Akrodha

Akrodha (Sanskrit: अक्रोध) literally means "free from anger".[1] It is considered an important virtue in Indian philosophy.[2]

Etymology

Akrodha is a fusion word a (अ, without, non) and krodha (क्रोध, anger),[3] or 'without anger'. A related word is Akrodhah (Sanskrit: अक्रोध:), which also means 'absence of anger'.[1]

Discussion

Akrodha is considered a virtue and desirable ethical value in Hinduism. When there is cause of getting angry but even then there is absence of anger, it is non-anger or akrodha.[4] Absence of anger (akrodha) means being calm even when insulted, rebuked or despite great provocation. Akrodha does not mean absence of causes of anger, it means not getting angry and keeping an even, calm temper despite the circumstances.[5]

Krodha ('anger') is excessive mental turmoil on account of the obstacles in the gratification of some desire; it is manifestation of the quality of tamas (dark, negative, destructive), an undesirable psychological state.[6] The opposite of Krodha is Akrodha, and this is a productive, positive and constructive state.

Bhawuk states that akrodha is necessary to any process of peace. Peace and happiness is a state of contentment (santustah), where there is absence of spite or envy (advestah), absence of anger (akrodhah), and absence of violence (ahimsa).[7] Dharma relies on Akrodha, because it creates an environment of serenity, a rational principle of life, and because it is a moral virtue inspired by love.[8]

Literature

According to Vedic sages, when work becomes akin to a yajna (a worship ceremony), the effect of that work is transformed into apurva, that is, it becomes something unique, unprecedented and empowering. In contrast, anger clouds reason, which results in the loss of discrimination between right and wrong and virtue and vice. When the discriminating faculty is ruined, the person loses self-identity and the inner good perishes. With freedom from anger, a person reaches an apurva state.[9]

The Upanishads

Narada Parivrajaka Upanishad states the nature of akrodha for a person who seeks self-knowledge and liberation (kaivalya) as follows,

All cruel words should be endured. None should be treated with disrespect. No anger should be directed in turn towards one who is angry. Only soft words should be spoken, even when violently pulled by another.

— Narada Parivrajaka Upanishad, Atharva Veda, [10]

Akrodha, states Manickam,[11] is related to the concept Sahya (Sanskrit: सह्य) in the Upanishads. Sahya means, depending on the context, to bear, endure, suffer, and put up with.[11] The quality to Sahya is considered an ethical value in Hinduism, not out of weakness to react, but for the cause of the ultimate "Truth". It is the attribute by which a person willingly bears negative cognitive inputs in order to "win over" the opponent or whatever is offensive, in the pursuit of holding on to Truth, in order to achieve oneness with Brahman, the ultimate Truth. This endurance, this strive to overcome the adversaries, through akrodha and ahimsa, is recommended as the constructive way in one's pursuit of "Truth".[11]

The Epics

The Hindu epic Mahabharata repeatedly emphasizes the virtue of akrodha. For example, in Adi Parva, it states[12]

If wronged, you should not wrong in return. One's anger, if not subdued, burns one's own self; if subdued, it procures the virtues of the doers of good acts. You should never give pain to others by cruel words. Never defeat your enemies by despicable means. Never utter sinful and burning words as may give pain to others.

— The Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter LXXXVII, verses 7–8, [12]

In Vana Parva, the Mahabharata states[13]

Anger is in this world, the root of the destruction of mankind. The angry man commits a sin; the angry man murders his preceptor; the angry man insults with harsh words. The angry man cannot distinguish what should be and should not be said by him; there is nothing which cannot be said or done by an angry man. From anger, a man may kill one who should not be killed and adore one that should be slain; an angry man may even despatch his own self to the abode of Yama. Beholding these evils, anger must be conquered.

— The Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter XXIX, verses 3–7, [13]

In Shanti Parva, the Mahabharata states[14]

That Yogin who is freed from attachment and pride, who transcends all pairs of opposites such as pleasure and pain, who never gives way to wrath or hate, who never speaks an untruth, who though slandered or struck still shows friendship for the slanderer or the striker, who never thinks of doing ill to others, who restrains these three, viz. speech, acts and mind, and who behaves uniformly towards all creatures, succeeds in approaching Brahman (true self).

— The Mahabharata, Shanti Parva, Chapter CCXXXVI, [14]

The Bhagavad Gita (Slokas XVI.1–3), in the Mahabharata, gives a list of twenty-six divine attributes beginning with abhayam ('fearlessness') and sattva sansuddhih ('purity of mind'), ending with adroha ('bearing enmity to none') and naatimaanita ('absence of arrogance'):[15]

अभयं सत्त्वसंशुध्दिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः|
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ||
अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम् |
दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलाम् ||
तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता |
भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ||

Akrodha is one of the twenty six divine attributes a person can have, states Bhagavad Gita.[16]

Dharmasastra

Manu has listed Akrodha ('absence of anger') among the ten primary virtues. The Apastambhadharmasutra (I.iii.22) rules that a student be not given to anger, and that a house-holder is required to abstain from anger and abstain from action or words that would provoke someone else to anger (II.xviii.2). The Baudhayanadharmasutra (I.xv.30) requires a house-holder never to be angry, and the Gautamdharmasutra (II.13) advises that he must not feel angry. The Vashisthadharmasutra (IV.4) avers that refraining from anger is a virtue like truthfulness, charity among others.[17]

Manu mentions ten Dharma Lakshanas, akrodha is one of these lakshana (attribute, sign of a dharmic person). The other nine are: Dhriti (patience), Kshama (forgiveness), Damah (temperance), Asteya (non-stealing), Shaucham (purity), Indriyaigraha (freedom from sensual craving), Dhi (reason), Vidya (knowledge), and Satyam (truth).[18]

Shaivism

The Shaivite doctrine considers four yamas for the Pashupata ascetic who smears on his body bhasam; the four yamas are – non-injury, celibacy, truthfulness and non-stealing; the niyamas consist of non-irritability (akrodha), attendance on the teachers, purity, lightness of diet and carefulness (apramada). Akrodha is a virtue.[19]

Universalism

Hinduism and Buddhism both suggest ten freedoms needed for good life.[20] These are – Ahimsa ('freedom from violence'), Asteya ('freedom from want, stealing'), Aparigraha ('freedom from exploitation'), Amritava ('freedom from early death') and Arogya ('freedom from disease'), Akrodha ('freedom of anger'), Jnana or Vidya ("freedom from ignorance"), Pravrtti ("freedom of conscience"), Abhaya ('freedom from fear') and Dhrti ('freedom from frustration and despair').[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b V.S.Apte. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia.
  2. ^ Mohapatra (1993), Hinduism: Analytical Study, South Asian Books, ISBN 978-81-7099-388-9, page 40
  3. ^ krodha Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Koeln, Germany
  4. ^ Shanti Swarup Gupta. Integrated Development Plan for India. Concept Publishing. p. 72.
  5. ^ Dharmdeo Singh. Bhagavad Gita. Llumina Press. p. 69.
  6. ^ Pushpa Anand. Shrimad Bhagavad Gita. Arpana publications. pp. 874–875.
  7. ^ DPS Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Indian Psychology, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, page 138
  8. ^ Amulya Mohapatra. Hinduism: Analytical Study. Mittal Publications. pp. 40–41.
  9. ^ Bansi Pandit. The Hindu Mind. New Age Books. p. 142.
  10. ^ KN Aiyar (Translator), Thirty Minor Upanishads, Madras (1914), page 138–140, OCLC 23013613
  11. ^ a b c L. Sam S. Manickam, Sahya: The Concept in Indian Philosophical Psychology and Its Contemporary Relevance, in Yoga and Indian Approaches to Psychology, (Editors: Joshi, Cornelissen et al.) Centre for the Study of Civilizations, pages 426–435, OCLC 466687885
  12. ^ a b MN Dutt (Translator), Adi Parva, Chapter LXXXVII, Page 129
  13. ^ a b MN Dutt (Translator), Vana Parva, Chapter LXXXVII, Page 129
  14. ^ a b MN Dutt (Translator), Shanti Parva, Chapter CCXXXVI, Page 260
  15. ^ नातिमानिन् Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  16. ^ Jayadayal Goyandaka. Srimadbhagavadgita Tattvavivecani. Gita Press, Gorakhpur. pp. 621–623. Quote: Non-violence in thought, word and deed, truthfulness and geniality of speech, absence of anger even on provocation, disclaiming doership in respect of actions, quietude or composure of mind, abstaining from malicious gossip compassion towards all creatures, absence of attachment to the objects of senses even during their contact with the senses, mildness, a sense of shame in transgressing against the scriptures or usage, and abstaining from frivolous pursuits; (XVI.2)
  17. ^ Rajendra Prasad. A Conceptual-analytic Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals. Concept Publishing. p. 319.
  18. ^ Karanam Nagaraja Rao and Krishna Kishore, Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2 (2014), pages 4–8
  19. ^ Surendranath Dasgupta. A History of Indian Philosophy Vol.5. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 134.
  20. ^ a b Micheline Ishay. The History of Human Rights. University of California Press. p. 20.
Abhava

Abhava means non-existence, negation, nothing or absence. It is the negative of Bhava which means being, becoming, existing or appearance.

Adrishta

The Fifth Chapter of the Vaisheshika Sutras of Kanada deals with the notion of action and the connected concept of effort; and also deals with the various special phenomenon of nature to the supersensible force, called Adrishta.

Aitareya Upanishad

The Aitareya Upanishad (Sanskrit: ऐतरेय उपनिषद्) is a Mukhya Upanishad, associated with the Rigveda. It comprises the fourth, fifth and sixth chapters of the second book of Aitareya Aranyaka, which is one of the four layers of Rig vedic text.Aitareya Upanishad discusses three philosophical themes: first, that the world and man is the creation of the Atman (Soul, Universal Self); second, the theory that the Atman undergoes threefold birth; third, that Consciousness is the essence of Atman.

Aksara

Aksara (also akshara, Devanagari अक्षर, IAST akṣara) is a Sanskrit term translating to "imperishable, indestructible, fixed, immutable" (i.e. from अ, a- "not" and क्षर्, kṣar- "melt away, perish").

It has two main fields of application, in Sanskrit grammatical tradition (śikṣā) and in Vedanta philosophy.

The uniting aspect of these uses is the mystical view of language, or shabda, in Hindu tradition, and especially the notion of the syllable as a kind of immutable (or "atomic") substance of both language and truth, most prominently, the mystical syllable Aum, which is given the name of ekākṣara (i.e. eka-akṣara), which can be translated as both "the sole imperishable thing" and as "a single syllable".

In the explicitly monotheistic tradition of Bhakti yoga, both akṣara and aum become seen as a symbol or name of God.

Annaprashana

The Annaprashana (Sanskrit: अन्नप्राशन, Annaprāśana, Bengali: অন্নপ্রাশন, Onnoprashon) also known as Annaprashana vidhi, Annaprasan or Anna-prasanam or Anna Prashashan, is a Hindu ritual (Saṃskāra) that marks an infant's first intake of food other than milk. The term annaprashan literally means "food feeding" or "eating of food".The Annaprashana, unlike many other Samskaras, remains an important ceremony in modern India.

Arjava

Ārjav(Sanskrit: आर्जव) literally means sincerity, straightness and non-hypocrisy. It is one of the ten Yamas in ancient Hindu and Jaina texts.

Avyakta

Avyakta, meaning "not manifest", "devoid of form" etc., is the word ordinarily used to denote Prakrti on account of subtleness of its nature and is also used to denote Brahman who is the subtlest of all and who by virtue of that subtlety is the ultimate support (asraya) of Prakrti. Avyakta as a category along with Mahat (Cosmic Intelligence) and Purusa plays an important role in the later Samkhya philosophy even though the Bhagavad Gita III.42 retaining the psychological categories altogether drops out the Mahat and the Avyakta (Unmanifest), the two objective categories.

Hitā

Hitā (Sanskrit: हिता) means 'causeway' or 'dike'. In the Upanishads this word is used to mean 'subtle connections' or 'canals of subtle energies', or particular 'nerves' or 'veins'. The journey to the heart is said to be through seventy-two thousand subtle channels called Hitā; they are the beneficent active veins (filled with different types of serums).

Nididhyāsana

In Advaita Vedanta and Jnana Yoga Nididhyasana (Sanskrit: निदिध्यासन) is profound and repeated meditation on the mahavakyas, great Upanishadic statements such as "That art Thou", to realize the identity of Atman and Brahman. It is the fourth step in the training of a sisya (disciple), consisting of preparatory practives, listening to the teachings as contained in the sruti, reflection on the teachings, and nididhyasana.

Niyama

Niyama (Sanskrit: नियम) literally means positive duties or observances. In Indian traditions, particularly Yoga, niyamas and its complement, Yamas, are recommended activities and habits for healthy living, spiritual enlightenment and liberated state of existence. It has multiple meanings depending on context in Hinduism. In Buddhism, the term extends to the determinations of nature, as in the Buddhist niyama dhammas.

Rama Navami

Rama Navami (Devanagari: राम नवमी; IAST: Rāma navamī) is a spring Hindu festival that celebrates the birthday of lord Rama.

He is particularly important to the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism, as the seventh avatar of Vishnu. The festival celebrates the descent of god Vishnu as Rama avatar, through his birth to King Dasharatha and Queen Kausalya in Ayodhya. The festival is a part of the spring Navratri, and falls on the ninth day of the bright half (Shukla Paksha) in the Hindu calendar month of Chaitra. This typically occurs in the Gregorian months of March or April every year. Rama Navami is an optional government holiday in India.The day is marked by Rama Katha recitals, or reading of Rama stories. Ramayana and Mahabharata are considered Itihasa by Indian traditions. Some Vaishnava Hindus visit a temple, others pray within their home, and some participate in a bhajan or kirtan with music as a part of puja and aarti. Some devotees mark the event by taking miniature statues of the infant Rama, washing it and clothing it, then placing it in a cradle. Charitable events and community meals are also organized. The festival is an occasion for moral reflection for many Hindus. Some mark this day by vrata (fasting).The important celebrations on this day take place at Ayodhya and Sita Samahit Sthal (Uttar Pradesh), Sitamarhi (Bihar), Janakpurdham (Nepal), Bhadrachalam (Telangana), Kodandarama Temple, Vontimitta (Andhra Pradesh) and Rameswaram (Tamil Nadu). Rathayatras, the chariot processions, also known as Shobha yatras of Rama, Sita, his brother Lakshmana and Hanuman, are taken out at several places. In Ayodhya, many take a dip in the sacred river Sarayu and then visit the Rama temple.

Samatva

Samatva (Sanskrit: समत्व, also rendered samatvam or samata) is the Hindu concept of equanimity. Its root is sama (सम) meaning – equal or even.Sāmya - meaning equal consideration towards all human beings - is a variant of the word.

Satyakama Jabala

Satyakama Jabala is a boy, and later a Vedic sage, who first appears in Chapter IV of the ancient Hindu text, the Chandogya Upanishad. As a boy, he enquires about his father from his mother. His mother Jabala, tells him that she went about many places in her youth, and did not know who his father was.As a boy, eager for knowledge, Satyakama goes to the sage Haridrumata Gautama, requesting the sage's permission to live in his school for Brahmacharya. The teacher asks, "my dear child, what family do you come from?" Satyakama replies that he is of uncertain parentage because his mother does not know who the father is. The sage declares that the boy's honesty is the mark of a "Brāhmaṇa, true seeker of the knowledge of the Brahman". Sage Gautama accepts him as a student in his school.The sage sends Satyakama to tend four hundred cows, and come back when they multiply into a thousand. The symbolic legend then presents conversation of Satyakama with a bull, a fire, a swan (Hamsa, हंस) and a diver bird (Madgu, मद्गु), which respectively are symbolism for Vayu, Agni, Āditya and Prāṇa. Satyakama then learns from these creatures that forms of Brahman is in all cardinal directions (north, south, east, west), world-bodies (earth, atmosphere, sky and ocean), sources of light (fire, sun, moon, lightning), and in man (breath, eye, ear and mind). Satyakama returns to his teacher with a thousand cows, and humbly learns the rest, the nature of Brahman (metaphysical, ultimate reality).Satyakama graduates and becomes a celebrated sage, according to the Hindu tradition, and a Vedic school is named after him, as is the influential ancient text Jabala Upanishad – a treatise on Sannyasa (Hindu monk, monastic life). Upakosala Kamalayana was a student of Satyakama Jabala, whose story is also presented in the Chandogya Upanishad.

Sthiti

A Sanskrit Dictionary gives more than eighty meanings of the Sanskrit word, Sthiti (स्थिति), but this word mainly refers to position, rank or dignity, staying, or permanence, permanent or continued existence in any place.

Tajjalan

Tajjalān is one of the few enigmatic methods in Hinduism employed by the Upanishadic seers to describe Reality or Brahman. It is a cosmological approach to the problem of Reality in the context of creation etc.

Titiksha

Titiksha or titikșā (Sanskrit: तितिक्षा 'forbearance') is defined by the Uddhava Gita as the "patient endurance of suffering." In Vedanta philosophy it is the bearing with indifference all opposites such as pleasure and pain, heat and cold, expectation of reward and punishment, accruement or gain and loss, vanity and envy, resentment and deprecation, fame and obscurity, lavishness and obeisance, pride and egotism, virtue-respect and vice-respect, birth and death, happiness, safety, comfort, restlessness and boredom, affection and bereavement or infatuation, attachment and desire etc. Being entirely responsible for encouragement and/or reproach for ones own personal behavior, past behavior, frame of mind and esteem. It is one of the six qualities, devotions, jewels or divine bounties beginning with Sama, the repression, alleviating or release of the inward sense called Manas. Another quality is Dama, the renunciation of behaviors or utilizing self-control with moderation, with correct discrimination and without aversion.Shankara defines Titiksha in the following words:

सहनं सर्वदुःखानामऽप्रतिकारपूर्वकम् |

चिन्ताविलापरहितं सा तितिक्षा निगद्यते ||"Endurance of all afflictions without countering aids, and without anxiety or lament is said to be titiksha." (Vivekachudamani 25)By speaking of titiksha as endurance without anxiety or lament and without external aids, Shankara refers to such titiksha as the means to inquiry into Brahman, for a mind which is subject to anxiety and lament is unfit for conducting this kind of inquiry. Vivekananda explains that forbearance of all misery, without even a thought of resisting or driving it out, without even any painful feeling in the mind, or any remorse is titiksha.The practice of Yoga makes a person inwardly even-minded and cheerful. The very act of calming emotional reactions develops a better ability to influence outer circumstances, therefore, titiksha does not make one apathetic or dull; it is the first step to interiorizing the mind, and to bringing its reactions under control. The important way of practicing titiksha is to watch the breath (parahara) which practice leads to the practice of meditation proper. Prakrti (matter or nature) shows the way to titiksha, the creative principle of life – just as inertia is a property of matter.

Tridevi

The Tridevi (English: three goddesses; Sanskrit: त्रिदेवी, tridevī) is a concept in Hinduism joining a triad of eminent goddesses either as a feminine version of the Trimurti or as consorts of a masculine Trimurti, depending on the denomination. This triad is typically personified by the Hindu goddesses Saraswati, Lakshmi, and Parvati. In Shaktism, these triune goddesses are the manifestations of goddess Yogmaya also known by the names of Adi Parashakti, Devi.

In the Navaratri ("nine nights") festival, "the Goddess is worshiped in three forms. During the first three nights, Parvati is revered, then Lakshmi on the fourth, fifth and sixth nights, and finally Saraswati until the ninth night."

Uparati

Uparati, is a Sanskrit word and it literally means "cessation, quietism, stopping worldly action". It is an important concept in Advaita Vedanta pursuit of moksha and refers to the ability to achieve "dispassion", and "discontinuation of religious ceremonies".According to Adi Shankara Uparati or Uparama is the strict observance of one’s own Dharma. Sama is the restraining of the outgoing mental propensities i.e. the curbing of the mind from all objects other than hearing etc., and Dama is the restraining of the external sense-organs from all objects other than that. Uparati is Pratyahara, the withdrawing of the Self (Vedantasara Slokas 18-20). These essentials along with Titiksha i.e. endurance of pairs of opposites, Samadhana i.e. constant concentration of the mind, Śraddhā i.e. faith in the truths of Vedanta, and Mumukshutva i.e. yearning for spiritual freedom, which are the six-fold inner-wealth prepare one eager for liberation to gain the knowledge of Brahman. Effort is involved in inculcating Sama and Dama but the exercise of Uparati requires no efforts. In the state of Uparati, which is total renunciation of actions i.e. enjoined duties, one discovers an inner poise, silence or joy. The mind which is conditioned to fulfil duties is not free to pursue knowledge. It is through renunciation that a few seekers have attained immortality – not through rituals, progeny or wealth – "na karmana na prajya dhanena tyagenaike amrtatvamamasuh" – Kaivalya Upanishad, 3. Immortality is the state when becoming and being are one.Whereas the fruit of Vairagya is Bodha i.e. spiritual wisdom, the fruit of Bodha is Uparati. The best Uparati (self-withdrawal) is that condition of the thought waves in which they are free from influences of external objects (Vivekachudamani Slokas 23). Uparati is the abstaining on principle from engaging in any acts and ceremonies enjoined by the Shastras; otherwise, it is the state of the mind which is always engaged in Sravana and the rest, without ever diverging from them.

Yamas

Yamas (Sanskrit: यम), and its complement, Niyamas, represent a series of "right living" or ethical rules within Hinduism and Yoga. It means "reining in" or "control". These are restraints for Proper Conduct as given in the Holy Veda. They are a form of moral imperatives, commandments, rules or goals. The Yamas are the "don't do these" list of self-restraints, typically representing commitments that affect one's relations with others and self. The complementary Niyamas represent the "do these" list of observances, and together Yamas and Niyamas are personal obligations to live well.The earliest mention of the word Yamas is in the Rigveda, and over fifty texts of Hinduism, from its various traditions, discuss Yamas. Patañjali lists five yamas in his Yoga Sūtras. Ten yamas are codified as "the restraints" in numerous Hindu texts including Yajnavalkya Smriti in verse 3.313, the Śāṇḍilya and Vārāha Upanishads, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Svātmārāma, and the Tirumantiram of Tirumular.The most often mentioned Yamas are – Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (non-falsehood, truthfulness), Asteya (non-stealing), Mitahara (non-excess in food, moderation in food), Kṣamā (non-agitation about suffering, forgiveness), Dayā (non-prejudgment, compassion) are among the widely discussed Yamas. The Yamas apply broadly and include self-restraints in one's actions, words and thoughts.

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