Al-Mundhir I ibn al-Nu'man

Al-Mundhir ibn al-Nuʿmān (Arabic: المنذر بن النعمان‎) was the seventh Lakhmid king (418-461). His mother's name was Hind bint Zayd-Manāt ibn Zayd-Allah al-Ghassani, and his father was al-Nu'man I.

Al-Mundhir I ibn al-Nu'man
Munzir (The Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp)
Portrayal of al-Mundhir in the Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp.
King of the Lakhmids
Reign418–461
PredecessorAl-Harith V
SuccessorAl-Aswad
Diedafter 602
Fatheral-Numan I
MotherHind bint Zayd

Biography

Yazdegerd I, who had strong relations with his father sent Mundhir his infant son Bahram Gur to be raise and educated in his court. After Yazdegerd's death, Persian nobles tried to reclaim Bahram from Mundhir, so Mundhir sent his son Nu'man with a brigade then he personally escorted Bahram another brigade of 20,000 soldiers to Ctesiphon where the nobles, after some negotiations, acknowledged Bahram as their ruler. Later the Byzantines were upset at the persecution of Christians in the Persian lands where Bahram killed a number of them and Mundhir in turn was for the persecution and converted back to his paganism, the Byzantines besieged Nisibis so Bahram along with Mundhir went to lift the siege. Later Mundhir marched towards Byzantine lands and ravaged the lands as far as Antioch, where he was routed by Vitianus.[1] Another unfortunate campaign was carried out by Mundhir a year later. While his troops were crossing the Euphrates, many of his forces drowned. Syriac sources give a figure of those who drowned at 70,000 while Socrates give a higher figure of 100,000.[2] The war between Persia and the Byzantines came to end with a peace treaty in 422.[3] In 457 Lakhmid troops attacked "Beth Hur" near Harran in the Roman domain, taking the inhabitants into captivity.

Mundhir was succeeded by his son al-Aswad ibn al-Mundhir (r. 462–490).

References

  1. ^ Rothstein, S. 69, Socrates, VII, 18, Bar Hebraeus, Chron. Syriac, 75, Caussin, Essai, II 63, Noldede, Sas, 86, Paulys-Wissowa, Erster Galbband, S. 1281
  2. ^ Socrates, VII, Chapter 18
  3. ^ Caussin de Perceval, op. cit., II, P.63

Sources

  • Bosworth, C. E., ed. (1999). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume V: The Sāsānids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids, and Yemen. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-4355-2.
Al-Hirah

Al-Hirah (Arabic: الحيرة‎ al-Ḥīrah, Syriac: ܚܝܪܬܐ‎ Ḥīrtā) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia located south of what is now Kufa in south-central Iraq.

Al-Mundhir

Al-Mundhir (Arabic: المنذر‎), meaning "the warner", hellenized as Alamoundaros and Latinized as Alamundarus and Alamoundaras, can refer to:

al-Mundhir I ibn al-Nu'man, King of the Lakhmids (r. 418–462)

al-Mundhir II ibn al-Nu'man, King of the Ghassanids (r. 453–472)

al-Mundhir II ibn al-Mundhir, King of the Lakhmids (r. 490–497)

al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu'man, King of the Lakhmids (r. 503/5–554)

al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith, King of the Ghassanids (r. 569–581)

al-Mundhir IV ibn al-Mundhir, King of the Lakhmids (r. 574–580)

al-Mundhir of Córdoba (c. 842 – 888), Umayyad Emir of Córdoba (r. 886–888)

al-Mundhir bin Sawa (fl. early 7th century), ruler of Bahrain during the time of Muhammad

Al-Mundhir of Hira

Al-Mundhir of Hira can refer to either of four Lakhmid rulers of al-Hira:

al-Mundhir I ibn al-Nu'man (r. 418–462)

al-Mundhir II ibn al-Mundhir (r. 490–497)

al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu'man (r. 503/5–554)

al-Mundhir IV ibn al-Mundhir (r. 574–580)

Azadeh (Shahnameh)

Āzādeh (Persian: آزاده‎) is a Roman girl in Shahnameh and other works in Persian literature. When Bahram-e Gur (Bahram V) was in al-Hirah, she was offered to him as a slave-girl. Azadeh was a harpist. Her story with Bahram is mentioned in other works such as Nezami Ganjavi's Bahramnameh (also known as Haft Paykar) and Tha'alibi's Ḡorar. She always accompanies Bahram in hunting. One day she expresses sympathy for the gazelles, instead of praising Bahram's hunting skills. The young and ignorant Bahram become angry of this and let his camel trample her. Tha'alibi mentions that Al-Mundhir I ibn al-Nu'man had the event painted in the palace of Khawarnaq. This story is also narrated by Nezami Ganjavi, but with a happy ending. In Nezami's version, her name is mentioned as Fetneh (فتنه). The hunting scene of Bahram and Azadeh was a popular subject in Persian miniature.

Bahram V

Bahram V (Middle Persian: 𐭥𐭫𐭧𐭫𐭠𐭭‎ Wahrām), also known as Bahram Gor (Persian: بهرام گور‎, "Bahram the onager") was the fifteenth king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire, ruling from 420 to 438.

The son of Yazdegerd I, Bahram was exiled at an early age to the Lahkmid court in al-Hira, where he was raised under the tutolage of the Lakhmid kings. After the assassination of Yazdegerd I, Bahram hurried to the Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon with a Lakhmid army, and won the favour of the nobles and priests, according to a long-existing popular legend, after withstanding a trial against two lions.

Bahram V's reign was generally peaceful, with two brief wars—first against his western neighbours, the Eastern Roman Empire, and then against his eastern neighbours, the Hephthalites, who were disturbing the Sasanian eastern provinces. It was also during his reign that the Arsacid line of Armenia was replaced by a marzban (governor of a frontier province, "margrave"), which marked the start of a new era in Armenia, known in Armenian historiography as the "Marzpanate period".

Bahram V is a central figure in several of the most famous works in Persian literature. He is mentioned in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh ("Book of Kings") written between 977 and 1010, and he is the protagonist of Nizami Ganjavi's romantic epic Haft Peykar ("The Seven Beauties", also known as the "Bahramnameh"), written in 1197. The Seven Beauties were princesses, which—in Nizami's imagination—became Bahram's wives and received each their own residence in his palace. He visited them on a rotating basis, and they entertained him with exciting stories. He is also the focal point in the Hasht-Bihisht ("Eight Paradises"), written by Amir Khusrow in ca. 1302.

Bahram V is remembered as one of the most famous kings in Iranian history, due to his cancellation of taxes and public debt at celebratory events, his encouragement of musicians, and his enjoyment of hunting. However, albeit he is revered in many historical tales as a bold, vivid, and suited ruler, his reign is considered as the start of the decline of the Sasanian Empire, which lasted until the reign of Kavadh I (r. 488–496 & 498–531), when the empire experienced a resurgence.

Lakhmids

The Lakhmids (Arabic: اللخميون‎) referred to in Arabic as Al-Manādhirah (Arabic: المناذرة) or Banu Lakhm (Arabic: بنو لخم‎) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD. They were generally but intermittently the allies and clients of the Sassanian Empire, and participant in the Roman–Persian Wars.

Roman–Persian Wars

The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian. Battles between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic began in 66 BC; wars began under the late Republic, and continued through the Roman (later Byzantine) and Sasanian empires. Various vassal kingdoms and allied nomadic nations in the form of buffer states and proxies also played a role. The wars were ended by the Arab Muslim Conquests, which led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire and huge territorial losses for the Byzantine Empire, shortly after the end of the last war between them.

Although warfare between the Romans and Persians continued over seven centuries, the frontier, aside from shifts in the north, remained largely stable. A game of tug of war ensued: towns, fortifications, and provinces were continually sacked, captured, destroyed, and traded. Neither side had the logistical strength or manpower to maintain such lengthy campaigns far from their borders, and thus neither could advance too far without risking stretching its frontiers too thin. Both sides did make conquests beyond the border, but in time the balance was almost always restored. Although initially different in military tactics, the armies of both sides gradually adopted from each other and by the second half of the 6th century they were similar and evenly matched.The expense of resources during the Roman–Persian Wars ultimately proved catastrophic for both empires. The prolonged and escalating warfare of the 6th and 7th centuries left them exhausted and vulnerable in the face of the sudden emergence and expansion of the Caliphate, whose forces invaded both empires only a few years after the end of the last Roman–Persian war. Benefiting from their weakened condition, the Arab Muslim armies swiftly conquered the entire Sasanian Empire, and deprived the Eastern Roman Empire of its territories in the Levant, the Caucasus, Egypt, and the rest of North Africa. Over the following centuries, more of the Eastern Roman Empire came under Muslim rule.

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