Al-Maqdisi

Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr al-Maqdisī (Arabic: شَمْس ٱلدِّيْن أَبُو عَبْد ٱلله مُحَمَّد ابْن أَحْمَد ابْن أَبِي بَكْر ٱلْمَقْدِسِي‎), better known as al-Maqdisī (Arabic: ٱلْمَقْدِسِي‎) or al-Muqaddasī (Arabic: ٱلْمُقَدَّسِي‎), (c. 945/946 – 991) was a medieval Arab[1] geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine). He is one of the earliest known historical figures to self-identify as a Palestinian during his travels.[2][3]

Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn Al-Maqdisī
Arabic: مُحَمَّد ابْن أَحْمَد شَمْس ٱلدِّيْن ٱلْمَقْدِسِي
Bornc. 945/946 CE
Died991 CE
ResidenceIslamic civilization
Academic background
InfluencesAl-Balkhi
Academic work
EraIslamic Golden Age
School or traditionBalkhi school
Main interestsIslamic geography
Notable worksThe Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions

Biography

Sources

Outside of his own work, there is little biographical information available about al-Maqdisi.[4] He is neither found in the voluminous biographies of Ibn Khallikan (d. 1282) nor were the aspects of his life mentioned in the works of his contemporaries.[5]

Early life and education

121086-Jerusalem-Mount-of-Olives (26988237083)
Al-Maqdisi was from Jerusalem (Bayt al-Maqdis in Arabic), from which he received his name. He was particularly fond of the city and described it at length in his geographic work.

He was born in Jerusalem in ca. 946 and belonged to a middle class family whose roots in the city's environs dated from the period approximate to the 7th-century Muslim conquest.[4][5][6] According to historian André Miquel, al-Maqdisi "was very much attached to the Palestine of his birth and to the town whose name he bears".[4] Al-Maqdisī or alternatively al-Muqaddasī was a nisba indicating that he was from "Bayt al-Maqdis" or "Bayt al-Muqaddas", the Muslim names for Jerusalem.[4] His paternal grandfather, Abu Bakr al-Banna, had been responsible for the construction of Acre's maritime fortifications under orders from Ahmad ibn Tulun (r. 868–884), the autonomous Abbasid governor of Egypt and Syria.[4] Al-Maqdisi's maternal grandfather, Abu Tayyib al-Shawwa, moved to Jerusalem from Biyar in Khurasan and was also an architect.[4]

As can be inferred by his work and social background, al-Maqdisi was likely well-educated.[4] Miquel asserts that al-Maqdisi's use of "rhymed prose, even poetry" is indicative of a strong knowledge in Arabic grammar and literature.[4] Likewise, his writings show that he possessed an early interest in Islamic jurisprudence, history, philology and hadith.[4]

Pursuits in geography

Al-Maqdisi made his first Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) in 967.[4] During this period, he became determined to devote himself to the study of geography.[6] To acquire the necessary information, he undertook a series of journeys throughout the Islamic world,[6][7] ultimately visiting all of its lands with the exception of al-Andalus (Iberian Peninsula), Sindh and Sistan.[7] The known dates or date ranges of al-Maqdisi's travels include his journey to Aleppo sometime between 965 and 974, his second pilgrimage to Mecca in 678, a visit to Khurasan in 984 and his stay in Shiraz in 985 when he decided to compose his material.[4] The finished work was titled Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fi maʾarfat al-aqalīm (The Best Divisions for the Knowledge of the Provinces).[8]

Work

Regions of the Lands of Islam by al-Muqaddasi
The regions of Islam in the tenth century, based on Al-Maqdisi's work

Though possibly influenced by predecessors al-Jahiz (d. 869), who introduced the "science of countries", and Ibn al-Faqih (fl. 902), al-Maqdisi "surpassed" both "all to the advantage of what certainly should be called a true geography", according to Miquel.[8] Moreover, Miquel surmises that al-Maqdisi "was probably the first to have desired and conceived" true geography as an "original science", an assertion that al-Maqdisi himself makes in the preface of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm.[8] He belonged to the school known as the "atlas of Islam", inaugurated by Abu Zayd al-Balkhi (d. 934) and developed by Istakhri (d. 957) and al-Maqdisi's contemporary Ibn Hawqal (d. 978).[8]

Al-Balkhi's school almost exclusively dealt with the Islamic world, to which al-Maqdisi too devoted his studies.[8] Al-Maqdisi refers to this world as al-mamlaka or al-Islām (the Domain of Islam), a unique concept in which all of the lands of Islam constituted a single domain.[8] He subdivided this domain into two parts: mamlakat al-ʿArab (domain of the Arabs) and mamlakat al-ʿAjam (domain of the non-Arabs).[8] The former consisted, from east to west, of the six provinces of Iraq, Aqur (Upper Mesopotamia), Arabia, Syria, Egypt and the Maghreb, while the latter consisted of the eight provinces of the Mashriq (Sistan, Afghanistan, Khurasan and Transoxiana), Sindh, Kirman, Fars, Khuzistan, Jibal, Daylam and Rihab (Armenia, Adharbayjan and Aran).[8]

Description of Palestine

Aḥsan al-taqāsīm gives a systematic account of all the places and regions al-Maqdisi had visited.[6] He devoted a section of his book to Bilad al-Sham (the Levant) with a particular focus on Palestine.[9] In contrast to travelers to Palestine, such as Arculf (c. 680s), Nasir Khusraw (c. 1040s) and others, who were pilgrims, al-Maqdisi gave detailed insights into the region's population, way of life, economy and climate.[9] He paid special attention to Jerusalem, detailing its layout, walls, streets, markets, public structures and landmarks, particularly the Haram ash-Sharif (Temple Mount) and the latter's Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque.[9] He described the city's people and customs, focusing on its Muslims, but also its Christian and Jewish communities, whose significant presence he lamented.[9]

Al-Maqdisi also gave extensive overviews of Ramla and Tiberias, the capitals of the Palestine and Jordan districts, respectively.[9] To a lesser extent, he described Acre, Beisan, Bayt Jibrin, Caesarea, Amman and Aila.[9] In his descriptions of the aforementioned cities, al-Maqdisi noted their prosperity and stability and gave a general impression of Palestine as densely populated and wealthy, with numerous localities.[9]

Guy Le Strange comments on al-Maqdisi's work:

His description of Palestine, and especially of Jerusalem, his native city, is one of the best parts of the work. All that he wrote is the fruit of his own observation, and his descriptions of the manners and customs of the various countries, bear the stamp of a shrewd and observant mind, fortified by profound knowledge of both books and men.[6]

Description of Eastern Arabia

Hafit {Tuwwam} abounds in palm trees; it lies in the direction of Hajar {Al Hasa}, and the mosque is in the markets ... Dibba and Julfar, both in the direction of the Hajar, are close to the sea ... Tuwwam has been dominated by a branch of the Quraysh ...

— Al-Muqaddasi, 985 CE.[10]

Al-Maqdisi mentioned regions in Eastern Arabia which form parts of what are now Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Oman. Al-Hasa is an important oasis region in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, whereas Tuwwam is another oasis region split between the UAE and Oman, comprising the modern settlements of Al Ain and Al-Buraimi on different sides of the Omani-UAE border. Dibba is another region split between the UAE and Oman, touching the Musandam Peninsula, which is partly ruled by the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, where the ancient settlement of Julfar is located.[10]

References

  1. ^ Rahman, Mushtaqur (2008). "Al‐Muqaddasī". Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. p. 145. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-4425-0_8963. ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2.
  2. ^ Al-Ju'beh, Nazmi (2008). Heacock, Roger (ed.). Temps et espaces en Palestine: Flux et résistances identitaires. Beirut, Lebanon: Presses de l'Ifpo. pp. 205–231. ISBN 9782351592656. Archived from the original on 19 Mar 2018.
  3. ^ al-Maqdīsī, Muḥammad Ibn-Aḥmad (2003). Riḥlat al-Maqdisī : aḥsan at-taqāsīm fī maʻrifat al-aqālīm ; 985 - 990. Beirut: al-Muʼassasa al-ʻArabīya li-'d-dirāsāt wa-'n-našr [u.a.] / The Arab Institute for Studies and Publishing. p. 362. ISBN 978-9953441351. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Miquel 1993, p. 492.
  5. ^ a b Al-Mukaddasi, ed. Le Strange 1886, p. iii
  6. ^ a b c d e Le Strange 1890, pp. 56
  7. ^ a b Scholten 1980, p. 1.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Miquel 1993, p. 493.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Avni 1994, pp. 3–4.
  10. ^ a b Morton, Michael Quentin (15 April 2016). Keepers of the Golden Shore: A History of the United Arab Emirates (1st ed.). London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-7802-3580-6. Retrieved 8 November 2016.

Bibliography

Resources

Further reading

  • Collins, Basil Anthony: Al-Muqaddasi; the man and His Work, Michigan Geographical Publication, 1974,
  • Al-Muqaddasi (Basil Anthony Collins (Translator)): The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions. Ahsan al-Taqasim Fi Ma'rifat al-Aqalim. Garnet Publishing, Reading, 1994, ISBN 1-873938-14-4

See also

Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi

‘Abd al-Ghanī ibn ‘Abd al-Wāḥid al-Jammā’īlī al-Maqdisi (Arabic: عبدالغني المقديسي‎) was a classical Sunni Islamic scholar and a prominent Hadith master. His full name was al-Imam al-Hafidh Abu Muhammad Abdul-Ghani ibn Abdul-Wahid al-Jammaʻili al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali. He was born in 541 AH (1146 CE) in the village of Jummail in Palestine. He studied with scholars in Damascus; many of whom were from his own extended family. He studied with many scholars including the Imam of Tasawwuf, Shaykh Abdul Qadir al-Jilani. He was the first person to establish a school on Mount Qasioun near Damascus. He died in 600 AH (1203 CE).He was a relative of Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi, as his mother and Diya al-Din al-Maqdisis grandmother were sisters.

Abdel Latif Moussa

Abdel Latif Moussa, (Arabic: عبد اللطيف موسى) also known as Abu Noor al-Maqdisi (Arabic: أبو نور المقدسي), (born ?— 15 August 2009) was the leader of the Salafist Jihadist group Jund Ansar Allah (Arabic: جند أنصار الله), an Islamist group in Rafah, Gaza Strip. On 14 August 2009, he proclaimed an "Islamic Emirate" in the Palestinian Territories and was killed the following day 15 August, when Hamas forces stormed his headquarters and residence.

Abdulaziz al-Tarefe

Abdulaziz al-Tarefe عبد العزيز الطريفي is a Saudi Arabian Islamic cleric born in Kuwait. Al-Tarefe is a Sunni scholar who along with others has been critical of the extremist Kharijite group "Islamic State".Muheisini endorsed Islamic scholars like Al-Balawi, Eyad Quneibi, Tareq Abdulhalim, Hani al-Siba'i, Yusuf al-Ahmed, Abdulaziz al-Tureifi, Suleiman al-Ulwan, Abu Qatada al-Filistini, and Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi.The incarceration of Abdulaziz Al Tarifi was decried by Muhaysini who warned against undermining the religious police.

Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi

Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi (Arabic: أبو محمد المقدسي‎), or more fully Abu Muhammad Essam al-Maqdisi (‎أبو محمد عصام المقدسي), is the assumed name of Essam Muhammad Tahir al-Barqawi (‎عصام محمد طاهر البرقاوي), an Islamist Jordanian-Palestinian writer. He is best known as the spiritual mentor of Jordanian jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the initial leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq. However, an ideological and methodical split emerged between Maqdisi and Zarqawi in 2004 due to Zarqawi's takfeer proclamations towards the Shia populations in Iraq. Maqdisi opted for a more cautious approach towards targeted Shia killings, attempting to stop Zarqawi's radical ideological movement before Zarqawi's methods become counter-productive.The writings of Maqdisi still have a wide following; a study carried out by the Combating Terrorism Center of the United States Military Academy (USMA) concluded that Maqdisi "is the most influential living Jihadi Theorist" and that "by all measures, Maqdisi is the key contemporary ideologue in the Jihadi intellectual universe". The Tawhed jihadist website, which he owns, continues to operate; the USMA report describes it as "al-Qa`ida's main online library".

Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal

Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal (Arabic: الكمال في أسماء الرجال‎) is a collection of biographies of hadith narrators within the Islamic discipline of biographical evaluation by the 12th-century Islamic scholar Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi.

Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi

Ḍiyāʼ al-Dīn Abu ʻAbdallah Muhammad ibn ʻAbd al-Wahid al-Saʻdi al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali (Arabic: Thiyaa Al-Diin Al-Maqdisi ضياء الدين المقدسي‎) (569–643 AH/1173-1245 AD) was a Hanbali Islamic scholar.

Fouad Hussein

Fouad Hussein is a Jordanian journalist and author of the 2005 Arabic language book Al-Zarqawi: The Second Generation of Al Qaeda. It is based on interviews with senior Islamic militants, including Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the late leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, and Saif al-Adel, a high-ranking member of al-Qaeda and Islamic Jihad. Hussein first met Zarqawi and Zarqawi's mentor Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi in 1996 in a Jordanian jail. At the time, Hussein was being held as a political prisoner. Since its release, Hussein's book has garnered heavy press coverage and analysis in Iran. In the book Hussein describes what he says is al-Qaeda's grand strategy, a sequence of events that spreads over nearly 20 years.

Hanbali (nesba)

Hanbali is an Arabic nisba that means "of Hanbal", implying a follower of the Hanbali Madhhab.

People using it in their names it include:

Najm ad-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Ḥamdān ibn Shabib al-Ḥanbali (ca. 1332), said to be the true source of Ibn al-Wardi's Kharidat

Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi

Hisham Al-Saedni

Hisham Al Saedni (Arabic: هشام السعيدني‎), also known by the nom de guerre Abu Walid al-Maqdisi, was a Palestinian military activist and a Muslim leader and founding member of the Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem in the Gaza Strip and he was also leader of al-Tawhid wa al-Jihad, a branch of al-Qaeda in Gaza.

Ibn Abd al-Hadi

Shams ad-Din Abi Abdillah Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Abd al-Hadi al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali (Arabic: محمد بن عبد الهادي المقدسي‎) better known as Ibn Abd al-Hadi (Damascus, 1305 (AH 705) - 1343 (AH 744)) was a Hanbali Islamic Muhaddith scholar from the Levant. He was a student of Ibn Taymiyyah. He is not to be confused with another Ibn ʿAbd al-Hādī from the same family, Yusuf bin Abdul Hadi (d. AH 909 (1503/1504)).

Ibn Muflih

Ibn Mufliḥ al-Maqdisī, in full "Shams al-Din Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muflih ibn Muhammad ibn Mufarraj al-Ramini al-Maqdisi" (710-763 AH/1310-1362 CE), was one of the leading authorities in Hanbali Law and one of the most prolific writers of the Ḥanbalī school of his period. He is a jurisconsult who stands at the head of a large family of jurisconsults, who surivived until the seventeenth century. He received his tutelage amongst several prominent Hanbali figures, including Ibn Taymiyyah.

Ibn Muflih married the daughter of the Hanbalis Ḳāḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn al-Mardāwī (700-769/1300-1367) and had seven children from this marriage, five boys and two girls.

The similarity of some of the names among the descendants of Ibn Muflih is liable to lead to confusion, especially as regards those named Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm, of whom there are five.After a life of writing and teaching in Damascus in three Hanbali madrasas, al-D̲j̲awziyya, al-Ṣāḥibiyya and al-ʿUmariyya, he died in 763/1362.

Ibn Qudamah

Ibn Qudāmah al-Maqdīsī Muwaffaq al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad (Arabic ابن قدامة, Ibn Qudāmah; 1147 - 7 July 1223), often referred to as Ibn Qudamah or Ibn Qudama for short, was a Sunni Muslim ascetic, jurisconsult, traditionalist theologian, and religious mystic. Having authored many important treatises on jurisprudence and religious doctrine, including one of the standard works of Hanbali law, the revered al-Mug̲h̲nī, Ibn Qudamah is highly regarded in Sunnism for being one of the most notable and influential thinkers of the Hanbali school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence. Within that school, he is one of the few thinkers to be given the honorific epithet of Shaykh of Islam, which is a prestigious title bestowed by Sunnis on some of the most important thinkers of their tradition. A proponent of the classical Sunni position of the "differences between the scholars being a mercy," Ibn Qudamah is famous for having said: "The consensus of the Imams of jurisprudence is an overwhelming proof and their disagreement is a vast mercy."

Ibn Tahir of Caesarea

Abu al-Fadl Muhammad bin Tahir bin Ali bin Ahmad al-Shaibani al-Maqdisi, commonly known as Ibn Tahir of Caesarea ("Ibn al-Qaisarani" in Arabic), was a Muslim historian and traditionist. He is largely credited with being the first to delineate and define the six canonical works of Sunni Islam after the Qur'an, and the first person to include Sunan ibn Majah as a canonical work.

Khurramites

The Khurramites (Persian: خرمدینان‎ Khorram-Dīnân, meaning "those of the Joyful Religion") were an Iranian religious and political movement with its roots in the movement founded by Mazdak. An alternative name for the movement is the Muḥammira (Arabic: محمرة‎, "Red-Wearing Ones"; in Persian: سرخ‌جامگان‎ Sorkh-Jâmagân), a reference to their symbolic red dress.

Maqdisi

Maqdisi (Arabic: مقدسي‎) is an Arabic nisba referring to a Jerusalemite. It is derived from Bayt al-Maqdis, an Arabic name of Jerusalem. Today the common Arabic name of Jerusalem is Al-Quds.

Al-Maqdisi (المقدسي) is used as an appellative to refer to a number of people, including:

Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi, classical Palestinian Sunni Islamic scholar

Al-Maqdisi, medieval Arab geographer born in Jerusalem

Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, contemporary Jordanian-Palestinian Salafi Islamist scholar

Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi, a Hanbali Islamic scholar

Ibn Qudamah, Imam Mawaffaq ad-Din Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi, a Hanbali Islamic scholar

Kamel al-Budeiri, governor of Ramla district during the later Ottoman period

Abu al-Walid al-Maqdisi, Founder of the Militant group Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of JerusalemIt is also used in Arabic names for Jerusalem, such as Bayt al-Maqdis ("holy house").

Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem

The Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem or simply the Mujahideen Shura Council (also known as the Mujahideen Shura Council of Jerusalem, in Arabic: Majlis Shura Al-Mujahideen, Magles Shoura al-Mujahedeen, and other names) is an armed Salafi jihadist group linked to al-Qaeda that is active in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and in the Gaza Strip. The group was formed in 2011 or 2012 by Salafist Islamist Hisham Al-Saedni (also known as Abu al Walid al Maqdisi) to coordinate the activities of the Salafi jihadist groups operating in Gaza even before the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and has carried out attacks against civilians in Israel. The group describes violence against Jews as a religious obligation that brings its perpetrators closer to God. Al-Saedni, who was the leader of the group and also of Jahafil Al-Tawhid Wal-Jihad fi Filastin, was killed in an Israeli airstrike in Gaza on 14 October 2012. The group is subordinated with Al-Qaeda in Sinai Peninsula as of August 2012.In February 2014, the group declared its support for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The group was designated a terrorist organization by the US State Department on 19 August 2014. In its explanation for the designation the State Department noted that:

the Mujahidin Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem is an umbrella group composed of several jihadist terrorist sub-groups based in Gaza that has claimed responsibility for numerous attacks on Israel since the group's founding in 2012. For example, on August 13, 2013, MSC claimed responsibility for a rocket attack targeting the southern city of Eilat, Israel. Previously, MSC claimed responsibility for the March 21, 2013 attack in which Gaza-based militants fired at least five rockets at Sderot, Israel, and the April 17, 2013 attack in which two rockets were fired at Eilat, Israel. In addition to the rocket launches, MSC declared itself responsible for a Gaza-Israel cross-border IED attack on June 18, 2012 that targeted an Israeli construction site, killing one civilian. In addition to these physical attacks, the MSC released a statement in February 2014 declaring support for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

One of these sub-groups is Jahafil Al-Tawhid Wal-Jihad fi Filastin (or al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, "Unity and Jihad") which had been formed on 6 November 2008 and is also linked to Al Qaeda. In 2011 the group was also led by Hisham Al-Saedni. Another sub-group is Ansar al Sunnah, which has taken responsibility for several rocket attacks against Israel, including a rocket attack in March 2010 that killed a Thai worker in Israel. Following the March 2010 attack, Haaretz reported that the group was "apparently linked to Jund Ansar Allah," another jihadist group operating in Gaza.

Sa (Islamic measure)

The Sāʿ (Arabic: صاع‎) is an ancient measurement of volume from the Islamic world, with cultural and religious significance. While its exact volume is uncertain, the Arabic word Sāʿ translates to "small container," related to the Quranic word ṣuwāʿ ("cup, goblet"). Together with the Mudd and the Makkūk, the Sāʿ is part of the system of units of volume used in the Arabic peninsula.

Turki al-Binali

Turki Mubarak Abdullah Ahmad al-Binali (3 September 1984 – 31 May 2017) was a Bahraini Islamic scholar and senior member of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. As head of the Maktab al-Buhuth wa al-Dirasat (Office of Investigation and Studies), "an independent entity concerned with researching Shari'i issues, and issuing fatwas" he had considerable religious influence within the group.

Ziauddin

The name Ziauddin is a common transliteration of the male Muslim given name more correctly written Ḍiya ad-Dīn, (Arabic: ضياء الدين‎). It may refer to:

Diya al-din Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi, (1097 – 1168), Persian Sufi

Diyā' ad-Dīn Ibn Athir (1163 - 1239), Kurdish writer and literary critic

Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi (died 1245), Hanbali Islamic scholar

Ziya' al-Din Nakhshabi (died 1350), Persian physician and Sufi living in India

Ziauddin Barani (1285 - 1357), Indian historian and political philosopher

Ziauddin Ahmed (1878 – 1947), scholar and politician in colonial India

Nawab Sir Ziauddin Ahmed (1878 - 1947), scholar and politician in colonial India

Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee (1888 – 1969), Prime Minister of Iran

Ziauddin Ahmad Suleri, known as Z. A. Suleri (1913 - 1999), Pakistani journalist and writer

Diaa al-Din Dawoud (1926-2011), Egyptian politician

Ziauddin Sardar (born 1951), Pakistani writer on Islam

Ziyaettin Doğan or Ziya Doğan (born 1961), Iranian football manager

Ziauddin Rizvi (died 2005), Shi'a cleric from Gilgit

Ziaeddin Niknafs (born 1986), Iranian footballer

Ziaeddin Tavakkoli, Iranian politician

Ziauddin Butt, a Pakistani military officer jailed as a result of the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état

Qari Ziauddin, Afghan militia leader

Ziauddin (Afghan militia leader), Afghan militia leader

Ziauddin (cricketer), Pakistani cricketer

Geographers
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Influences

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