Al-Ashʿarī (الأشعري; full name: Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Isḥāq al-Ashʿarī; c. 874–936 (AH 260–324), reverentially Imām al-Ashʿarī) was an Arab Sunni Muslim scholastic theologian and eponymous founder of Ashʿarism or Asharite theology, which would go on to become "the most important theological school in Sunni Islam".[1]

According to scholar Jonathan A.C. Brown, although "the Ash'ari school of theology is often called the Sunni 'orthodoxy,'" "the original ahl al-hadith, early Sunni creed from which Ash'arism evolved has continued to thrive alongside it as a rival Sunni 'orthodoxy' as well."[2] According to Brown this competing orthodoxy exists in the form of the "Hanbali/über-Sunni orthodoxy".[3]

Al-Ashʿarī was notable for taking an intermediary position between the two diametrically opposed schools of theological thought prevalent at the time: He opposed both the Muʿtazilites, who advocated the extreme use of reason in theological debate, and the Zahirites, Mujassimites and Muhaddithin, who were entirely opposed to the use of reason or kalam, and condemned any theological debate altogether.[4]

Al-Ashʿari's school eventually won "wide acceptance within Sunni Islam, the official theological creed of which came largely to be defined by Ashʿarī principles."[1] Due to his efforts, Al-Ashʿarī came to be revered by Sunni Muslims for having successfully "integrated the rationalist methodology of the speculative theologians into the framework of orthodox Islam."[5] He continues to be honored by the epithets Imām al-mutakallimūn ("Leader of the Scholastic Theologians") and Imām ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʿah ("Leader of the Sunnis").[1]

Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī
PARSONS(1808) p008 View of Bagdad on the Persian side of the Tigris
A depiction of Baghdad from 1808, taken from the print collection in Travels in Asia and Africa, etc. (ed. J. P. Berjew, British Library); al-Ashʿarī spent his entire life in this city in the twelfth-century
Scholastic theologian;
Champion of Islam
Imām of the Scholastic Theologians
Imām of the Sunnis
Venerated inSunni Islam, but his theology has been controversial among those latter-day Sunnis who follow the Athari creed
Major shrineTomb of al-Ashʿarī, Baghdad, Iraq
Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī
Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī in Arabic calligraphy
TitleImām al-mutakallimūn, Imām ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʿah
BornAH 260 (873/874)
DiedAH 324 (935/936) (aged 64)
EraIslamic golden age
CreedEarly Ashari theology
Main interest(s)Islamic theology
Notable work(s)Maqalat al-Islamiyyin wa Ikhtilaf al-Musallin (The Treatises of the Islamic Schools), al-Luma' fi al-Rad 'ala Ahl al-Ziyagh wa al-Bida' (Refutation to Heresy), Al-Ibanah 'an Usul al-Diyanah, Risalah ila Ahl al-Thaghr
Senior posting


Al-Ash'ari was born in Basra,[6] Iraq, and was a descendant of the famous companion of Muhammad, Abu Musa al-Ashari.[7] As a young man he studied under al-Jubba'i, a renowned teacher of Muʿtazilite theology and philosophy.[8] He remained a Muʿtazalite until his fortieth year when al-Ash'ari saw Muhammad in a dream 3 times in Ramadan. Muhammad told him to support what was related from himself, that is, the traditions (hadiths).[9] After this experience, he left the Muʿtazalites and became one of its most distinguished opponents, using the philosophical methods he had learned.[6] Al-Ash'ari then spent the remaining years of his life engaged in developing his views and in composing polemics and arguments against his former Muʿtazalite colleagues. He is said to have written up to three hundred works, of which only four or five are known to be extant.[10]


After leaving the Muʿtazili school, and joining the side of Traditionalist theologians[11] al-Ash'ari formulated the theology of Sunni Islam.[12] He was followed in this by a large number of distinguished scholars, most of whom belonged to the Shafi'i school of law.[13] The most famous of these are Abul-Hassan Al-Bahili, Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani, al-Juwayni, Al-Razi and Al-Ghazali. Thus Al-Ash'ari’s school became, together with the Maturidi, the main schools reflecting the beliefs of the Sunnah.[13]

In line with Sunni tradition, al-Ash'ari held the view that a Muslim should not be considered an unbeliever on account of a sin even if it were an enormity such as drinking wine or theft. This opposed the position held by the Khawarij.[14]

Al-Ash'ari also believed it impermissible to violently oppose a leader even if he were openly disobedient to the commands of the sacred law.[14]

Al-Ash'ari spent much of his works opposing the views of the Muʿtazili school. In particular, he rebutted them for believing that the Qur'an was created and that deeds are done by people of their own accord.[13] He also rebutted the Muʿtazili school for denying that Allah can hear, see and has speech. Al-Ash’ari confirmed all these attributes stating that they differ from the hearing, seeing and speech of creatures, including man.[13]

He was also noted for his teachings on atomism.[15]


The 18th century Islamic scholar Shah Waliullah stated:

A Mujadid appears at the end of every century: The Mujadid of the first century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The Mujadid of the second century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Muhammad Idrees Shaafi. The Mujadid of the third century was the Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari. The Mujadid of the fourth century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri.[16]

Earlier major scholars also held positive views of al-Ash'ari and his efforts, among them Qadi Iyad and Taj al-Din al-Subki.[17]


The Ashari scholar Ibn Furak numbers Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari's works at 300, and the biographer Ibn Khallikan at 55;[18] Ibn Asāker gives the titles of 93 of them, but only a handful of these works, in the fields of heresiography and theology, have survived. The three main ones are:

  • Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn,[19] it comprises not only an account of the Islamic sects but also an examination of problems in kalām, or scholastic theology, and the Names and Attributes of Allah; the greater part of this works seems to have been completed before his conversion from the Muʿtaziltes.
  • Kitāb al-luma[20]
  • Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna,.[21] The authenticity of this book has been called into question. For example, Richard McCarthy, in his Theology of Ash'ari, writes, "...I am unable to subscribe wholeheartedly to the proposition that the ibāna, in the form in which we have it, is a genuine work of al-Ash'ari," comparing the creed in that book to the creed found in al-Ash'ari's Maqālāt.[22]

However, George Makdisi[23] and Ignác Goldziher[24] consider this work as genuine, and Salafists maintain that the book marks al-Ash'ari's late repentance and his return to the beliefs of the salaf. Salafists expound that the book was written after he recanted his earlier beliefs and accepted Athari beliefs, following his encounter with the Hanbalite scholar Al-Hasan ibn 'Ali al-Barbahari, and was primarily an attempt to call his previous followers back to Islam.[25] Professor Sherman Jackson recounts that Ibn Taymiyyah, citing the Ash'ari Historian Ibn `Asakir, presented Al-Ashari's words in the Ibāna as a defense during his trial on charges of anthropomorphism.[26]


  1. ^ a b c Anvari, Mohammad Javad and Koushki, Matthew Melvin, “al-Ashʿarī”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
  2. ^ Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). p. 180.
  3. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). The Canonization of al‐Bukhārī and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunnī Ḥadīth Canon. Leiden and Boston: Brill. pp. Pg 137. ISBN 9789004158399.
  4. ^ M. Abdul Hye,Ash’arism, Philosophia Islamica.
  5. ^ Michel Adrien Allard, "Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī," Encyclopædia Britannica.
  6. ^ a b John L. Esposito, The Islamic World: Abbasid-Historian, p 54. ISBN 0195165209
  7. ^ I.M.N. Al-Jubouri, History of Islamic Philosophy: With View of Greek Philosophy and Early History of Islam, p 182. ISBN 0755210115
  8. ^ Marshall Cavendish Reference, Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World, p 87. ISBN 0761479295
  9. ^ William Montgomery Watt, Islamic Philosophy and Theology, p 84. ISBN 0202362728
  10. ^ I. M. Al-Jubouri, Islamic Thought: From Mohammed to September 11, 2001, p 177. ISBN 1453595856
  11. ^ Anjum, Ovamir (2012). Politics, Law, and Community in Islamic Thought. Cambrdige University Press. p. 108. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  12. ^ John L. Esposito, The Oxford History of Islam, p 280. ISBN 0199880417
  13. ^ a b c d
  14. ^ a b Jeffry R. Halverson, Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism, p 77. ISBN 0230106587
  15. ^ Ash'ari - A History of Muslim Philosophy
  16. ^ Izalat al-Khafa, p. 77, part 7.
  17. ^ Fatwa No. 8001. Who are the Ash'arites? - Dar al-Ifta' al-Misriyyah
  18. ^ Beirut, III, p.286, tr. de Slaine, II, p.228
  19. ^ ed. H. Ritter, Istanbul, 1929-30
  20. ^ ed. and tr. R.C. McCarthy, Beirut, 1953
  21. ^ tr. W.C. Klein, New Haven, 1940
  22. ^ McCarthy, Richard J. (1953). The Theology of Al-Ashari. Imprimerie Catholique. p. 232.
  23. ^ Makdisi, George. 1962. Ash’ari and the Asharites and Islamic history I. Studia Islamica 17: 37–80
  24. ^ Ignaz Goldziher, Vorlesungen uber den Islam, 2nd ed. Franz Babinger (Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1925), 121;
  25. ^ Richard M. Frank, Early Islamic Theology: The Mu'tazilites and al-Ash'ari, Texts and studies on the development and history of kalām, vol. 2, pg. 172. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2007. ISBN 9780860789789
  26. ^ Jackson, Sherman A. “Ibn Taymiyyah on Trial in Damascus.” Journal of Semitic Studies 39 (Spring 1994): 41–85.

External links

Further reading

2016 international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny

The 2016 conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny was convened to define the term "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah", i.e. who are "the people of Sunnah and majority Muslim community", and oppose Takfiri groups. The conference was held in the Chechen Republic capital of Grozny from 25–27 August 2016, sponsored by the president of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov, and attended by approximately 200 Muslim scholars from 30 countries, especially from Russia, Egypt, Syria, Libya, Kuwait, Sudan, Jordan, etc. at the invitation of Yemeni Sufi preacher, Ali al-Jifri.The conference was dedicated to the 65th anniversary of the birth of Kadyrov's father, Akhmad Kadyrov, the first President of Chechnya.The conference was notable for excluding representatives of Wahhabi and Salafi movements, and for its definition of Sunni Muslims in the final communiqué of the conference that included Sufis, Ash’arites and Maturidis, but not Wahhabis or Salafis. It identified Salafism/Wahhabism as a dangerous and misguided sect, along with the extremist groups, such as ISIS, Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Muslim Brotherhood and others.The conference definition stated:

“Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah are the Ash’arites and Maturidis (adherents of the theological systems of Imam Abu Mansur al-Maturidi and Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari). In matters of belief, they are followers of any of the four schools of thought (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i or Hanbali) and are also the followers of the Sufism of Imam Junaid al-Baghdadi in doctrines, manners and [spiritual] purification."

Abdullah ibn Saba'

Abdullah ibn Sabaʾ al-Ḥimyarī (or ibn Sabāʾ, also sometimes called ibn al-Sawdāʾ, ibn Wahb, or ibn Ḥarb) was a dubious 7th-century figure in Islamic history who is often associated with a group of followers called the Sabaʾiyya (Arabic: سبئية‎).According to Sunni and Shia tradition, Abdullah bin Saba' was a Yemenite Jewish convert to Islam. Because of his exaggerated reverence for Ali, he is traditionally considered as the first of the ghulāt. In accounts collected by Sayf ibn Umar, Ibn Saba' and his followers (the Saba'iyya) are said to be the ones who enticed the Egyptians against Uthman and were responsible for breaking the near-settlement at the Battle of the Camel.Modern historians differed on the historicity of Ibn Saba'. Some believe that Abdullah Ibn Saba and ibn al-Sawdāʾ should be considered as two separate individuals (Hodgson). Some have described him as semi-legendary or legendary (Taha Hussein, Bernard Lewis, Wilferd Madelung, Leone Caetani, and Shia historians) Others such as Israel Friedlander, Sabatino Moscati, and Sunni historians affirm his existence. His Jewish origin has also been contested. Some modern historians assert that Sayf ibn Umar fabricated the episode about the killing of Uthman to "exonerate the people of Medina from participation in the caliph's murder" and the movement to support Ali as a successor to Muhammad did not exist in the time of Uthman. With the exception of Taha Hussein, most modern Sunni writers affirm the existence of Ibn Saba'. In a similar vein, Shia writers deny Ibn Saba's historical existence to rid Shia'ism of the accusation by Sunni writers that Shia'ism is originally based on Judaic doctrines.

Abu Hurairah

Abū Hurayrah al-Dawsī al-Zahrāni Al-Azdi (Arabic: أبو هريرة الدوسي الزهراني الأزدي‎‎; 603–681), Also called Abu hurayra al-Dawsi al-Yamani often spelled Abu Hurairah, was one of the sahabah (companions) of Muhammad and, according to Sunni Islam, the most prolific narrator of hadith. He was known by the kunyah Abu Hurayrah "Father of a Kitten", in reference to his documented attachment to cats. It is unclear as to what his real name is, the most popular opinion being that it was ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Ṣakhr (عبد الرحمن بن صخر). Abu Hurayrah spent four years in the company of Muhammad and went on expeditions and journeys with him. He is credited with narrating at least 5374 Ahadith.

Abu Mansur al-Maturidi

Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Samarḳandī (853–944 CE; Arabic: أبو منصور محمد بن محمد بن محمود الماتریدي السمرقندي الحنفي‎), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently as Imam Māturīdī by Sunni Muslims, was a Sunni Hanafi jurist, theologian, and scriptural exegete from ninth-century Samarkand who became the eponymous codifier of one of the principal orthodox schools of Sunni theology, the Maturidi school, which became the dominant theological school for Sunni Muslims in Central Asia and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.In contrast to Ashʿarī (d. 936), the founder of one of the other major orthodox Sunni theological schools, Maturidi adhered to the doctrine of Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 772) as transmitted and elaborated by the Hanafi theologians of Balkh and Transoxania. It was this theology which Maturidi systematized and used to refute not only the opinions of the Mutazilites, the Karrāmites, and other heterodox groups, but also non-Muslim theologies such as those of Chalcedonian Christianity, Miaphysitism, Manichaeanism, Marcionism, and Bardaisanism.

Abu Musa al-Ash'ari

Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari (Arabic: أبو موسى الأشعري‎) (d. ca. 662 or 672) was a companion of Muhammad and an important figure in early Islamic history. He was at various times governor of Basra and Kufa and was involved in the early Muslim conquest of Persia.

Ahl al-Hadith

Ahl al-Hadith (Arabic: أهل الحديث‎, "The people of hadith"; also Așḥāb al-ḥadīṯ; أصحاب الحديث, "The adherents of hadith") is an Islamic school of thought that first emerged in the 2nd/3rd Islamic centuries as a movement of hadith scholars who considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only authority in matters of law and creed. Its adherents are also known as traditionalists and sometimes traditionists (from "tradition" as a translation of the word hadith).In jurisprudence Ahl al-Hadith opposed contemporary jurists who based their legal reasoning on informed opinion (ra'y) or living local practice, referred to as Ahl ar-Ra'y. In matters of faith, they were pitted against the Mu'tazilites and other theological currents, condemning many points of their doctrines as well as the rationalistic methods they used in defending them. The most prominent leader of the movement was Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Subsequently, all Sunni legal schools gradually came to accept the reliance on the Quran and hadith advocated by the Ahl al-Hadith movement, while al-Ash'ari (874-936) used rationalistic argumentation favored by Mu'tazilites to defend most tenets of the Ahl al-Hadith doctrine. In the following centuries the term ahl al-hadith came to refer to the scholars, mostly of the Hanbali madhhab, who rejected rationalistic theology (kalam) and held on to the early Sunni creed. This theological school, which is also known as traditionalist theology, has been championed in recent times by the Salafi movement. The term ahl al-hadith is sometimes used in a more general sense to denote a particularly enthusiastic commitment to hadith and to the views and way of life of the Salaf (exemplary early Muslims).

Al-Asha'ir Mosque

The Al-Asha'ir Mosque or the Great Mosque of Zabid (Arabic: جامع الأشاعرة‎), is an ancient mosque in the historic city of Zabid, Yemen. It is located near the Zubaid market, forming a part of UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Town of Zabid. Its foundation is owing to the great Sahabi Abu Musa al-Ash'ari in the year 8 AH or 629 CE and since then the mosque was the first mosque to achieve its spiritual and historical status in Yemen. Local tradition narrates that the mosque is fifth oldest mosque in the history of Islam, making it one of the oldest mosques in the world. The mosque underwent several renovations, but the most important additions of which were made during the reign of Sultan Al-Mansour Abdul Wahab bin Dawood in the year 1486, and since then the shape of the mosque remained as it is to this day, as pointed out by the great historian Ibn al-Dhibir in his book In Order to Benefit.


Abu Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-Bāqillānī (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد بن الطيب الباقلاني‎; c. 940 - 5 June 1013), often known as al-Bāqillānī for short, or reverentially as Imam al-Bāqillānī by Sunni Muslims, was a famous Sunni Islamic theologian, jurist, and logician who spent much of his life defending and strengthening orthodox Sunni Islam. An accomplished rhetorical stylist and master orator, al-Baqillani was held in high regard by his contemporaries for his expertise in debating even the most complex of theological and jurisprudential issues. Al-Baqillani is often given the honorary epithets Shaykh al-Sunna ("Doctor of the Prophetic Way"), Lisān al-Umma ("Mouthpiece of the Community"), Imād al-Dīn ("Pillar of the Faith"), Nāsir al-Islām ("Guardian of Islam"), and Sayf as-Sunna ("Sword of the Prophetic Way") in Sunni tradition.Born in Basra in 330/950, he spent most of his life in Baghdad, and studied theology under two disciples of al-Ash'ari, Ibn Mujahid al-Ta'i and Abu'l Hasan al-Bahili. He also studied jurisprudence under the Maliki scholars Abu Abdullah al-Shirazi and Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani. After acquiring expertise in both Islamic theology and Maliki jurisprudence he expounding the teachings of the Ash'ari school, and taught Maliki jurisprudence in Baghdad. He held the office of chief Qadi in Baghdad and in 'Ukbara, a town not far from the capital. al-Bāqillānī became a popular lecturer, and took part in debates with well-known scholars of the day. Because of his logical acumen and swift, unhesitating replies, the caliph 'Adud al-Dawla dispatched him as an envoy to the Byzantine court in Constantinople and he debated Christian scholars in the presence of their king in 371/981.He died in 403/1013.He supported the doctrine of the apologetic miracle being proof of prophecy, the noncreation of the Quran, intercession, and the possibility of seeing God.

Ibn Taymiyya called al-Baqillani 'the best of the Ash'ari mutakallimun, unrivalled by any predecessor or successor'.


Abu 'Ali Muhammad al-Jubba'i (Arabic: أبو على محمد الجبائي‎; died c. 915) was an Arab Mu'tazili theologian and philosopher of the 10th century. Born in Khuzistan, he studied in Basra where he trained Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, who went on to found his own theological tradition, and his son Abd al-Salam al-Jubba'i.

Bi-la kaifa

The Arabic phrase bi-la kayfa, also bilā kaifa, (Arabic: بلا كيف‎) is roughly translated as "without asking how", or "without how" which means without modality. It was a way of resolving theological problems in Islam over apparent questioning in ayat (verses of the Qur'an) by accepting without questioning.An example is the apparent contradiction between references to God having human characteristics (such as the "Hand of God" or the "Face of God") and the concept of God as being transcendental. The position of attributing actual hands or an actual face to God was known as mujassima ("corporealist") or mushabbih ("anthropomorphist").Another was the question of how the Quran could be both the word of God, but never have been created by God because (as many hadith testified) it has always existed.

First Fitna

The First Fitna (Arabic: فتنة مقتل عثمان‎ fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty. It began when the caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated by rebels in 656 and continued through the four-year reign of Uthman's successor Ali ibn Abi Talib. It ended in 661 when Ali's heir Hasan ibn Ali concluded a treaty acknowledging the rule of Muawiyah, the first Umayyad caliph.

Ibn Furak

Ibn Furak or Ibn Faurak (Arabic: إبن فورك‎;

941 - 1015 CE / 330 - 406 AH) was a Muslim Imam, a theologian of Al-Ash'ari, a specialist of Arabic language, grammar and poetry, an orator, a jurist, and a hadith scholar from the Shafi'i Madhhab in 10th century.

Ibn `Asakir

Ibn Asakir (Arabic: ابن عساكر‎, translit. Ibn ‘Asākir; 1106–1175) was a Sunni Islamic scholar, a historian and a disciple of the Sufi mystic Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi.

Invasion of Najd

The Invasion of Najd, happened in Rabi‘ Ath-Thani or Jumada Al-Ula, 4 A.H i.e. in October, 625 AD.Muhammad led his fighters to Najd to scare off some tribes he believed had suspicious intentions.

Some scholars say the Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa took place in Najd as part of this invasion.

List of Ash'aris and Maturidis

The list of Ash'aris and Maturidis includes prominent adherents of the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of thought. The Ash'aris are a doctrinal school of thought named after Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, and the Maturidi school is named for Abu Mansur al-Maturidi.


Ibn Furak

Abu Mansur Al-Baghdadi


Al-Bayhaqi, Hadith, Fiqh scholar

Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi

Abu Al-Walid Al-Baji


Al-Ghazali, Hujjat al-Islam (Authority of Islam), Jurist, Philosopher, Theology (Tauhid)

Ibn Khaldun, Muslim Scientist, Forerunner of Modern Disciplines in Sociology, Demography, Historiographer, Historian, Economics, Political Science

Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi, Muslim Scientist, Tafsir (Exegesis), Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Rhetoric, Kalam, Islamic Philosophy, Logic, Astronomy, Ontology, Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Anatomy


Sayf Al-Din Al-Amidi

Salahuddin al-Ayyoubi (Saladin), Founder of Ayyubid Dynasty, Islamic Caliphate of Ayyubid Dynasty, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, Islamic scholar, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques

Izz Al-Din ibn 'Abd Al-Salam

Ibn 'Asakir

Al-Nawawi, Hadith scholar, Shafi'i Sunni Jurist, Theologian, Biographer

Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, Shaykh al-Islām (Outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences), Hadith scholar, Shafi'i Sunni scholar, Tafsir scholar

Al-Qastallani, Sunni Islamic scholar in Hadith and Theology, Commentary on the Sahih al-Bukhari

Abu Hayyan Al-Gharnati

Jalal Al-Din Al-Suyuti, Theologian, Shafi'i scholar, Scholar on Ijtihad, Hadith, Quranic Exegesis (Tafsir), Aqidah (Tawhid)

Zakariyya Al-Ansari

Taqi Al-Din Al-Subki, Shafi'i scholar, Master in Tafsir (Qur'anic Exegesis) and Prophetic Hadith (Sunnah), Shaykh al-Islām (Outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences), Qadi (Chief Judge in Islamic Shari'ah Court)

Taj Al-Din Al-Subki

Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami


Ibn 'Ata' Allah Al-Iskandari (or Al-Sakandari)

'Abdullah Ibn 'Alawi Al-Haddad

Muhammad Zahid Al-Kawthari

Muhammad Al-Tahir Ibn 'Ashur

Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki, Islamic scholar, Habib, Al-Marfullah

Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti, Syrian scholar, Shaykh of the Levant

Abdallah Bin Bayyah, Specialist in 4 Islamic School of Thoughts, proponent in Maliki School of Thought

Abdullah al-Harari

Ahmed El-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar

Ali Gomaa, Egyptian Grand Mufti

Ahmed Kuftaro, former Grand Mufti of Syrian Arab Republic, Advocator of Interreligious Dialogues and Women's Rights, Head of issuing Fatwa throughout the Sunni Islamic world

Habib Ali Al-Jifri

Hamza Yusuf, American Islamic scholar, co-founder of Zaytuna College

Muhammad al-Yaqoubi, Syrian Islamic scholar

Suhaib Webb, American Imam, Shaykh, One of the 500 Most Influential Muslims in the World

Ahmad Badreddin Hassoun, Grand Mufti of Syria

Nuh Ha Mim Keller

Habib Umar bin Hafiz, Shaykh, Habib, Islamic scholar, Dean at Dar al-Mustafa

List of Muslim comparative religionists

Muslim comparative religionist is a Muslim scholar or preacher engaged in Islamic comparative religion studies.

This is an incomplete list of notable Muslim comparative religionists.

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

Ibn Hazm

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari

Rahmatullah Kairanawi

Ismail al-Faruqi

Hafiz Muhammad Shariq

Zakir Naik

Ahmad Deedat

Shabir Ally

Muhammad Taqi Usmani

Abul A'la Maududi

René Guénon

Yusuf Estes

Bilal Philips

Jamal Badawi

Amir Hussain Editor of the Journal of the American Academy of Religion

Hamza Tzortzis

Harun Yahya

Muslim conquest of Pars

The Muslim conquest of Pars took place from 638/9 to 650/1, and ended with subjugation of the important Sasanian province of Pars to the Rashidun Caliphate.


A nasheed (Arabic: singular نشيد nashīd, plural أناشيد anāshīd, meaning: "chants"; also nasyid in Malaysia and Indonesia, and neşid in Turkey) is a work of vocal music that is either sung acappella or accompanied by percussion instruments such as the daf. In general, Islamic anasheed do not contain lamellaphone instruments, string instruments, or wind and brass instruments, although digital remastering – either to mimic percussion instruments or create overtones – is permitted. This is because many Muslim scholars state that Islam prohibits the use of musical instruments except for some basic percussion.

Nasheed are popular throughout the Islamic world. The material and lyrics of a nasheed usually make reference to Islamic beliefs, history, and religion, as well as current events.

Traditionalist theology (Islam)

Traditionalist theology is a Islamic scholarly movement, originating in the late 8th century CE, who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran and hadith. The name derives from "tradition" in its technical sense as translation of the Arabic word hadith. It is also sometimes referred to by several other names.

Adherents of traditionalist theology believe the zahir (literal, apparent) meaning of the Qur'an and the hadith are the sole authorities in matters of belief and law; and that the use of rational disputation is forbidden even verifying the truth. They engage in a literal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, and believe that their realities should be consigned to God alone (tafwid). In essence, the text of the Qur'an and Hadith is accepted without asking "how" or "Bi-la kaifa".

Traditionalist theology emerged among hadith scholars who eventually coalesced into a movement called ahl al-hadith under the leadership of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (b. 780–d. 855). In matters of faith, they were pitted against Mu'tazilites and other theological currents, condemning many points of their doctrine as well as the rationalistic methods they used in defending them. In the tenth century al-Ash'ari and al-Maturidi found a middle ground between Mu'tazilite rationalism and Hanbalite literalism, using the rationalistic methods championed by Mu'tazilites to defend most tenets of the traditionalist doctrine. Although the mainly Hanbali scholars who rejected this synthesis were in the minority, their emotive, narrative-based approach to faith remained influential among the urban masses in some areas, particularly in Abbasid Baghdad.While Ash'arism and Maturidism are often called the Sunni "orthodoxy", traditionalist theology has thrived alongside it, laying rival claims to be the orthodox Sunni faith. In the modern era it has had a disproportionate impact on Islamic theology, having been appropriated by Wahhabi and other traditionalist Salafi currents and spread well beyond the confines of the Hanbali school of law.

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Early Islamic scholars
Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607-661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618-687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taughtUmar (579-644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603 – 681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taught
Husayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657-725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614-693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taught
Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taught
Hisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taught
Muhammad al-Baqir (676-733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699 — 767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695-740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taughtMalik ibn Anas (711 – 795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taught
Al-Waqidi (748 – 822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)
Al-Shafi‘i (767—820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn Ibrahim
Ali ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the Companions
Ibn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Jafar (719-775)Musa al-Kadhim (745-799)
Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780—855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824- 887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith book
Abu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver Shia
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-Tabari
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver Shia
Sharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver Shia
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver Shia
Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on Sufism
Rumi (1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran

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