Al-Manar (magazine)

al-Manār (Arabic: المنار‎; ‘The Lighthouse’), was an Islamic magazine, written in Arabic, and was founded and published by Rashid Rida from 1898 until his death in 1935.[1][2] His goal in establishing the magazine was to articulate and disseminate reformist ideas and preserve the unity of the Muslim nation.[3] The magazine was based in Cairo, Egypt.[1][4] It was started as a weekly, but later its frequency was switched to monthly.[1]

Rashid Rida was the sole editor-in-chief of the magazine.[2] Its content was heavily about the Quranic interpretations.[4] However, the magazine also featured articles on politics.[4]

al-Manār
Cover of the second issue of al-Manar magazine, 1899
Cover of the second issue of al-Manar magazine, 1899
CategoriesIslamic magazine
Political magazine
FrequencyWeekly
Monthly
FounderRashid Rida
Year founded1898
Final issue1935
CountryEgypt
Based inCairo
LanguageArabic

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Joseph A. Kechichian (14 November 2013). "The Islamic reformer: Mohammad Rashid Reda". Gulf News. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  2. ^ a b Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen (1997). Defining Islam for the Egyptian State: Muftis and Fatwas of the Dār Al-Iftā. BRILL. p. 69. ISBN 90-04-10947-1. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Muhammad Rashid Rida". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  4. ^ a b c "Muhammad Rashid Rida". Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Retrieved 24 July 2015.

External links

Ashraf Dali

Ashraf Dali (Ashraf Aboul-Yazid) is an Egyptian poet, novelist and journalist. He was born in Banha (also spelt Benha), Egypt on March 13, 1963. He is the Acting President of the AJA (Asia Journalist Association). Ashraf Dali won the Manhae Prize in Literature 2014. Since 1989, when his first book of poetry was published, Ashraf Aboul-Yazid (Ashraf Dali) has been keen to introduce himself as a man of words. He won the Arab Journalism Award in Culture, in 2015, given by Dubai Press Club, UAE, for his work published in Al-Arabi magazine, The Art of Miniature in Literature, History and Myth.

Some of his literary works are translated into Spanish, Korean, Turkish, English and Persian. Selected poems were also translated into Russian, and Italian. He has published his travels to more than 33 countries in Al-Arabi magazine, and other cultural periodicals.

Dali has participated in cultural international conferences held in Egypt, Spain, Italy, Germany, Russia, Costa Rica, Syria, Yemen, UAE, Kuwait, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Oman and the Republic of Korea.

He introduced some figures of literature from South Korea, Russia and India to Arab readers, and his most recently translations were two volumes of Korean poetry; 'One Thousand & One Lives, An Anthology of Selected Poems' by the Korean Poet Ko Un), and 'Qeddison Youhalleqo Baaidan (The Far-off Saint), Translated Poems' by the Korean Poet Cho Oh-hyun. Since March 2009, he has been writing weekly adventures to introduce the Asian Silk Road cities and civilizations to Arab children.

Jamiat Kheir

Jamiat Kheir (Jam'iyyatou Khair; Arabic: جمعية خير‎; Arabic pronunciation: [dʒamʕijjatu xair]; different Latin spellings have also been used in the past, such as Djamiat Chair, Djameat Geir, Djamijat Chaer, Jam'iyyat khair or Jamiatul Khair) is one of a few early private institutions in Indonesia that is engaged in education, and is instrumental in the history of Indonesian struggle against Dutch colonialism, preceding Sarekat Islam and Budi Utomo. It is headquartered in Tanah Abang, Central Jakarta.

Jizya

Jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزية‎ jizya IPA: [d͡ʒɪzjæ]) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law. Muslim jurists required adult, free, sane males among the dhimma community to pay the jizya, while exempting women, children, elders, handicapped, the ill, the insane, monks, hermits, slaves, and musta'mins—non-Muslim foreigners who only temporarily reside in Muslim lands. Dhimmis who chose to join military service were also exempted from payment, as were those who could not afford to pay.The Quran and hadiths mention jizya without specifying its rate or amount. However, scholars largely agree that early Muslim rulers adapted existing systems of taxation and tribute that were established under previous rulers of the conquered lands, such as those of the Byzantine and Sasanian empires.The application of jizya varied in the course of Islamic history. Together with kharāj, a term that was sometimes used interchangeably with jizya, taxes levied on non-Muslim subjects were among the main sources of revenues collected by some Islamic polities, such as the Ottoman Empire. Jizya rate was usually a fixed annual amount depending on the financial capability of the payer. Sources comparing taxes levied on Muslims and jizya differ as to their relative burden depending on time, place, specific taxes under consideration, and other factors.Historically, the jizya tax has been understood in Islam as a fee for protection provided by the Muslim ruler to non-Muslims, for the exemption from military service for non-Muslims, for the permission to practice a non-Muslim faith with some communal autonomy in a Muslim state, and as material proof of the non-Muslims' submission to the Muslim state and its laws. Jizya has also been understood by some as a ritual humiliation of the non-Muslims in a Muslim state for not converting to Islam, while others argue that if it were meant to be a punishment for the dhimmis' unbelief then monks and the clergy wouldn't have been exempted.The term appears in the Quran referring to a tax or tribute from People of the Book specifically Jews and Christians.

Followers of other religions like Zoroastrians and Hindus too were later integrated into the category of dhimmis and required to pay jizya. In the Indian Subcontinent the practice was eradicated by the 18th century. It almost vanished during the 20th century with disappearance of Islamic states and spread of religious tolerance. The tax is no longer imposed by nation states in the Islamic world, although there are reported cases of organizations such as the Pakistani Taliban and ISIS attempting to revive the practice.Some modern Islamic scholars have argued that jizya should be paid by non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state, offering different rationales. For example, Sayyid Qutb saw it as punishment for "polytheism", while Abdul Rahman Doi viewed it as a counterpart of the zakat tax paid by Muslims. According to Khaled Abou El Fadl, moderate Muslims reject the dhimma system, which encompasses jizya, as inappropriate for the age of nation-states and democracies.

Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen

Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen (KNM) is an Islamic organization in the state of Kerala founded in 1950. The organization follows the principles of Salafism, a movement that developed in Arabia in the first half of the 18th century. The Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen was formed as a result of renaissance activities among Keralite Muslims led by scholars and clerics such as Sheikh Hamadani Thangal, K.M. Moulavi and Vakkom Moulavi and Ummer Moulavi. Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen is considered as the successor of "Kerala Muslim Aikhya Sangam, the first Muslim organization in the state of Kerala, founded in 1924. KNM, led the foundation of renaissance from the corrupted practices of the Sunni orthodoxy, including false beliefs, polytheism etc, and introduced true Islamic practices to the Muslim community in Kerala which had until then been severely lacking in crucial aspects of religious and socio-civic knowledge.

The social, cultural, educational, and religious activities of Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen enhanced the Islamic renaissance, and enabled the state's Muslims to create their own characteristics and peculiarities that distinguished them from other Muslim communities in India by achieving high rates of literacy and a prestigious status in Kerala society.

Modern Arabic literature

The instance that marked the shift in the whole of Arabic literature can be attributed to the contact that took place between the Arab World and the West during the 19th and early 20th century. This contact resulted with the gradual replacement of Classical Arabic forms with the Western ones, as exemplified in plays, novels, and short stories. Although the exact date in which this reformation occurred is not known, the process is usually referred to as the Arabic nahda (revival or renaissance)The development that Arabic Literature witnessed by the end of the 19th century was not merely in the form of reformation; both Germanos Farhat (1732) and al-Allusi in Iraq had previously attempted to inflict some development on literature in the 18th century. On the other hand, modern Arabic literature fully appeared through the interdependence between two important movements: the revival of the classical Arabic tradition and the translation of foreign literature. Advocates of the former movement began their work at the onset of the 19th century to resist the decline Arabic literature and its styles were facing. High quality traditional literary models were thus disseminated and imitated to create new literary models. Meanwhile, proponents of the translation movement, included authors such as Ibrahim al-Yaziji (1871) from the Levant, Ali Mubarak (1893) from Egypt, and Mahmoud Shukri al-Alusi (1923) from Iraq. Both Mubarak and al-Yaziji wrote the Maqamat (lengthy literary works of rhymed prose) "Alam Eddin" and "Majma' al-Bahrain" [Where Two Seas Meet] respectively, while al-Alusi wrote "Balaghat al-Arab" [The Eloquence of Arabs]. Other factors including journalism and the literature of the diaspora helped in the shaping and development of the Arabic literature.

Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani

Muhammad Nasir-ud-Dīn al-Albani (1914 – October 2, 1999) was an Albanian Islamic scholar who specialised in the fields of hadith and fiqh. He established his reputation in Syria, where his family had moved when he was a child and where he was educated.Largely self-taught in the study of Islamic texts, Albani is considered to be a major figure of the purist Salafi movement which developed in the 20th century. Al-Albani did not advocate violence, preferring quietism and obedience to established governments while he was aware that these governments do not represent the people of their country nor muslims but the crusader governments. A watchmaker by trade, al-Albani was active as a writer, publishing chiefly on hadith and its sciences. He also lectured widely in the Mideast, Spain and the United Kingdom on the Salafist movement.

In the 1960s, Albani was invited to teach at the Islamic University of Madinah in Saudi Arabia. His views were opposed by numerous traditional clerics and his contract allowed to lapse. He later returned from Syria for a brief time in the 1970s as the head of higher education in Islamic law in Mecca. He again aroused too much opposition, and returned to Syria. After serving time under house arrest by the Syrian government in 1979, Albani moved to Jordan, where he resided for the rest of his life.

PERSIS (organization)

Persatuan Islam (abbreviated PERSIS or Islamic Union) is an Islamic organization in Indonesia founded on 12 September 1923 in Bandung by a group of Muslims who are interested in education and religious activities led by Haji Zamzam and Haji Muhammad Yunus.

Poonthran

Poonthran (; Malayalam: പൂന്ത്രാൻ, pūntrān ?) is a prominent Muslim family from the former Travancore - a princely state now called Kerala state, India. Its members have played a significant role in the history of Travancore since 19th century. The family had subscribed to the cultural heritage of the Travancore (Kerala) region and modern India at large, by contributing a long lineage of illustrious sons and daughters.

Their genealogy starts with a prominent landlord Ahamed Kunju aka Thoppil Thampi, who came from the south-western part of Travancore and settled in Varkala.

The family's ascent to prominence began in the late 19th century, with the birth of Vakkom Moulavi, who was later acknowledged as the "father" of the Muslim socio-religious reform movements in Kerala. The Poonthran household was one of the few Muslim families in Travancore, who were highly regarded not only for their wealth, but also for their wisdom, prestige, and community service. They have contributed renaissance leaders, social reformers, freedom fighters, politicians, judges, writers, scholars, journalists and philosophers to the history of Travancore, Kerala and modern India.

Rabwah

Rabwah (Urdu, Punjabi: ربوہ‬), official name Chenab Nagar (Urdu: چناب نگر‎), is a city in Chiniot, Punjab, Pakistan on the bank of Chenab River. It has been the headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Community since September 20, 1948 when the community relocated from Qadian, India to the newly-created state of Pakistan in 1947. The Community leased the area of present-day Rabwah from the government to establish its home.

Rashid Rida

Muhammad Rashid Rida (Arabic: محمد رشيد رضا‎; transliteration, Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā; Ottoman Syria, 23 September 1865 or 18 October 1865 – Egypt, 22 August 1935) was an early Islamic reformer, whose ideas would later influence 20th-century Islamist thinkers in developing a political philosophy of an "Islamic state". Rida is said to have been one of the most influential and controversial scholars of his generation and was deeply influenced by the early Salafi Movement and the movement for Islamic Modernism founded in Cairo by Muhammad Abduh.Rida was born near Tripoli in Al-Qalamoun, (now in Lebanon but then part of Ottoman Syria within the Ottoman Empire). His early education consisted of training in "traditional Islamic subjects". In 1884–5 he was first exposed to al-`Urwa al-wuthqa, the journal of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh. In 1897 he left Syria for Cairo to collaborate with Abduh. The following year Rida launched al-Manar, a weekly and then monthly journal comprising Quranic commentary at which he worked until his death in 1935, gradually distancing himself from the teachings of Abduh and adopting a Salafism closer to Saudi Wahhabism.

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