Al-Mawardi

Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi ( أبو الحسن علي بن محمد بن حبيب البصري الماوردي ), known in Latin as Alboacen (972-1058 CE), was an Islamic jurist of the Shafi'i school most remembered for his works on religion, government, the caliphate, and public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil. Appointed as the chief judge over several districts near Nishapur in Iran, and Baghdad itself, al-Mawardi also served as a diplomat for the Abbasid caliphs al-Qa'im and al-Qadir in negotiations with the Buyid emirs. He is best known for his treatise on "The Ordinances of Government." The Ordinances, Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya, provide a detailed a definition of the functions of caliphate government which, under the Buyids appeared to be rather indefinite and ambiguous.

Biography

Al-Mawardi was born in Basrah during the year 972 C.E. Some authors make the claim that his family was Kurdish,[1] a claim which is unsubstantiated.[2]

The Shafi'i historian al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 463/1072) recorded his father as being a rose-water seller. Growing up he was able to learn Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) from Abu al-Wahid al-Simari and subsequently took up his residence in Baghdad. While both Basrah and Baghdad were centers of the Mu'tazila school of thought, the great (orthodox) Shafi'i jurist al-Subki (d. 756/1355) would later condemn al-Mawardi for his Mu'tazila sympathies. He was eventually appointed chief qadi of Baghdad, and subsequently was entrusted with various responsibilities on behalf of the Caliphate: On four occasions he served as a diplomat on behalf of Caliph al-Qa'im (422-1031, 428/1037, 434/1042 and 435/1043), his successor al-Qadir also entrusted al-Mawardi as a diplomat in a negotiation with the Buyid emirs and charged him with the task of writing his treatise on "The Ordinances of the Government." Among many of his various other works he is also credited with the creation of darura, a doctrine of necessity. Al-Mawardi died at an old age in Baghdad on 30 Rabi'a 450/27, May 1058.[3]

Works

  • Al-Ahkam al-Sultania w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya (The Ordinances of Government)
  • Qanun al-Wazarah (Laws regarding the Ministers)
  • Kitab Nasihat al-Mulk (The Book of Sincere Advice to Rulers)
  • Kitab Aadab al-Dunya w'al-Din (The Ethics of Religion and of this World)
  • Personas of the Prophethood[1]

On The Ordinances of the Government

According to Wafaa H. Wahaba , "For al-Mawardi the caliphate symbolized an entire politico-religious system that regulates the lives of men in a Muslim community to the smallest detail. Hence the emphasis in [The Ordinances] placed on the qualifications, power and duties pertinent to [a given office of government]... This approach to the matter would explain the working arrangement finally reached by the Buyids and the Abbasid caliphs, later followed also by the more efficient Seljuqs, whereby the military held actual power while recognizing the Caliph as the supreme head of government and receiving from him, in turn, recognition of their mundane authority."[4]

Contemporaries

See also

References

  1. ^ Abul-Fazl Ezzati, The Spread of Islam: The Contributing Factors, ICAS Press (2002), p. 384
  2. ^ Library of Congress: Rules for Governing. accessed September 2016.
  3. ^ C. Brockleman"al-Mawardi" in the Encyclopedia of Islam 2, vol. 6, p. 869.
  4. ^ Introduction to "The Ordinances of Government", trans., Wafaa H. Wahaba (Lebanon: Garnet Publishing, 1996), xv.

External links

1058

Year 1058 (MLVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

972

Year 972 (CMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli

Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Yahya al-Suli (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى الصولي‎, 880, Gorgan-946, Basra) was a nadim (boon companion) of successive Abbasid caliphs. He was noted for his poetry and scholarship and wrote a chronicle called Akhbar al-Radi wa'l-Muttaqi, detailing the reigns of the caliphs al-Radi and al-Muttaqi. He was a legendary player of shatranj, a game ancestral to chess, and is still remembered to this day.

Upon the death of al-Radi in 940, al-Suli fell into disfavour with the new ruler due to his sympathies towards Shi'a Islam and as a result had to go into exile at Basra, where he spent the rest of his life in poverty. Born into an illustrious family of Turkish origin, Al-Suli's great-grandfather was the Turkish prince Sul-takin and his uncle was the poet Ibrahim ibn al-'Abbas as-Suli.

Adl

Adl (Arabic: عدل‎, ʻAdl) is an Arabic word meaning 'justice', and is also one of the names of God in Islam.

Adel, and Adeel are male names derived from Adl and are common throughout the Muslim worlds and Arab.

Al-Qadr (surah)

Sūrat al-Qadr (Arabic: سورة القدر‎, "Power, Fate") is the 97th sura of the Qur'an with 5 ayat. It is a Meccan sura. The Surah has been so designated after the word al-qadr in the first verse. It is mainly about power.

Caliphate

A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (; Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah, pronunciation ), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community). Historically, the caliphates were polities based

in Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. During the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states, almost all hereditary monarchies, have claimed to be caliphates.Prior to the rise of Muhammad and the unification of the tribes of Arabia under Islam, Arabs followed a pre-Islamic Arab polytheism, lived as self-governing sedentary and nomadic communities, and often raided their neighbouring tribes. Following the early Muslim conquests of the Arabian Peninsula, the region became unified and most of the tribes adopted Islam.The first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, was established immediately after Muhammad's death in 632. The four Rashidun caliphs, who directly succeeded Muhammad as leaders of the Muslim community, were chosen through shura, a process of community consultation that some consider to be an early form of Islamic democracy. The fourth caliph, Ali, who, unlike the prior three, was from the same clan as Muhammad (Banu Hashim), is considered by Shia Muslims to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad. Ali reigned during the First Fitna (656–661), a civil war between supporters of Ali and supporters of the assassinated previous caliph, Uthman, from Banu Umayya, as well as rebels in Egypt; the war led to the establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate under Muawiyah I in 661.

The second caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, was ruled by Banu Umayya, a Meccan clan descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. The caliphate continued the Arab conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. The caliphate had considerable acceptance of the Christians within its territory, necessitated by their large numbers, especially in the region of Syria. Following the Abbasid Revolution from 746–750, which primarily arose from non-Arab Muslim disenfranchisement, the Abbasid Caliphate was established in 750.

The third caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate was ruled by the Abbasids, a dynasty of Meccan origin which descended from Hashim, a great-grandfather of Muhammad, making them part of Banu Hashim, via Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad, hence the name. Caliph al-Mansur founded its second capital of Baghdad in 762 which became a major scientific, cultural and art centre, as did the territory as a whole during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age. From the 10th century, Abbasid rule became confined to an area around Baghdad. From 945 to 1157, the Abbasid Caliphate came under Buyid and then Seljuq military control. In 1250, a non-Arab army created by the Abbasids called the Mamluks came to power in Egypt. In 1258, the Mongol Empire sacked Baghdad, ending the Abbasid Caliphate, and in 1261 the Mamluks in Egypt re-established the Abbasid Caliphate in Cairo. Though lacking in political power, the Abbasid dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until the Ottoman conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517.The fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, was established after their conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517. The conquest gave the Ottomans control over the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, previously controlled by the Mamluks. The Ottomans gradually came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representatives of the Muslim world. Following their defeat in World War I, their empire was partitioned by the United Kingdom and French Third Republic, and on 3 March 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his reforms, constitutionally abolished the institution of the caliphate. A few other states that existed through history have called themselves caliphates, including the Isma'ili Fatimid Caliphate in Northeast Africa (909–1171), the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Iberia (929–1031), the Berber Almohad Caliphate in Morocco (1121–1269) and the Fula Sokoto Caliphate in present-day northern Nigeria (1804–1903).

The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph may come to power in one of four ways: either through an election, through nomination, through a selection by a committee, or by force. Followers of Shia Islam, however, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt (the "Family of the House", referring to Muhammad's family).

In the early 21st century, following the failure of the Arab Spring and defeat of the self-proclaimed "Islamic State", there has seen "a broad mainstream embrace of a collective Muslim identity" by young Muslims and the appeal of a caliphate as a "idealized future Muslim state" has grown ever stronger.

Ibn Khuzaymah

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد بن إسحاق بن خزيمة‎, 837 CE/223 AH – 923 CE/311 AH) was a prominent Muslim hadith and Shafi'i fiqh scholar, best known for his hadith collection Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah.

Islamic ethics

Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية), defined as "good character," historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century. It was eventually shaped as a successful amalgamation of the Qur'anic teachings, the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, the precedents of Islamic jurists (see Sharia and Fiqh), the pre-Islamic Arabian tradition, and non-Arabic elements (including Persian and Greek ideas) embedded in or integrated with a generally Islamic structure. Although Muhammad's preaching produced a "radical change in moral values based on the sanctions of the new religion and the present religion, and fear of God and of the Last Judgment", the tribal practice of Arabs did not completely die out. Later Muslim scholars expanded the religious ethic of the Qur'an and Hadith in immense detail.

Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam

'Izz al-Din 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd al-Salam ibn Abi 'l-Qasim ibn al-Hasan al-Dimashqi, Sultan al-'Ulama/ Sulthanul Ulama, Abu Muhammad al-Sulami, was a famous mujtahid, theologian, jurist and the leading Shafi'i authority of his generation.

Jariri

Jariri is the name given to a short-lived school of fiqh that was derived from the work of al-Tabari, the 9th and 10th-century Persian Muslim scholar in Baghdad. Although it eventually became extinct, al-Tabari's madhhab flourished among Sunni ulama for two centuries after his death.

Khaled El Nabawy

Khaled Muhammad El Nabawy (born September 12, 1966) is an Egyptian actor having played roles in film, theater and television.

He was born in Mansoura, Egypt, and was introduced to cinema by the director Youssef Chahine in 1994, in his film Al Mohager. El Nabawy was awarded the All African Film Award for best actor for his role in this film, and also won the Horus Award for best supporting actor for Al Maseer, from Cairo National Festival for Egyptian Cinema. El Nabawy attended the Institute of Performing Arts. He lives in Cairo, Egypt. His roles in Hollywood include Mullah, the first advisor to Saladin, portrayed by Ghassan Massoud in the blockbuster film Kingdom of Heaven. He also played the role of Hamed, an Iraqi scientist in the film Fair Game.

El Nabawy was a high profile supporter of the 2011 Egyptian revolution both in the media and also, at times, personally protesting the streets.

List of Muslim theologians

This is an incomplete list of notable Muslim theologians.

List of political philosophers

This is a list of notable political philosophers, including some who may be better known for their work in other areas of philosophy. Note, however, that the list is for people who are principally philosophers.

The philosophers are listed in order by year of birth to show rough direction of influences and of development of political thought. See also, Political philosophy.

Ancient, medieval and early modern

Modern (born pre-19th century)

Born in 19th century

Born in 20th century

Majlis-ash-Shura

In Arabic culture, a Majlis-ash-Shura (Arabic: مجلس الشورى‎) is an advisory council or consultative council. In Islamic context, the Majlis-ash-Shura is one of two ways that a Khalifa (Islamic leader) may be selected, the other way being by nomination.

The noun شورى (shura), alone, means "consultation" and refers to (among other things) a topic in Islamic law or sharia; see Shura. Combined with the term Majlis, مجلس, which refers to a council or legislature, it is meant to indicate a body of individuals who advise, consult or determine.

Nasîhat

Nasîhatnâme (Ottoman Turkish: نصيحت نامه‎, Naṣīḥat-nāme) were a type of guidance letter for Ottoman sultans, similar to mirrors for princes. They draw on a variety of historical and religious sources, and were influenced by the governance of previous empires such as the Seljuk Turks or the Mongols, as well as by early Muslim history and by contemporary events.

Political aspects of Islam

Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Qur'an, the Sunnah (the sayings and living habits of Muhammad), Muslim history, and elements of political movements outside Islam.

Traditional political concepts in Islam include leadership by elected or selected successors to the Prophet known as Caliphs, (Imamate for Shia); the importance of following Islamic law or Sharia; the duty of rulers to seek Shura or consultation from their subjects; and the importance of rebuking unjust rulers.A significant change in the Islamic world was the abolition of the Ottoman caliphate in 1924. In the 19th and 20th century, common Islamic political theme has been resistance to Western imperialism and enforcement of Sharia through democratic or militant struggle. The defeat of Arab armies in the Six-Day War, the end of Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union with the end of communism as a viable alternative has increased the appeal of Islamic movements such as Islamism, Islamic fundamentalism and Islamic democracy, especially in the context of popular dissatisfaction with secularist ruling regimes in the Muslim world.

Shatranj

Shatranj (Urdu: شطرنج‬‎, from Middle Persian چترنگ‬ chatrang) is an old form of chess, as played in the Persian Empire. Its origins are in the Indian game of chaturaṅga. Modern chess gradually developed from this game, as it was introduced to the western world via the Greeks.

Shura

Shura (Arabic: شورى‎ shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation". The Quran and the Prophet Muhammad encourage Muslims to decide their affairs in consultation with those who will be affected by that decision.

Shura is mentioned as a praiseworthy activity often used in organizing the affairs of a mosque, Islamic organizations, and is a common term involved in naming parliaments.

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