Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn Ḥusayn Ibn 'Alī ibn Mūsa al-Khosrojerdi al-Bayhaqi (Arabic) , البيهقي also known as Imām al-Bayhaqi was born 994 CE/384 AH in the small town of Khosrowjerd near Sabzevar, then known as Bayhaq, in Khurasan.[8] During his lifetime, he became a famous Sunni hadith expert, following the Shafi'i school in fiqh and the Ash'ari school of Islamic Theology.[2][3][4]

Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Husayn al-Bayhaqi
TitleImam al-Bayhaqi
BornRamadan 384 AH / October 994
Died10 Jumadi al-Awwal, 458 AH/ 9 April 1066 (aged 72)
EraIslamic golden age
Main interest(s)Hadith, Shafi'i fiqh
Notable work(s)Sunan al-Kubra, Al-Asma' wa al-Sifat
Senior posting


Al-Bayhaqi's full name is أحمد بن الحسين بن علي بن موسى الخراساني البيهقي المشهور بالبيهقي.

Al-Bayhaqi was a scholar of fiqh of the Shafi'i school of thought, as well as of that of hadith. He studied fiqh under Abū al-Fatḥ Nāṣir ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad al-Naysaburi as well as Abul Hasan Hankari. He also studied hadith under Hakim al-Nishaburi, Abu Mansur Al-Baghdadi and others, and was al-Nishaburi's foremost pupil. He died in 1066 CE.


Bayhaqi was a prominent author in his time, having authored more than one thousand volumes according to Al-Dhahabi.[9] Among the most well-known books authored by him are:

  • Al-Sunan al-Kubra, commonly known as Sunan al-Bayhaqi
  • Ma`arifa al-Sunan wa al-Athar (sometimes referred to as Al-Sunan al-Wusta[10])
  • Bayan Khata Man Akhta`a `Ala al-Shafi`i (The Exposition of the Error of Those who have Attributed Error to al-Shafi`i)
  • Al-Mabsut, a book on Shafi`i Law
  • Al-Asma' wa al-Sifat (The Divine Names and Attributes)
  • Al-I`tiqad `ala Madhhab al-Salaf Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a
  • Dala'il al-Nubuwwah (The Signs of Prophethood)
  • Shu`ab al-Iman (The branches of faith)
  • Al-Da`awat al-Kabir (The Major Book of Supplications)
  • Al-Zuhd al-Kabir (The Major Book of Asceticism)


  1. ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. p. 105. ISBN 978-1780744209.
  2. ^ a b Ovamir Anjum, Politics, Law, and Community in Islamic Thought: The Taymiyyan Moment (Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization) 2012, p 142. ISBN 1107014069
  3. ^ a b Gibb, H. A. R.; Kramers, J. H.; Lévi-Provençal, E.; Schacht, J.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch., eds. (1960). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I: A–B. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 1130.
  4. ^ a b Holtzman, Livnat. "Does God Really Laugh?" – Appropriate and Inappropriate Descriptions of God in Islamic Traditionalist Theology. p. 185.
  5. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2013). The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon (Islamic History and Civilization). Brill. p. 219. ISBN 9004158391.
  6. ^ Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam, By Scott C. Lucas, pg. 98
  7. ^
  8. ^ Imam Bayhaqi
  9. ^ "The Classification of Hadith, by Dr. Suhaib Hassan". Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
  10. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)

1066 (MLXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.


Year 994 (CMXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad

ʿAbd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad ibn ʿAbd al-Jabbar al-Hamadani al-Asadabadi, Abu ʿl-Hasan (935 — 1025) was a Mu'tazilite theologian, a follower of the Shafi‘i school. Abd al-Jabbar means "servant of the powerful." He lived in Baghdad, until he was invited to Rey, in 367 AH/978 CE, by its governor, Sahib ibn Abbad, a staunch supporter of the Mu'tazila. He was appointed chief Qadi of the province. On the death of ibn 'Abbad, he was deposed and arrested by the ruler, Fakhr al-Dawla, because of a slighting remark made by him about his deceased benefactor. He died later in 415 AH/1025 CE.

His comprehensive "summa" of speculative theology, the Mughni, presented Mu`tazili thought under the two headings of God's oneness (tawhid) and his justice (adl). He argued that the Ash'arite separation between the eternal speech of God and the created words of the Qur'an made God's will unknowable.

Abu Nu`aym

Abu Nu`aym al-Isfahani (أبـو نـعـيـم الأصـفـهـانـي; full name Ahmad ibn `Abd Allāh ibn Ahmad ibn Ishāq ibn Mūsā ibn Mahrān al-Mihrānī al-Asbahānī (or al-Asfahānī) al-Ahwal al-Ash`arī al-Shāfi`ī, d. 1038 / AH 430) was a medieval Persian Muslim scholar.

Born in Buwayhid era Isfahan, he travelled widely, visiting Nishapur, Basra, Kufa, Baghdad, Mecca and Andalusia.

He is the presumed author of Hilyat al-awliya' , one of the most important sources for the early development of Sufism, and a transmitter of Shafi'i hadith. He was considered one of the best hadith authorities by his contemporary Khatib al-Baghdadi and by Dhahabi and Taqi al-Din al-Subki.

Al-Hakim Nishapuri

Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishapuri (Arabic: أبو عبدالله محمد بن عبدالله الحاكم النيسابوري‎) (933 - 1014), also known as Ibn al-Bayyiʿ,) was a Persian Sunni scholar and the leading traditionist of his age, frequently referred to as the "Imam of the Muhaddithin" or the "Muhaddith of Khorasan."


Sūrat al-Kāfirūn (Arabic: سورة الكافرون‎, "The Unbelievers") is the name of the 109th Sura (chapter) of the Qur'an.


Sūrat al-Masad (Arabic: سورة المسد‎, meaning "The Palm Fiber") is the 111th chapter (sura) of the Quran with 5 verses. Verse 1 mentions one of Muhammad's adversaries named Abū Lahab. This surah takes its name from verse 5 in which the phrase “ḥablun min masad” (meaning “a rope of palm fibre”) occurs that mentions the palm fibre rope that in hellfire shall be twisted around the neck of the wife of Muhammad’s uncle, who bitterly opposed Islam; for she took great pride in wearing an ostentatious necklace she became known for and would slip by night to strew thorns and prickly plants in Muhammad’s path to injure his feet.


Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (; Arabic: الأشعرية‎ al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by the Arab theologian Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324). The disciples of the school are known as Ashʿarites, and the school is also referred to as the Ashʿarite school, which became the dominant strand within Sunni Islam. It is considered one of the orthodox schools of theology in Sunni Islam, alongside the Maturidi school of theology.Amongst the most famous Ashʿarites are Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Nawawi, Al-Ghazali, Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam, Al-Suyuti, Ibn 'Asakir, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Qurtubi and Al-Subki.

Battle of Nahrawan

The Battle of Nahrawan (Arabic: معركة النهروان‎, translit. Ma'rakat an-Nahrawān) was a battle between Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Caliph and the extremist group called Kharijites near Nahrawan, twelve miles from Baghdad. The battle ended in a total defeat of the Kharijites. Ali led the battlefield himself with his two sons, Hassan and Hussein.

Ali said ' Without a doubt These people infer such wrong meanings out of books ,which are absolutely criminal in Islam and detrimental for humanity '.

God in Islam

In Islam, God (Arabic: الله‎, translit. Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the God") is the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence. Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (tawḥīd ): unique (wāḥid ), inherently One (aḥad ), also all-merciful and omnipotent. God is neither a material nor a spiritual being. According to Islamic teachings, beyond the Throne and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things."Chapter 112 of the Quran, titled Al-'Ikhlās (The Sincerity) reads:

"He is God, [who is] One.

God, the Eternal Refuge.

He neither begets nor is born,

Nor is there to Him any equivalent."In Islam, there are 99 known names of God (al-asmāʼ al-ḥusná lit. meaning: "The best names"), each of which evokes a distinct attribute of God. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive god. Among the 99 names of God, the most familiar and frequent are "the Compassionate" (Ar-Raḥmān) and "the Merciful" (Ar-Raḥīm). Creation and ordering of the universe is seen as an act of prime mercy for which all creatures praise God's attributes and bear witness to God's unity.

Ibn Khuzaymah

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد بن إسحاق بن خزيمة‎, 837 CE/223 AH – 923 CE/311 AH) was a prominent Muslim hadith and Shafi'i fiqh scholar, best known for his hadith collection Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah.

Iman (concept)

Iman (إِيمَان ʾīmān, lit. faith or belief) in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam. Its most simple definition is the belief in the six axioms of faith, known as arkān al-īmān.

The term iman has been delineated in both the Quran and hadith. According to the Quran, iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are necessary for entry into Paradise. In the hadith, iman in addition to Islam and ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic religion.

There exists a debate both within and outside Islam on the link between faith and reason in religion, and the relative importance of either. Several scholars contend that faith and reason spring from the same source and hence must be harmonious.

List of Ash'aris

The list of prominent Ash'aris includes prominent adherents of the Ash'ari theological school.


Ibn Furak

Abu Mansur Al-Baghdadi


Al-Bayhaqi, Hadith, Fiqh scholar

Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi

Abu Al-Walid Al-Baji


Al-Ghazali, Hujjat al-Islam (Authority of Islam), Jurist, Philosopher, Theology (Tauhid)

Ibn Khaldun, Muslim Scientist, Forerunner of Modern Disciplines in Sociology, Demography, Historiographer, Historian, Economics, Political Science

Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi, Muslim Scientist, Tafsir (Exegesis), Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Rhetoric, Kalam, Islamic Philosophy, Logic, Astronomy, Ontology, Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Anatomy


Sayf Al-Din Al-Amidi

Salahuddin al-Ayyoubi (Saladin), Founder of Ayyubid Dynasty, Islamic Caliphate of Ayyubid Dynasty, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, Islamic scholar, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques

Izz Al-Din ibn 'Abd Al-Salam

Ibn 'Asakir

Al-Nawawi, Hadith scholar, Shafi'i Sunni Jurist, Theologian, Biographer

Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, Shaykh al-Islām (Outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences), Hadith scholar, Shafi'i Sunni scholar, Tafsir scholar

Al-Qastallani, Sunni Islamic scholar in Hadith and Theology, Commentary on the Sahih al-Bukhari

Abu Hayyan Al-Gharnati

Jalal Al-Din Al-Suyuti, Theologian, Shafi'i scholar, Scholar on Ijtihad, Hadith, Quranic Exegesis (Tafsir), Aqidah (Tawhid)

Zakariyya Al-Ansari

Taqi Al-Din Al-Subki, Shafi'i scholar, Master in Tafsir (Qur'anic Exegesis) and Prophetic Hadith (Sunnah), Shaykh al-Islām (Outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences), Qadi (Chief Judge in Islamic Shari'ah Court)

Taj Al-Din Al-Subki

Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami


Ibn 'Ata' Allah Al-Iskandari (or Al-Sakandari)

'Abdullah Ibn 'Alawi Al-Haddad

Muhammad Zahid Al-Kawthari

Muhammad Al-Tahir Ibn 'Ashur

Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, former Grand Mufti of Egypt, Islamic scholar

Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki, Islamic scholar, Habib, Al-Marfullah

Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti, Syrian scholar, Shaykh of the Levant

Abdallah Bin Bayyah, Specialist in 4 Islamic School of Thoughts, proponent in Maliki School of Thought

Abdullah al-Harari

Ahmed El-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar

Ali Gomaa, Egyptian Grand Mufti

Ahmed Kuftaro, former Grand Mufti of Syrian Arab Republic, Advocator of Interreligious Dialogues and Women's Rights, Head of issuing Fatwa throughout the Sunni Islamic world

Habib Ali Al-Jifri

Hamza Yusuf, American Islamic scholar, co-founder of Zaytuna College

Muhammad al-Yaqoubi, Syrian Islamic scholar

Suhaib Webb, American Imam, Shaykh, One of the 500 Most Influential Muslims in the World

Ahmad Badreddin Hassoun, Grand Mufti of Syria

Nuh Ha Mim Keller

Habib Umar bin Hafiz, Shaykh, Habib, Islamic scholar, Dean at Dar al-Mustafa

List of Sunni books

This is a list of significant books of Sunni Islam doctrine.

Muadh ibn Jabal

Muadh ibn Jabal (Arabic: مُعاذ ابن جبل‎; 603 – 639) was a Sahaba (companion) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muadh was an Ansar of Banu Khazraj and compiled the Quran with five companions while Muhammad was still alive. He was known as the one with a lot of knowledge. He was called by Muhammad "the one who will lead the scholars into Paradise."

Sahifah of al-Ridha

The Sahifah of al-Ridha (Arabic: الصحیفة الرضا‎, al-Sahīfa al-Riḍā, lit. "The Pages of al-Ridha"), also known as the Sahifat of al-Reza (Persian: صحیفهٔ امام رضا‎: Ṣaḥīfe ye Imam Reżā) and the Musnad al-Imam al-Ridha ("The Book of Imam al-Ridha"), is a collection of 240 hadiths attributed to Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha, the eighth Shiite Imam.The Sahifah is one of the major sources of Shia belief and has attracted the attention of Shia scholars such as Ibn Babawayh and Sheikh Tabarsi. It contains hadiths on various topics including the invocation of Allah; the importance of praying five times a day and of saying the prayer for the dead; the excellence of the household of Muhammad, of the believer, of good manners, of the names Muhammad and Ahmad, of various foods, fruits, and ointments, of obeying parents, of strengthening the bonds of kinship, and of jihad; a warning against cheating, backbiting, or tattling; and other miscellaneous traditions. The section on Muhammad's household discusses each of its fourteen members separately.

Shama'il Muhammadiyah

The Shamā'il Muhammadiyyah ("The Appearance of Muhammad"), often referred to as Shamā'il al-Tirmidhi or simply Shamā'il, is a collection of hadiths compiled by the 9th-century scholar Tirmidhi regarding the intricate details of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's appearance, belongings, manners and life. The book contains 399 narrations from the successors of Muhammad which are divided into 56 chapters.The best known and accepted of these hadith are attributed to Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali.

Another well-known description is attributed to a woman named Umm Ma'bad.

Other descriptions are attributed to Aisha, `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas, Abu Hurairah and Hasan ibn Ali. While shama'il lists the physical and spiritual characteristics of Muhammad in simple prose, in hilye these are written about in a literary style.

Among other descriptive Shama'il text are the Dala'il al-Nubuwwah of Al-Bayhaqi, Tarih-i Isfahan of Abu Naeem Isfahani, Al-Wafa bi Fadha'il al-Mustafa of Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi and Al-Shifa of Qadi Ayyad are the main shemaa-il and hilya books.

Shaykh al-Islām

Shaykh al-Islām (Arabic: شيخ الإسلام‎, translit. Šayḫ al-Islām; Ottoman Turkish: شیخ‌ الاسلام‎, translit. Şhaykḫu-l-İslām) was used in the classical era as an honorific title for outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences. It first emerged in Khurasan towards the end of the 4th Islamic century. In the central and western lands of Islam, it was an informal title given to jurists whose fatwas were particularly influential, while in the east it came to be conferred by rulers to ulama who played various official roles but were not generally muftis. Sometimes, as in the case of Ibn Taymiyya, the use of the title was subject to controversy. Later it became a prestigious position in the Ottoman Empire from which to govern religious affairs of Muslims. Modern times have seen this function carried out by Grand Muftis appointed or elected in a variety of ways.

Tarikh-i Bayhaqi

Tārīkh-e Bayhaqī (literally "Bayhaqi's History"), (originally تاریخ بیهقی) is a history book written by Abul-Fazl Bayhaqi, in Persian, in the 11th century CE. Originally it has been in 30 chapters, but what has remained from it is only from chapter 5 to chapter 10. Much of this extensive work is lost, but its remains is the most important source on the history of the Ghaznavid Empire and Islamic history. The work is of literary value as well due to its unique style of narration. Bayhaqi, the author, explains the details of the events he personally had seen, or had heard from reliable people.

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