Al-Kafirun

Sūrat al-Kāfirūn (Arabic: سورة الكافرون‎, "The Unbelievers") is the name of the 109th Sura (chapter) of the Qur'an.

Sura 109 of the Quran
الكافرون
Al-Kāfirūn
The Disbelievers
ClassificationMeccan
Other namesAtheists, The Unbelievers
PositionJuzʼ 30
No. of verses6
Hilye by unknown calligrapher

Summary

Like many of the shorter surahs, the surah of the Unbelievers takes the form of an invocation, telling the reader something they must ask for or say aloud. Here, the passage asks one to keep in mind the separation between belief and unbelief both in the past and the present, ending with the often cited line "To you your religion, and to me mine". Although some view this as an argument against religious intolerance, others see it as a more time-specific revelation, warning the newly founded Muslim minority in Mecca against being induced (by the Quraish majority) to collude with disbelievers. "Wahb bin Munabbih has related that the people of Quraish said to Allah's' Messenger: 'If you like we would enter your faith for a year and you would enter our faith for a year.'"(Abd bin Humaid, Ibn Abi Hatim). [1] In this latter view, from time to time the Quraish leaders would visit Muhammad with different proposals of compromise so that if he accepted one of them the dispute between them would be brought to an end.

It was revealed in Mecca when the Muslims were persecuted by the polytheists of Mecca.

Hadith

As for the esteem in which Muhammad held this surah, it can be judged from the following few hadith:

  • Abdullah ibn Umar has related that on many an occasion he heard Muhammad recite Surahs Qul Ya- ayyuhal- kafirun and Qul Huwu-Allahu ahad in the two Rakats before the Fajr obligatory Prayer and in the two rakahs after the Maghrib obligatory Prayer.[2]
  • Khabbab ibn al-Aratt says: "The Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said to me: when you lie down in bed to sleep, recite Qul ya-ayyuhal kafirun, and this was the Holy Prophet's own practice also; when he lay down to sleep, he recited this Surah."[3]
  • According to Ibn Abbas, Muhammad said to the people: "Should I tell you the word which will protect you from polytheism? It is that you should recite Qul ya-ayyuhal kafirun when you go to bed."[4]
  • Anas says that Muhammad said to Mu'adh bin Jabal; "Recite Qul ya-ayyuhal-kafirun at the time you go to bed, for this is immunity from polytheism." [5][6]
  • Both Fardah bin Naufal and Abdur Rahman bin Naufal have stated that their father, Naufal bin Muawiyah al-Ashjai, said to Muhammad: "Teach me something which I may recite at the time I go to bed." Muhammad replied: "Recite Qul ya-ayyuhal kafirun to the end and then sleep, for this is immunity from polytheism." [7] A similar request was made by Jabalah bin Harithah, brother of Said bin Harithah, to Muhammad and to him also he gave the same reply.[8]
  • Muhammad recited in the two Rakahs before the morning prayer and the two Rakahs after the Sunset prayer on ten or twenty different occasions: Say O' al-Kafirun and say He is God, the One (surah 112: al-Ikhlas).[9]

References

  1. ^ The Noble Quran https://quran.com/109
  2. ^ Several traditions on this subject with a little variation in wording have been related by Imam Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, Ibn Marduyah from ibn Umar.
  3. ^ Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar, Al-Tabarani, Ibn Marduyah
  4. ^ Abu Ya'la, Al-Tabarani
  5. ^ Al-Bayhaqi in Ash-Shu'ab
  6. ^ Abu Dawud: 4396 & Hakim ibn Hizam 1/565
  7. ^ (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i, Ibn Abi Shaibah, Hakim ibn Hizam, Ibn Marduyah, Al-Bayhaqi in Ash-Shuab).
  8. ^ (Musnad Ahmad, Al-Tabarani).
  9. ^ Imam Ahmad recorded from ibn Umar
Al-Ikhlas

Sūrat al-Ikhlāṣ (Arabic: سورة الإخلاص‎, "Fidelity" or "Sincerity"), also known as Sūrat al-Tawḥīd (Arabic: سورة التوحيد‎, "Monotheism") is the 112th sūra of the Qur'an. In the early years of Islam, the surah of the Quran came to be known by several different names, sometimes varying by region. This sūra was among those to receive many different titles. It is a short declaration of tawhid, God's absolute oneness, consisting of four ayat. Al-Ikhlas means "the purity" or "the refining".

It is disputed whether this is a Meccan or Madinan sura. The former seems more probable, particularly since it seems to have been alluded to by Bilal of Abyssinia, who, when he was being tortured by his cruel master, is said to have repeated "Ahad, Ahad!" (unique, referring as here to God). It is reported from Ubayy ibn Ka'b that it was revealed after the polytheists asked "O Muhammad! Tell us the lineage of your Lord." God

Al-Kawthar

Sūrat al-Kawthar (Arabic: سورة الكوثر‎, "Abundance") is the 108th surah of the Quran and the shortest. There are several differing opinions as to the circumstances under which it was revealed. According to Ibn Ishaq, it was revealed in Makka, some time before the Isra and Mi'raj.

Al-Mu'awwidhatayn

Al-Mu'awwidhatan (Arabic: المعوذتان), sometimes translated as "Verses of Refuge", is an Arabic term referring to the last two suras (chapters) of the Qur'an, viz. al-Falaq (ch. 113), and An-Nās (ch. 114), which are two consecutive short prayers both beginning with the verse "Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of...". Although these two suras are separate entities in the Qur'an and also are written in the Mushaf under separate names, they are so deeply related with their contents closely resembling each other's that they have been designated by the common name 'al-Mu'awwidhatayn' (the two suras in which refuge with Allah has been sought). Imam Baihaqi in 'Dala'il an-Nubuwwah' has written that these suras were revealed together, and hence their combined name of al-Mu'awwidhatayn. There is a Sunnah tradition from Muhammad of reading them over the sick or before sleeping and they are also considered a healing.

An-Nasr

Sūrat an-Naṣr (Arabic: سورة النصر‎, "Divine Support") is the 110th surah of the Qur'an with 3 ayat. An-Nasr translates to English as both "the victory" and "the help or assistance". It is the third-shortest surah after Al-Asr and Al-Kawthar by number of ayat. Surah Al-Ikhlaas (112) actually has fewer words in Arabic than Surah An-Nasr, yet it has four ayat.

Dhimmi

A dhimmī (Arabic: ذمي‎ ḏimmī, IPA: [ˈðɪmmiː], collectively أهل الذمة ahl ul-ḏimmah/dhimmah "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection. The word literally means "protected person", referring to the state's obligation under sharia to protect the individual's life, property, and freedom of religion, in exchange for loyalty to the state and payment of the jizya tax, which complemented the zakat, or obligatory alms, paid by the Muslim subjects. Dhimmis were exempt from certain duties assigned specifically to Muslims, and did not enjoy certain privileges and freedoms reserved for Muslims, but were otherwise equal under the laws of property, contract, and obligation.Under sharia, the dhimmi communities were usually governed by their own laws in place of some of the laws applicable to the Muslim community. For example, the Jewish community in Medina was allowed to have its own Halakhic courts, and the Ottoman millet system allowed its various dhimmi communities to rule themselves under separate legal courts. These courts did not cover cases that involved religious groups outside of their own community, or capital offences. Dhimmi communities were also allowed to engage in certain practices that were usually forbidden for the Muslim community, such as the consumption of alcohol and pork.Historically, dhimmi status was originally applied to Jews, Christians, and Sabians. This status later also came to be applied to Zoroastrians, Hindus, Jains and Buddhists.Moderate Muslims generally reject the dhimma system as inappropriate for the age of nation-states and democracies. There is a range of opinions among 20th century and contemporary theologians about whether the notion of dhimma is appropriate for modern times, and, if so, what form it should take in an Islamic state.

Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance. It also includes the freedom to change one's religion or beliefs.Freedom of religion is considered by many people and most of the nations to be a fundamental human right. In a country with a state religion, freedom of religion is generally considered to mean that the government permits religious practices of other sects besides the state religion, and does not persecute believers in other faiths.

Freedom of belief is different. It allows the right to believe what a person, group or religion wishes, but it does not necessarily allow the right to practice the religion or belief openly and outwardly in a public manner.

Index of Islam-related articles

This is an alphabetical list of topics related to Islam, the history of Islam, Islamic culture, and the present-day Muslim world, intended to provide inspiration for the creation of new articles and categories. This list is not complete; please add to it as needed. This list may contain multiple transliterations of the same word: please do not delete the multiple alternative spellings—instead, please make redirects to the appropriate pre-existing Wikipedia article if one is present.

For a list of articles ordered by topic, instead of alphabetically, see Outline of Islamic and Muslim related topics.

For a structured list of existing articles on Islam, please see Category:Islam.

Tajwid

Tajweed (Arabic: تجويد‎ tajwīd, IPA: [tædʒˈwiːd], meaning "elocution"), Tajweed is an Arabic word, which literally means to beautify or adorn something. In the context of the recitation of the Quran Tajweed refers to a set of rules for the correct pronunciation of the letters with all its qualities and applying the various of recitation. sometimes rendered as tajweed, refers to the rules governing pronunciation during recitation of the Quran. The term is derived from the triliteral root j-w-d meaning "to make well, make better, improve". Tajweed is a fard (compulsory-one must learn this best they can) when reciting the Quran to the best of one's ability.

The Message of The Qur'an

The Message of the Qur'an is an English translation and interpretation of the Qur'an by Muhammad Asad, an Austrian Jew who converted to Islam. The book was first published in Gibraltar in 1980, and has since been translated into several other languages. It is considered one of the most influential Quranic Translations of the modern age.Asad meant to devote two years to completing the translation and the commentary but ended up spending seventeen. In the opening, he dedicates his effort to "People Who Think." The author returns to the theme of Ijtihad - The use of one's own faculties to understand the Divine text, again and again. The spirit of the translation is resolutely modernist, and the author expressed his profound debt to the reformist commentator Muhammad Abduh. In the foreword to the book, he writes "...although it is impossible to 'reproduce' the Quran as such in any other language, it is none the less possible to render its message comprehensible to people who, like most Westerners, do not know Arabic...well enough to find their way through it unaided." He also states that a translator must take into account the ijaz of the Qur'an, which is the ellipticism which often "deliberately omits intermediate thought-clauses in order to express the final stage of an idea as pithily and concisely as is possible within the limitations of a human language" and that "the thought-links which are missing - that is, deliberately omitted - in the original must be supplied by the translator...".

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