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi. 18 vols. Cairo 1349/1930. Reprint (18 vols. in 9). Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1401/1981, 5.24
  8. ^ a b c d e Wikisource Thatcher, Griffithes Wheeler (1911). "Nawāwī" . In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 318.
  9. ^ "40hadithnawawi.com". 40hadithnawawi.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
  10. ^ "Amon our perennial faculty". Zaytuna College. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  11. ^ Dekmejian, R. Hrair (1995). Islam in Revolution: Fundamentalism in the Arab World Contemporary issues in the Middle East (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815626355.
  12. ^ Zarabozo, Jamaal al-Din M. (2008). Commentary on the Forty Hadith of al-Nawawi (2-Volume Set). Denver: Al-Basheer Company. p. 37.
  13. ^ "40 Hadiths of Imam Nawawi". 40HadithNawawi. Muslim American Society. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  14. ^ "Who Was Imam Al Nawawi (R)". Youtube. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Syrian fighters destroy historic Muslim tomb". Al Jazeera English. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  16. ^ "A Short Biography of Imaam an-Nawawi". Islaam.net. Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
  17. ^ Jamaal al-Din M. Zarabozo, Commentary on the Forty Hadith of Al-Nawawi, Volume 1, Al-Basheer Publication & Translation (1999), p. 33
  18. ^ "الرئيسة - الحديث - موقع الإسلام". Hadith.al-islam.com. Archived from the original on 2006-03-03. Retrieved 2014-05-20.

External links

A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions

A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions, (Arabic: الموضوعات الكبرى‎, translit. Al-Mawḍū‘āt al-Kubrā), is a collection of fabricated hadith collected by Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi for criticism.

Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani

Abu Bakr Abd al-Qāhir bin Abd ar-Rahman bin Muhammad al-Jurjānī (400 – 471 or 474 A.H.) (died 1078 AD) was a renowned Persian scholar of the Arabic language, literary theorist, grammarian and Shafi'i Muslim. al-Jurjānī was an Ahsa'ari descendant, and born in the town of Gorgan in Iran.

Al-Jurjānī is said not to have left his home town of Gorgan all his life, yet his reputation reached many Arabic scholars who came to see him. He excelled in the two sciences of ilm al balaghah (eloquence and rhetorical art) and ilm al bayan (a branch of Arabic rhetoric dealing with metaphorical language), which he explained in his two books Asrār al-Balāghah (Secrets of Rhetoric), and Dalāʾīl al-ʿIjāz fi-l-Qurʾān (Arguments of the Miraculous Inimitability of the Quran). Al-Jurjānī was influenced by his predecessors such as the grammarian Sibawayh, the critic Abi Helal al-'Askari al Balaghi, and the linguist and literary theorist Abu Ali al-Farisi, known for his book al-Idah (Elucidation).

Ali al-Farisi's nephew, Abi al-Hussein Muhammad Bin al-Hassan Bin Abd al-Wareth al-Faressi al-Nawawi, was al-Jurjānī's teacher, and taught al-Jurjānī the al-Idah. Later al-Jurjānī was to write a thirty-volume work of commentary on al-Idah entitled al Maghna fi Sharh al-Idah .

Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith

Nawawi's Forty (sc. “Forty Hadith”, in Arabic: al-arbaʿīn al-nawawiyyah) is a compilation of forty hadiths by Imam al-Nawawi, most of which are from Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Bukhari. This collection of hadith has been particularly valued over the centuries because it is a distillation, by one of the most eminent and revered authorities in Islamic jurisprudence, of the foundations of Islamic sacred law or Sharīʿah. In putting together this collection, it was the author's explicit aim that “each hadith is a great fundament (qāʿida ʿaẓīma) of the religion, described by the religious scholars as being ‘the axis of Islam’ or ‘the half of Islam’ or ‘the third of it’ or the like, and to make it a rule that these forty hadith be classified as sound (ṣaḥīḥ).” This work is the most representative of the arbaʿīniyyāt genre of hadith.

Al-Shafi‘i (disambiguation)

Al-Shafi‘i (Arabic: الشافعيّ‎) was a Muslim jurist and founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh (or Madh'hab) which is named after him.

Al-Shafi‘i may also refer to:

Al-Ghazali

Al-Nawawi

Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim

Al Minhaj Be Sharh Sahih Muslim or Sahih Muslim bi sharh al-Nawawi is a book by Islamic scholar Yahiya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi, a commentary on Sahih Muslim.

Ali ibn al-Madini

Abū al-Ḥasan ʻAlī ibn ʻAbdillāh ibn Jaʻfar al-Madīnī (778 CE/161 AH – 849/234) (Arabic: أبو الحسن علي بن عبد الله بن جعفر المديني‎) was a ninth-century Sunni Islamic scholar who was influential in the science of hadith. Alongside Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Abi Shaybah and Yahya ibn Ma'in, Ibn al-Madini has been considered by many Muslim specialists in hadith to be one of the four most significant authors in the field.

Ashʿari

Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (; Arabic: الأشعرية‎ al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by the Arab theologian Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324). The disciples of the school are known as Ashʿarites, and the school is also referred to as the Ashʿarite school, which became the dominant strand within Sunni Islam. It is considered one of the orthodox schools of theology in Sunni Islam, alongside the Maturidi school of theology.Amongst the most famous Ashʿarites are Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Nawawi, Al-Ghazali, Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam, Al-Suyuti, Ibn 'Asakir, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Qurtubi and Al-Subki.

Dhu al-Qidah

Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Dhu'l-Qa'dah, or alternatively Zulqida (Arabic: ذو القعدة‎, also transliterated Ḏū l-Qaʿdah, IPA: [ðʊlˈqɑʕda]) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months in Islam during which warfare is prohibited, hence the name "Master of Truce".

Ibn Daqiq al-'Id

Ibn Daqiq al-'Id (1228-1302), is accounted as one of Islam's great scholars in the fundamentals of Islamic law and belief, and was an authority in the Shafi'i legal school. Although Ibn Daqiq al-'Id studied Shafi'i jurisprudence under Ibn 'Abd al-Salam, he was also proficient in Maliki fiqh. He served as chief qadi of the Shafi'i school in Egypt. Ibn Daqiq al-'Id taught hadith to al-Dhahabi and to many other leading scholars of the next generation. In his lifetime, Ibn-Daqiq wrote many books but his commentary on the Nawawi Forty Hadiths has become his most popular. In it he comments on the forty hadiths compiled by Yahya Al-Nawawi and known as the al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith. His commentary has become so popular that it is virtually impossible for any scholar to write a serious book about the forty hadiths without quoting Ibn-Daqiq.

Ibn al-Salah

Abū `Amr `Uthmān ibn `Abd al-Raḥmān Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Kurdī al-Shahrazūrī (1181 CE/577 AH – 1245/643), commonly known as Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ, was a Kurdish Shafi'i hadith specialist and the author of the seminal Introduction to the Science of Hadith. He was originally from Sharazora region in Sulaymaniyah province in Iraqi Kurdistan, was raised in Mosul and then resided in Damascus, where he died.

List of Grand Imams of al-Azhar

The post of Grand Imam of al-Azhar, or shaykh of al-Azhar, has been filled by a member of the ulema, the religious scholars, of Egypt. The position of Grand Imam of al-Azhar is among the most prominent roles in Sunni Islam, the most prominent official religious role in Egypt, and is considered by some Muslims to be the highest authority in Islamic jurisprudence. Prior to the establishment of the post under the Ottoman Empire, the holder of that position was named mushrif then later a nazir. Between 1860 and 1864 a board of scholars served the role as Grand Imam.Several of the Grand Imams served multiple terms; each term is listed separately. The original sources give the year based on the Islamic calendar, so the conversion to Gregorian years by later Western sources may not be precise.

List of Sunni books

This is a list of significant books of Sunni Islam doctrine.

Najis

In Islamic law, najis (Arabic: نجس‎) means ritually unclean. According to Islam, there are two kinds of najis: the essential najis which cannot be cleaned and the unessential najis which become najis while in contact with another najis.Contact with najis things brings a Muslim into a state of ritual impurity (Arabic: نجاسة‎ najāsa, in opposition to ṭahārah, ritual purity). Ritual purification is then required before religious duties such as regular prayers are performed.

Nawa, Syria

Nawa (Arabic: نوى‎, translit. Nawā, Turkish: Neva) is a Syrian city administratively belonging to the Daraa Governorate. It has an altitude of 568 meters (1,864 ft). It had a population of 59,170 in 2007, making it the 28th largest city per geographical entity in Syria.

In antiquity it was the city of Neve in the Roman province of Arabia Petraea.

Nawawi

The Arabic attributive title Nawawi (Arabic: النووي‎), denoting an origin from Nawa, Syria, may refer to:

Al-Nawawi (1233–1277), Sunni Muslim author on Fiqh and hadith

Aznil Nawawi (born 1962), Malaysian actor

Ihab Ali Nawawi, Egyptian al-Qaeda member

Mirnawan Nawawi (born 1971), Malaysian field hockey player

Nawawi Ahmad, Malaysian politician

Nik Zul Aziz Nawawi (born 1987), Malaysian footballer

Uston Nawawi (born 1978), Indonesian footballer

Quranism

Quranism (Arabic: القرآنية‎; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any form of Islam that accepts the Quran as the only sacred text through which God revealed himself to humankind, but rejects the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith collections. Muslims that follow the Quran alone are called Quranians, Quranists or Quranites; they believe that God's message in the Quran is clear and complete as it is, and that it can therefore be fully understood without referencing the Hadith. Quranists affirm that the Hadith literature which exists today is apocryphal, as it had been written three centuries after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad; thus, it cannot have the same status as the Quran.

According to the tradition of ahl al-Quran, the split between them and ahl al-Hadith ("The people of Hadith") (which comprises Sunnis, Shias, and Ibadis), began when Umar II ordered the first official collection of Hadith almost a century after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad: Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who wrote Hadiths at Umar II’s behest.Quran alone Islam is similar to movements in Abrahamic religions such as the Karaite movement, the Sadducees, the Samaritans, and the Essenes in Judaism and the Sola scriptura view of Protestant Christianity as well as the King James Only movement in Christianity. In matters of faith (iman) and jurisprudence (fiqh), the Quranists are pitted against ahl al-Hadith (which comprises Sunnis, Shias, and Ibadis), who first emerged a century after the death of Muhammad as a movement of Hadith scholars who considered the Hadiths to be authority in matters of law.

Shafi‘i

The Shafi‘i (Arabic: شافعي‎ Shāfiʿī, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam. It was founded by the Arab scholar Al-Shafi‘i, a pupil of Malik, in the early 9th century. The other three schools of Sunni jurisprudence are Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali.The Shafi school predominantly relies on the Quran and the Hadiths for Sharia. Where passages of Quran and Hadiths are ambiguous, the school first seeks religious law guidance from Ijma – the consensus of Sahabah (Muhammad's companions). If there was no consensus, the Shafi‘i school relies on individual opinion (Ijtihad) of the companions of Muhammad, followed by analogy.The Shafi‘i school was, in the early history of Islam, the most followed ideology for Sharia. However, with the Ottoman Empire's expansion and patronage, it was replaced with the Hanafi school in many parts of the Muslim world. One of the many differences between the Shafi‘i and Hanafi schools is that the Shafi‘i school does not consider Istihsan (judicial discretion by suitably qualified legal scholars) as an acceptable source of religious law because it amounts to "human legislation" of Islamic law.The Shafi‘i school is now predominantly found in Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, eastern Egypt, the Swahili coast, Hijaz, Yemen, Kurdish regions of the Middle East, Dagestan, Chechen and Ingush regions of the Caucasus, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Kerala and some coastal parts of India, Singapore, Myanmar, Thailand, Brunei, and the Philippines.

The Meadows of the Righteous

The Meadows of the Righteous, also referred to as The Gardens of the Righteous (Arabic: رياض الصالحين Riyadh as-Salihin or Riyadh as-Saaliheen), is a compilation of verses from the Qur'an supplemented by hadith narratives written by Al-Nawawi from Damascus (1233–1277). The hadith by al-Nawawī belongs to the category of canonical Arabic collections of Islamic morals, acts of worship, and manners, which are attributed to Muhammad by Muslim scholars but not found in the Quran.

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