Aizanoi

Aizanoi (Ancient Greek: Αἰζανοί), Latinized as Aezani was an Ancient Greek city in western Anatolia. Located in what is now Çavdarhisar, Kütahya Province, its ruins are situated astride the River Penkalas, some 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above sea level. The city was an important political and economic centre in Roman times; surviving remains from the period include a well-preserved Temple of Zeus, unusual combined theatre-stadium complex, and macellum inscribed with the Price Edict of Diocletian. The city fell into decline in Late Antiquity. Later serving as a citadel, in 2012 the site was submitted for inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List.[1]

Aizanoi
Αἰζανοί (in Greek)
Aezani (in Latin)
Aizanoi.ZeusTemple
Acroterion with Temple of Zeus in the background
Aizanoi is located in Turkey
Aizanoi
Shown within Turkey
LocationÇavdarhisar, Kütahya Province, Turkey
RegionPhrygia
Coordinates39°12′N 29°37′E / 39.200°N 29.617°ECoordinates: 39°12′N 29°37′E / 39.200°N 29.617°E
TypeSettlement
History
PeriodsRoman Imperial

History

Settlement in the area is known from the Bronze Age. The city may have derived its name from Azan, one of three sons of Arcas and the nymph Erato, legendary ancestors of the Phrygians.[2][3] During the Hellenistic period the city changed hands between the Kingdom of Pergamum and the Kingdom of Bithynia, before being bequeathed to Rome by the former in 133 BC. It continued to mint its own coins.[1] Its monumental buildings date from the early Empire to the 3rd century.

Aezani was part of the Roman province of Phrygia Pacatiana. It became a Christian bishopric at an early stage, and its bishop Pisticus (or Pistus) was a participant at the First Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council, in 325. Pelagius was at a synod that Patriarch John II of Constantinople hastily organized in 518 and that condemned Severus of Antioch; he was also at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. Gregory was at the Trullan Council of 692, John at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, and Theophanes at both the Council of Constantinople (869) and the Council of Constantinople (879).[4][5] The bishopric was at first a suffragan of Laodicea but, when Phrygia Pacatiana was divided into two provinces, it found itself a suffragan of Hierapolis, the capital of the new province of Phrygia Pacatiana II.[6][7] No longer a residential bishopric, Aezani is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[8]

After the 7th century, Aezani fell into decline. Later, in Seljuk times, the temple hill was converted into a citadel (Turkish: hisar) by Çavdar Tatars, after which the recent settlement of Çavdarhisar is named.[1][2][3] The ruins of Aezani/Aizanoi were discovered by European travellers in 1824. Survey work in the 1830s and 1840s was followed by systematic excavation conducted by the German Archaeological Institute from 1926, resumed in 1970, and still ongoing.[1][2][3]

Ancient buildings and structures

Temple of Zeus

Reconstitutionzeusaizanoi
Reconstruction of the Temple of Zeus
Aizanoi grand temple de zeus ok
Reconstruction of the Temple of Zeus

The Temple of Zeus, situated upon a hill, was the city's main sanctuary. Ceramic finds indicate local habitation from the first half of the third millennium BC. According to a recent reading of the architrave inscription, construction of the temple began under Domitian.[9] Inscriptions document imperial assistance from Hadrian relating to the recovery of unpaid rents as well as the euergetism of Marcus Apuleius Eurykles. Later the Çavdar Tatars carved equestrian and battle scenes on the temple.[2][3][10][11] The temple is pseudodipteral, with eight columns at the ends and fifteen along the sides (35 m × 53 m (115 ft × 174 ft)).[2][3] It was damaged by the 1970 Gediz earthquake and has since been restored.[12]

Theatre and stadium

Aizanoi's theatre-stadium are built adjacent to each other and this combined complex is said to be unique in the ancient world.[1] Separating the two is the stage building.[13] Construction began after 160 A.D. and was complete by the mid-third century. Inscriptions again attest to the benefaction of M. Apuleius Eurycles.[2][3]

Baths

Two sets of thermae have been identified. The first, between the theatre-stadium and the temple, dates to the second half of the second century and includes a palaestra and marble furnishings. The second, in the north-east of the city, was built a century later; floor mosaics depict a satyr and maenad. Rebuilt a couple of centuries later, it served as the bishop's seat.[2][3]

Market

A circular macellum dating to the second half of the second century is located in the south. In the fourth century it was inscribed with a copy of the Price Edict of Diocletian, dating to 301, an attempt to limit inflation resulting from debasement of the coinage.[1][2][3]

Colonnaded street and stoa

Recent excavations have revealed the existence of a stoa, or covered walkway, dating to ca. 400 AD, and colonnaded street. A Temple of Artemis, dating to the time of Claudius (41-54), was demolished to make way for the colonnaded street which ran for 450 m (1,480 ft) and led to the sanctuary of Meter Steunene.[2][3]

Sanctuary of Meter Steunene

A deep tunnel inside a cave, now collapsed, was dedicated to Meter Steunene (an Anatolian Earth Mother goddess). Cult figurines made of clay have been found in excavations, along with two round pits apparently used for animal sacrifice.[3]

Necropolis

The city's large necropolis includes examples of door-shaped Phrygian tombstones. Inscriptions give the names of deceased or donor; accompanying decoration includes, for the tombs of men, bulls, lions and eagles, and for those of women, baskets of wool and a mirror.[3]

Museum of Kütahya

Some items from Aizanoi, among them a sarcophagus with an Amazonomachy, have been removed to the Archaeological Museum of Kütahya.[2][3]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Aizanoi Ancient City". UNESCO. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Aizanoi". Çavdarhisar Kaymakamlığı. Archived from the original on 2016-02-03. Retrieved 2012-03-31.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Aizanoi Ancient City". Go Turkey. Retrieved 2012-03-31.
  4. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 799-800
  5. ^ Sophrone Pétridès, v. Aezani, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. I, Paris 1909, coll. 670-671
  6. ^ Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 540, nº 321 and p. 558, nº 623.
  7. ^ Darrouzès Jean, Listes épiscopales du concile de Nicée (787), in Revue des études byzantines, 33 (1975), p. 55.
  8. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 892
  9. ^ Kai Jes, Richard Posamentir, Michael Wörrle, Der Tempel des Zeus und seine Datierung, in Klaus Rheidt, ed. Aizanoi und Anatolien (von Zabern, 2010)
  10. ^ Niewöhner, Philipp. Aizanoi and Anatolia. 3. De Gruyter. pp. 239–253. doi:10.1515/9783110186437.239.
  11. ^ Tabbernee, William (1997). Montanist inscriptions and testimonia: epigraphic sources illustrating the history of Montanism. Mercer University Press. p. 722.
  12. ^ Freely, John (1991). Classical Turkey. Penguin Books. p. 138. ISBN 9780140118537.
  13. ^ Rohn, Corinna. "The Theater-Stadium-Complex in Aizanoi" (in German). Publikationsserver der BTU Cottbus-Universitätsbibliothek. Retrieved 2012-04-01.

External links

Apollonia ad Rhyndacum

Apollonia or Apollonia-on-the-Rhyndacus (Ancient Greek: Ἀπολλωνία ἐπὶ Ῥυνδακῷ, Apollōnía épì Ryndakō; Latin: Apollonia ad Rhyndacum) was an ancient town near the Rhyndacus river in northwestern Anatolia. Strabo placed it in Mysia, causing some to misidentify the site as Uluabat on the western shore of Lake Uluabat. However, the site is actually the promontory tombolo on the northeastern shore, near modern Gölyazı. The remains of Apollonia are inconsiderable. The Rhyndacus flows into the lake and issues from it a deep and muddy river. The lake extends from east to west and is studded with several islands in the northeast part, on one of which is Gölyazı, but the dimensions vary greatly through the seasons.

It is known that nine cities were built named as “Apollonia” in Anatolia within the process of ancient period . “Apollonia ad Rhyndacum” is the city built on the peninsula and islets reaching to the lake called as “Apolyont” which was named as “Artynias” or “Apolloniatis” in earlier times located on the north east of Mysia. The name of “Apollonia ad Rhyndacum” was chosen in order to differentiate from other cities in the Ancient Era with reference to the stream “Rhyndacus (Adranos)” located close to the city and stemming from Aizanoi (Çavdarhisar).

It is thought that the islet known as Kız Ada was the Sacred Area of Apollo in Ancient Era. After the construction of the temple in the name of preservative God of the city, head of Apollo, kithara, plectron and Apollo Sauroctonus figure in the temple were used from Hellenistic Era to the late Roman Empire Period. Usage of crawfish figure continued its prevalence while depiction of Gorgon head gradually decreased. Different characters were used on the coins such as Demeter and Tyche due to the coming of new cults to the city in Roman Period.

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Daniel Krencker

Daniel Krencker (15 July 1874, Andolsheim – 10 November 1941, Berlin) was an Alsatian-German architectural historian. He is known for his studies of Roman architecture, in particular, his investigations of its temples (Asia Minor, Syria) and thermal baths.

From 1894 to 1898 he studied architecture at the Technical University at Berlin-Charlottenburg. Later on, he served as a professor of architectural history at the technical university. (from 1922 to 1941). Concurrently, he was an honorary professor of Geschichte der Bau- und Gartenkunst at the agricultural university in Berlin (1930–1941).

Under the direction of Otto Puchstein and Bruno Schulz (1865–1932), from 1900 to 1904, he investigated the ancient Roman ruins at Baalbek and Palmyra. In 1905/06 he was technical manager of an expedition to Aksum (Abyssinia). Later on, he conducted studies at the excavation site of the Hittite capital of Hattusa (Asia Minor, 1907).In 1912 he was appointed head of the architecture department in Quedlinburg, and subsequently put in charge of excavation of the Trier Imperial Baths. He later returned to Asia Minor, where he conducted significant research of the temples at Ankara ("Temple of Augustus and Rome") and Aizanoi. In 1939 he made one last trip to Syria, where he investigated the Monumentalanlage at the Church of Simeon Stylites.

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