Ajmer-Merwara, also known as Ajmir Province and as Ajmer-Merwara-Kekri, is a former province of British India in the historical Ajmer region. The territory was ceded to the British by Daulat Rao Sindhia by a treaty on 25 June 1818. It was under the Bengal Presidency until 1836 when it became part of the North-Western Provinces comissionat el 1842. Finally on 1 April 1871 it became a separate province as Ajmer-Merwara-Kekri. It became a part of independent India on 15 August 1947 when the British left India.
The province consisted of the districts of Ajmer and Merwar, which were physically separated from the rest of British India forming an enclave amidst the many princely states of Rajputana. Unlike these states, which were ruled by local nobles who acknowledged British suzerainty, Ajmer-Merwara was administered directly by the British.
In 1842 the two districts were under a single commissioner, then they were separated in 1856 and were administered by the East India Company. Finally, after 1858, by a chief commissioner who was subordinate to the Governor-General of India's agent for the Rajputana Agency.
|Province of British India|
Rajputana Agency and Ajmer-Merwara province, 1909
|•||Ceded to the British||1818|
|•||Merger of the Central Provinces and Berar Province||1936|
|•||1881||7,021 km2 (2,711 sq mi)|
|Density||65.6 /km2 (170 /sq mi)|
The area of the province was 2,710 square miles (7,000 km2). The plateau, on whose centre stands the town of Ajmer, may be considered as the highest point in the plains of North India; from the circle of hills which hem it in, the country slopes away on every side - towards river valleys on the east, south, west and towards the Thar Desert region on the north. The Aravalli Range is the distinguishing feature of the district. The range of hills which runs between Ajmer and Nasirabad marks the watershed of the continent of India. The rain which falls on the southeastern slopes drains into the Chambal, and so into the Bay of Bengal; that which falls on the northwest side into the Luni River, which discharges itself into the Rann of Kutch.
The province is on the border of what may be called the arid zone; it is the debatable land between the north-eastern and south-western monsoons, and beyond the influence of either. The south-west monsoon sweeps up the Narmada valley from Bombay and crossing the tableland at Neemuch gives copious supplies to Malwa, Jhalawar and Kota and the countries which lie in the course of the Chambal River.
The clouds which strike Kathiawar and Kutch are deprived of a great deal of their moisture by the hills in those countries (now the majority of this region is in Gujarat state within independent India), and the greater part of the remainder is deposited on Mount Abu and the higher slopes of the Aravalli Range, leaving but little for Merwara, where the hills are lower, and still less for Ajmer. It is only when the monsoon is in considerable force that Merwara gets a plentiful supply from it. The north-eastern monsoon sweeps up the valley of the Ganges from the Bay of Bengal and waters the northern part of Rajasthan, but hardly penetrates farther west than the longitude of Ajmer. The rainfall of the district depends on the varying strength of these two monsoons. The agriculturist of Ajmer-Merwara could never rely upon two good harvests in succession.
In ancient times, the Mair Gurjars were the dominant inhabitants. They were defeated by the Chauhan Kings Rao Anoop and Rao Anhal, whose descendents the Chauhan Rajputs were the dominant group here. The rajputs continued to have influence on the politics of the region.
Before the arrival of the British, Chauhan Rajputs were land-holders, as well as cultivators. "Thakur" was the title of the Rajputs, 11 prominent Rajput chieftains were Bhinai, Pisangan, Kharwa, Masuda, Bandanwara, Para, Kairot, Junia, Baghera, Tanoti, and Bagsuri.These were prominent Rajput Thikanas of the Mertia/Jodha clan. Prominent chieftains of the Mehrats were the lords of Athoon, Chaang, Shyamgarh, Borwa etc. "Chauhan" was the title of Mehrat Rajputs, such as the Chauhahan of Athun, a major Thikana of the Rajput clan, The two major thikanas of Chauhan Rajputs are Bhim ruled by the sujawat clan and Diver, ruled by the Varaat clan .Thakur is the title used by the Chauhan Rajputs and many Mehrats who refer each other as Thaakar in general conversation.
Part of the Ajmer region, the territory of the future province was ceded to the British by Daulat Rao Sindhia of Gwalior State as part of a treaty dated 25 June 1818. Then in May 1823 the Merwara (Mewar) part was ceded to Britain by Udaipur State. Thereafter Ajmer-Merwara was administered directly by the British East India Company. After the Indian Mutiny of 1857, in 1858 the powers of the Company were transferred to the British Crown and the Governor-General of India. His administration of Ajmer-Merwara was controlled by a chief commissioner who was subordinate to the British agent for the Rajputana Agency.
From the date of partition and independence in 1947 until 1950, Ajmer-Merwara remained a province of the new Dominion of India. In 1950 it became Ajmer State, which on 1 November 1956, was merged into the state of Rajasthan.
The Rajasthan Land Reforms and Resumption of Jagirs Act, 1952 was the landmark in the legal history of land reforms in Rajasthan which was followed by Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955 that became applicable to the whole of Rajasthan. The overriding effect of this Act provided relief to the existing tenants and the rights accrued to tenants accordingly. Now the Jats are major land holders in the region.
General elections were held in British India in 1934. The Indian National Congress emerged as the largest party in the Central Legislative Assembly.The total electorate for the 1934 elections was 1,415,892, of which 1,135,899 were in contested constituencies. The total number of votes polled was 608,198. The election marked the first year in which Indian women were eligible to vote in any but a local election. Of the 81,602 enrolled women voters, 62,757 of whom were in contested constituencies, only 14,505 actually used the ballot.Ajmer
Ajmer pronounced [ədʒmeːr] (listen) is one of the major and oldest cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. It is located at the centre of Rajasthan.
The city was established as "Ajayameru"(Translated as 'Invincible Hills') by a Shakambhari Chahamana (Chauhan) ruler, either Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II, and served as the Chahamana capital until the 12th century CE.Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. It is the base for visiting Pushkar (11 km), an ancient Hindu pilgrimage city, famous for the temple of Lord Brahma. Ajmer had been a municipality since 1869.Ajmer has been selected as one of the heritage cities for the HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana and Smart City Mission schemes of Government of India.Ajmer State
Ajmer State was a separate State within the Union of India from 1950 to 1956 with Ajmer as its capital. Ajmer State was formed in 1950 out of the territory of former province of Ajmer-Merwara, which became a province of the Indian Union on 15 August 1947. It formed an enclave within the state of Rajasthan. Following the States Reorganisation Act in 1956 it was merged with Rajasthan.Alan Holme
Alan Thomas Holme CIE (1872 – 9 July 1931) was a British administrator in India.
Holme was born in Naples and was educated at the International School in Naples, Bedford School, Clifton College, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He joined the Indian Civil Service and was posted to Oudh, where he served as a magistrate, settlement officer, and acting private secretary to the Lieutenant-Governor. He then served as a settlement officer in Rajputana, political agent in the Southern States, British Resident at Udaipur, Chief Commissioner of Ajmer-Merwara, and Officiating Agent to the Governor-General in Rajputana. He was appointed Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in the 1920 New Year Honours. He retired in 1922.Babbar clan
Babbar is a Sikh Jatt surname known as strong protecting warriors thus leading to the use of Babbar in the ‘Babbar Akali movement’, and Babbar Khalsa. The term ‘Babbar Sher’ also refers to a dominating male in a lion clan.
The Babbar Akali movement was a 1921 splinter group of "militant" Sikhs who broke away from the mainstream Akali movement over the latter's insistence on non-violence over gurdwara reforms.
Babbar is also a Mair Rajput surname originating in the Ajmer-Merwara region in Rajasthan of the Indian subcontinent.This name is also the name of a Jatt clan. They are traditionally members of the military or ran in an administrative capacity. Over the course of time, Babbars migrated to places across Punjab from Ajmer-Merwara and Rajputana.
Babbars came to be known as Mair Rajputs from within amongst the Saraiki Hindu Rajputs and originate from the Rajput clans of Rajasthan in Ajmer and migrated to the Punjab later in their history.
Today, Babbars live in numerous regions within India and Pakistan, but are mostly concentrated in Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh.Chief Commissioner's Province
Chief Commissioner's Province refers to a middle-level and minor type of province in British India and in the post-colonial successor states, not headed by a (lieutenant-)governor but by a Chief commissioner, notably :
in present India :
Chief Commissioner's Province of Ajmer-Merwara (the British Political Agent in Rajputana served as ex officio Chief Commissioner)
Chief Commissioner's Province of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Chief Commissioner's Province of Assam
Central Provinces and Berar
Chief Commissioner's Province of Coorg (the British Resident in Mysore served as ex officio Chief Commissioner)
Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh
in present Pakistan :
North-West Frontier Province
Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan (the British Political Agent in Baluchistan served as ex officio Chief Commissioner)Chief commissioner
A chief commissioner is a commissioner of a high rank, usually in chief of several commissioners or similarly styled officers.Constituent Assembly of India
The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India. Following India's independence from Great Britain in 1947, its members served as the nation's first Parliament.
An idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy. It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935, C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November 1939 based on adult franchise, and was accepted by the British in August 1940. On 8 August 1940, a statement was made by Viceroy Lord Linlithgow about the expansion of the Governor-General's Executive Council and the establishment of a War Advisory Council. This offer, known as the August Offer, included giving full weight to minority opinions and allowing Indians to draft their own constitution. Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, elections were held for the first time for the Constituent Assembly. The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, and it was implemented under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1946. The members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by the provincial assemblies by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The total membership of the Constituent Assembly was 389: 292 were representatives of the states, 93 represented the princely states and four were from the chief commissioner provinces of Delhi, Ajmer-Merwara, Coorg (Near Madikeri) and British Baluchistan.
The elections for the 296 seats assigned to the British Indian provinces were completed by August 1946. Congress won 208 seats, and the Muslim League 73. After this election, the Muslim League refused to cooperate with the Congress, and the political situation deteriorated. Hindu-Muslim riots began, and the Muslim League demanded a separate constituent assembly for Muslims in India. On 3 June 1947 Lord Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced his intention to scrap the Cabinet Mission Plan; this culminated in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and the separate nations of India and Pakistan. The Indian Independence Act was passed on 18 July 1947 and, although it was earlier declared that India would become independent in June 1948, this event led to independence on 15 August 1947. The Constituent Assembly (elected for an undivided India) met for the first time on 9 December 1946, reassembling on 14 August 1947 as a sovereign body and successor to the British parliament's authority in India. As a result of the partition, under the Mountbatten plan, a separate Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was established on 3 June 1947. The representatives of the areas incorporated into Pakistan ceased to be members of the Constituent Assembly of India. New elections were held for the West Punjab and East Bengal (which became part of Pakistan, although East Bengal later seceded to become Bangladesh); the membership of the Constituent Assembly was 299 after the reorganization, and it met on 31 December 1947.Government College, Ajmer
Government College, Ajmer is a college in Ajmer city of Rajasthan state in India. GCA is celebrating 179 years of existence.
Started as an English school in 1836 by the Court of Directors of the East India Company in the building now known as the Blue Castle, GCA became an Intermediate College in 1868. The increase in numbers and the starting of Intermediate classes required larger accommodation and the foundation stone of the present buildings was laid on 17 February 1868 by General Keating, the Agent to the Governor-General in Rajputana.
In the early nineties of the last century, the public of Ajmer collected a sum of Rs 44,000/- and handed it over to the Government as their contribution for the college. Degree classes in Arts subjects were started in 1896 and in Science subjects in 1913. A year earlier the school classes had been separated from the college and shifted to another part of the town.
In the year 1946 came the first postgraduate department. There are 19 of them now including Law. Degree classes in Commerce were added in 1949 and Law classes in 1951. This is the only Government College in Rajasthan with facilities for postgraduate studies and research in Science subjects Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Botany, Commerce, English, Sanskrit, Hindi, History, Economics and Political Science.
GCA changed its affiliation from Calcutta University to Allahabad University on the latter's establishment in 1886 and further to Agra University when it came into existence in 1927. Finally, the college came under the jurisdiction of University of Rajasthan after the integration of the erstwhile State of Ajmer-Merwara with Rajasthan in 1956.When in 1987 the Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati university established in Ajmer the college got affiliated with MDS university.it is now one of top university in rajasthan.Har Bilas Sarda
Har Bilas Sarda (1867-1955) was an Indian academic, judge and politician. He is best known for having introduced the Child Marriage Restraint Act (1929).History of Bikaner
The region of Bikaner, stretching across northern Rajasthan State in India, was earlier known as Jangladesh. It included the present-day districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, and Hanumangarh.
It is bounded on the south by Marwar and Jaisalmer regions, on the east by Ajmer-Merwara region.
Bikaner state was a princely state that was founded in the 15th century in this region. After becoming a British protectorate in 1818, it persisted until shortly after India's Independence in 1947.Indian famine of 1899–1900
The Indian famine of 1899–1900 began with the failure of the summer monsoons in 1899 over west and Central India and, during the next year, affected an area of 476,000 square miles (1,230,000 km2) and a population of 59.5 million. The famine was acute in the Central Provinces and Berar, the Bombay Presidency, the minor province of Ajmer-Merwara, and the Hissar District of the Punjab; it also caused great distress in the princely states of the Rajputana Agency, the Central India Agency, Hyderabad and the Kathiawar Agency. In addition, small areas of the Bengal Presidency, the Madras Presidency and the North-Western Provinces were acutely afflicted by the famine.The population in many areas had barely recovered from the famine of 1896–1897. As in that famine, this one too was preceded by a drought. The Meteorological Office of India in its report of 1900, stated, "The mean average rainfall of India is 45 inches (1,100 mm). In no previous famine year has it been in greater defect than 5 inches (130 mm). But in 1899 the defect exceeded 11 inches." There were also large crop failures in the rest of India and, as a result, inter-regional trade could not be relied upon to stabilise food prices.The resulting mortality was high. In the Deccan, an estimated 166,000 people died, and in the entire Bombay Presidency a total of 462,000. In the Presidency, the famine of 1899–1900 had the highest mortality—at 37.9 deaths per 1000—among all famines and scarcities there between 1876–77 and 1918–19. According to a 1908 estimate of the Imperial Gazetteer, in the British administered districts alone, approximately 1,000,000 individuals died of starvation or accompanying disease; in addition, as a result of acute shortage of fodder, cattle in the millions perished. Other estimates vary between 1 million and 4.5 million deaths.John M. Smith
John M. Smith may refer to:
John M. Smith (politician, born 1872), American businessman and politician.
John M. C. Smith (1853–1923), American politician
John Manners Smith (1864–1920), Chief Commissioner of Ajmer-Merwara
Frederick Smith (Conservative MP) (John Mark Frederick Smith, 1790–1874), British Army general and politician
John Maynard Smith (1920–2004), British biologist
John McGarvie Smith (1844–1918), Australian metallurgist
John Montgomery Smith (1834–1903), American politician
John M. Smith (bishop) (1935–2019), American Roman Catholic prelate
John Moyr Smith (1839–1912), British artistPresidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods:
Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, Denmark, Holland and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, had grown in size.
During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it also increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it gradually lost its mercantile privileges.
Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown. In the new British Raj (1858–1947), sovereignty extended to a few new regions, such as Upper Burma. Increasingly, however, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces".Rajputana
Rājputāna, meaning "Land of the Rajputs", was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan, as well as parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan. The main settlements were to the west of the Aravalli Hills, and was known as Samarkand, the earlier form of Registan, before it came to be known as Rajputana, early in the Medieval Period. The name was later adopted by British government as the Rajputana Agency for its dependencies in the region of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān. The Rajputana Agency included 18 princely states, two chiefships and the British district of Ajmer-Merwara. This British official term remained until its replacement by "Rajasthan" in the constitution of 1949.Rajputana Agency
The Rajputana Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire dealing with a collection of native states in Rajputana (now in Rajasthan, northwestern India), under the political charge of an Agent reporting directly to the Governor-General of India and residing at Mount Abu in the Aravalli Range. The total area of the states falling within the Rajputana Agency was 127,541 square miles (330,330 km2), with eighteen states and two estates or chiefships.Rasa Singh Rawat
Rasa Singh Rawat (born 17 April 1947) is an Indian politician. He has been a member of the 9th, 10th, 11th, 13th and the 14th Lok Sabha of India, representing the Ajmer constituency in the state of Rajasthan. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).He is rawat from ajmer merwara regionRichard Harte Keatinge
Lieutenant General Richard Harte Keatinge (17 June 1825 – 25 May 1904) was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.