Al-Faw

Al-Faw (Arabic: الفاو‎; sometimes transliterated as Fao) is a port town on the Al Faw Peninsula in Iraq near the Shatt al-Arab and the Persian Gulf. The Al Faw Peninsula is part of the Basrah Governorate.

Al-Faw

Arabic: الفاو
U.S. Marines patrolling the streets of Al-Faw in October 2003.
U.S. Marines patrolling the streets of Al-Faw in October 2003.
South-East Iraq with Al-Faw in the lower right corner of the map
South-East Iraq with Al-Faw in the lower right corner of the map
Al-Faw Peninsula, Iraq
Al-Faw Peninsula, Iraq
Al-Faw is located in Iraq
Al-Faw
Al-Faw
South-East Iraq with Al-Faw in the lower right corner of the map
Coordinates: 29°58′33″N 48°28′20″E / 29.97583°N 48.47222°ECoordinates: 29°58′33″N 48°28′20″E / 29.97583°N 48.47222°E
Country Iraq
Governorate muhafazah (Arabic: محافظة‎)Al-Basrah (Arabic: البصرة‎)
District (Arabic: قضاءqaḍāʾ, Qadaa)Al-Faw District
Population
(2005)
 • Total105,080
Time zoneUTC+3 (GMT +3)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4

History

The town lies at the south-east end of the Al-Faw Peninsula on the right bank of the Shatt al-Arab, a few kilometres away from the Persian Gulf.

The town, as well as the whole Al-Faw Peninsula, was the scene of armed conflict during the World War I, the Iran–Iraq War, the Persian Gulf War, and the Iraq War due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Shatt al-Arab.

The city was extensively damaged during the Iraq-Iran war, but in 1989 it was rebuilt in four months to a completely new city plan.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ Barakat, S. Analysis on Findings from the Post-War Reconstruction Campaigns at Basrah and Fao, Irak. ICOMOS Scientific Journal, 3, 1994, 102-112

External links

Al-Faw District

Al-Faw District is a district of the Basra Governorate, Iraq. Bordering the Persian Gulf and the country of Kuwait. No oil fields are in the Faw district but the Iraq strategic pipeline does run through the area.

Al-Faw Palace

The Al Faw Palace (also known as the Water Palace) is located in Baghdad approximately 5 kilometers from the Baghdad International Airport, Iraq. Saddam Hussein commissioned its construction in 1990s to commemorate the Iraqi forces' re-taking of the Al-Faw Peninsula during the Iran-Iraq conflict.

Al-Faw Peninsula

The al-Faw Peninsula (Arabic: شبه جزيرة الفاو‎; also transliterated as Fao or Fawr) is a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, located in the extreme southeast of Iraq. The marshy peninsula is 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Iraq's second largest city, Basra, and is part of a delta for the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud) river, formed by the confluence of the major Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The al-Faw Peninsula borders Iran to the northeast, with the cities of Abadan and Khorramshahr on the opposite side of the Shatt al-Arab, and Kuwait to the southwest, opposite from Bubiyan Island and Warbah Island, near the Iraqi city of Umm Qasr.

Al-Faw, the only significant town on the peninsula and its namesake, is a fishing town and port which during Saddam Hussein's presidency featured the main naval base of the Iraqi Navy. The remainder of the al-Faw Peninsula is otherwise lightly inhabited, with few civilian buildings or settlements and most of its few residents involved in the fishing, oil, or shipping industries. It is the site of a number of important oil installations, most notably Iraq's two main oil tanker terminals: Khor al-Amaya and Mina al-Bakr, due to its chief importance as a strategic location controlling access to the Shatt al-Arab waterway and thus access to the port of Basra.

Al-Faw Port

Al-Faw Port is an Iraqi port. It lies in Basrah and is situated on the Persian Gulf. It is an oil port.

Al Faw District

Al Faw is a district of Al Qadarif state, Sudan.

Al Faw peninsula landings

The Al Faw peninsula landings, also known as Operation DAWN 8, was a 1986 Iranian amphibious operation on the Al Faw peninsula. Taking place between 9 and 25 February, the assault across the Shatt al-Arab achieved significant tactical and operational surprise, allowing the Iranian forces to initially gain a quick victory over Iraqi Popular Army forces in the area. Considered a turning point in the war, unlike the tactics of human wave assaults used elsewhere at the front, the operation was a sophisticated and carefully planned amphibious operation, supported by a land-based diversion employing 100,000 troops of the Seventh Corps north of the Basra area, and using deception.

Ancient towns in Saudi Arabia

Thirteen ancient towns have been discovered in Saudi Arabia up to the present day. These include Qaryat al-Fāw, the Al-Ukhdūd archeological area, Madā'in Ṣālih, Jubbah, Tārūt, Al-Shuwayḥaṭiyah, Thāj, Taimaa and Dūmat Al-Jandal. There are still more ancient towns in Saudi Arabia, but little information is currently available on them. Saudi Arabia occupies a unique and distinctive geographic location, bridging civilizations between continents. In ancient times the Arabian peninsula served as a corridor for trade; therefore it saw the beginning of many civilizations, the relics of which are still evident today. The Saudi government has recently established the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, which is responsible for the preservation of these cities.

Basra Governorate

Basra Governorate (Arabic: محافظة البصرة‎‎ Muḥāfaẓa al-Baṣra) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east. The capital is the city of Basra. Other districts of Basra include Al-Qurnah, Az Zubayr, Al Midaina, Shatt Al Arab, Abu Al Khaseeb and Al Faw located on the Persian Gulf.

Battle of Al Faw (2003)

The Battle of Al Faw was one of the first battles of the Iraq War. One of the initial objectives of the Coalition campaign in Iraq was to capture the Gas and Oil Platforms ("GOPLATs") in the Al-Faw Peninsula intact before it could be sabotaged or destroyed by the Iraqi military. This would prevent an ecological disaster similar to the 1991 Gulf War and enable a quicker resumption of oil exports which was vital to the rebuilding of Iraq after the war.

The British Royal Marines' 3 Commando Brigade would also capture Umm Qasr at the same time so that its port, the only deep water port in Iraq, could be used to bring in humanitarian supplies once the Khawr Abd Allah waterway was cleared by the Mine Counter Measures Task group. The United States Marine Corps placed 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit under the command of 3 Commando Brigade so that the Brigade had the necessary force to capture both targets.

Battle of Mehran

In response to the loss of the strategic al-Faw Peninsula during the Iran–Iraq War, the Iraqis pushed into Iran to seize the strategic Iranian city of Mehran to trade for the strategically important territory. Saddam was able to seize the city in May 1986, for the third time. He then offered to trade it for al-Faw, but instead of negotiating, the Iranians recaptured the city in June 1986, humiliating Saddam.

Camp Victory

Camp Victory was the primary component of the Victory Base Complex (VBC) which occupied the area surrounding the Baghdad International Airport (BIAP). The Al-Faw Palace, which served as the headquarters for the Multi-National Corps - Iraq (and later United States Forces - Iraq until it was turned over to the Government of Iraq on December 1, 2011), was located on Camp Victory. Camp Victory itself lay approximately 5 kilometers from BIAP.Other Camps that made up the Victory Base Complex included Camp Liberty (formerly known as Camp Victory North), Camp Striker, and Camp Slayer. On December 1, 2011, Camp Victory, under agreement with the Iraqi Government in 2008, was handed over by the United States to the Iraqis.

First Battle of al-Faw

The First Battle of al-Faw was a battle of the Iran–Iraq War, fought on the al-Faw Peninsula between 10 February and 10 March 1986.

On February 9 1986, Iran launched Operation Dawn 8, a sophisticated and carefully planned amphibious assault across the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud) river against the Iraqi troops defending the strategic al-Faw Peninsula, which connects Iraq to the Persian Gulf. The Iranians defeated the Iraqi defenders, mostly Iraqi Popular Army, capturing the tip of the peninsula, including Iraq's main air control and warning center covering Persian Gulf, as well as limiting Iraq's access to the ocean. Iran managed to maintain their foothold in Al-Faw against several Iraqi counter-offensives, including Republican Guard assaults and chemical attacks, for another month despite heavy casualties until a stalemate was reached.

The First Battle of al-Faw was a major success for Iran who now held an important strategic position, but worried other states in the region, primarily in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, who increased their support for Iraq. The battle damaged the prestige of Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi government, who began extensively improving defenses for the threatened major city of Basra. Although the battle officially ended in March 1986, related fighting continued for two years until April 1988, when Iraq recaptured the al-Faw Peninsula at the Second Battle of al-Faw.

Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire. Iraq wanted to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state, and was worried that the 1979 Iranian Revolution would lead Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Ba'athist government. The war also followed a long history of border disputes, and Iraq planned to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province and the east bank of the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud).

Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's post-revolutionary chaos, it made limited progress and was quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive until near the end of the war. There were a number of proxy forces—most notably the People's Mujahedin of Iran siding with Iraq and the Iraqi Kurdish militias of the KDP and PUK siding with Iran. The United States, Soviet Union, France, and most Arab countries provided support for Iraq, while Iran was largely isolated. After eight years, war-weariness, economic problems, decreased morale, repeated Iranian military failures, recent Iraqi successes, Iraqi use of weapons of mass destruction and lack of international sympathy, and increased U.S.–Iran military tension all led to a ceasefire brokered by the United Nations.

The conflict has been compared to World War I in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across fortified defensive lines, manned machine guns posts, bayonet charges, Iranian human wave attacks, extensive use of chemical weapons by Iraq, and, later, deliberate attacks on civilian targets.

An estimated 500,000 Iraqi and Iranian soldiers died, in addition to a smaller number of civilians. The end of the war resulted in neither reparations nor border changes.

Operation Dawn 8

Operation Dawn 8 (Persian: عملیات والفجر ۸‎) was an Iranian military operation conducted during the Iran–Iraq War, part of the First Battle of al-Faw.

The Iranian operation is considered to be one of Iran's greatest achievements in the Iran–Iraq War. The Iranians were able to capture the al-Faw Peninsula, cutting off Iraqi access to the Persian Gulf in the process; this in turn hardened Iraqi attitudes to prosecute the war. The Faw Peninsula was later recaptured by Iraqi forces near the end of the war by the massive and illegal use of chemical weapons.

Popular Army (Iraq)

The Iraqi Popular Army also known as the People's Army or People's Militia (Arabic: الجيش الشعبي Al Jaysh ash Shaabi) was a paramilitary organization composed of civilian volunteers to protect the Ba'ath regime against internal opposition and serve as a counterbalance against any coup attempt by the regular Iraqi Army.In 1987, the People's Army, standing at an estimated 650,000, approached the regular armed forces' manpower strength.

Qaryat al-Faw

Qaryat Al Faw (Arabic: قرية الفاو‎) was the capital of the first Kindah kingdom. It is located about 100 km south of Wadi ad-Dawasir, and about 700 km southwest of Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. The Al Faw archeological site reveals various features such as residential houses, markets, roads, cemeteries, temples, and water wells.

Second Battle of al-Faw

The Second Battle of al-Faw (also known as the Operation Ramadan Mubarak (Blessed Ramadan)), fought on 17 April 1988, was a major battle of the Iran–Iraq War. After their defeat at the First Battle of al-Faw two years earlier, the newly restructured Iraqi Army conducted a major operation to clear the Iranians out of the peninsula.

The Iraqis concentrated well over 100,000 troops from the battle-hardened Republican Guard. The heavy use of chemical weapons quickly disarrayed the Iranian defenses, which consisted of 15,000 Iranian Basij volunteers. The southern wing of the assault consisted of the Republican Guard's Madinah and Baghdad Divisions, which assaulted the Iranian lines and then allowed the Hammurabi Armoured Division to pass through and move along the southern coast of the peninsula and into al-Faw itself.

Meanwhile, the regular Iraqi Army's VII Corps attacked the northern end of the line with the 7th Infantry and 6th Armoured Divisions. While the 7th Infantry's attack became bogged down, the 6th Armoured broke through the Iranian lines, the 1st Mechanised Division pushed through, and later linked up with the Republican Guard divisions outside al-Faw. Thus the peninsula had been secured within thirty-five hours, with much of the Iranians' equipment captured intact.

Tawakalna ala Allah Operations

The Tawakalna ala Allah Operations (Arabic: توكلنا على الله‎, translit. tawakkalnā ‘alā llāh "We Have Trusted in the God") were a series of five Iraqi offensives launched in April 1988 and lasting until July 1988, consisting of the Second Battle of al-Faw, the Battle of Fish Lake, the Battle of the Majnoon Islands, the Battle of Dehloran, and the Battle of Qasre Shirin. Iraq had originally only intended to retake the al-Faw peninsula, but following the battles' extraordinary success due to the complete collapse of the Iranian troops present, the Iraqi command decided to expand the battle into a larger offensive campaign. Massive chemical attacks played a key role in the collapse of the Iranian forces.

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