Aivazovsky National Art Gallery

The Aivazovsky National Art Gallery is a national art museum in Feodosia, Crimea. The first exhibition was privately organised by Ivan Aivazovsky's in his house in 1845. The basis collection included his 49 paintings. In 1880 an additional exhibition hall was attached to the house. The gallery became the third museum in the Russian Empire, after the Hermitage Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery. After Aivazovsky's death in 1900, the ownership of the gallery was transferred to the city according to his testament.

Towards the end of 1920, the house was occupied by the Feodosia department of Cheka. Several paintings were damaged at that time.

Since 1922, the gallery became a state museum in the USSR. The collection consists of about 12 thousand nautical theme works, including the world's largest collection of works by Ivan Aivazovsky himself (417 paintings). The gallery exposition introduces the works of Aivazovsky, his family history, and the history of the gallery. A separate building (artist's sister house) presents mythological and biblical paintings, foreign marine paintings of the 18th-19th centuries, and the Cimmerian school of painting including Maximilian Voloshin, Lev Lagorio, Konstantin Bogaevsky, Mikhail Lattry, Adolf Faessler, and Arkhip Kuindzhi.

In 1930 a monument to Aivazovsky, by Ilya Ginzburg, with the inscription "Feodosia to Aivazovsky" was erected in front of the main building.

Aivazovsky National Art Gallery
Будинок, в якому жив художник І. К. Айвазовський 1
Aivazovsky National Art Gallery is located in Crimea
Aivazovsky National Art Gallery
Location in Crimea
Coordinates45°01′56″N 35°22′58″E / 45.032175°N 35.382736°E
Typenational art museum


Aivazovsky - Self-portrait 1881

Aivazovsky self-portrait, 1881

Ayvaz sredy voln

Among the Waves, 1898

Иван К. Айвазовский - Морское побережье (1886)

Sea coast, 1868

Ivan Constantinovich Aivazovsky - Lake Maggiore in the Evening

Italian Landscape Lago Maggiore in the Evening, 1858

Ivan Constantinovich Aivazovsky - Battle of Çesme at Night

Battle of Çesme at Night, 1848


  • С. Р. Гриневецкий, И. С. Зонн, С. С. Жильцов. Черноморская энциклопедия. — М.: Международные отношения, 2006. — 35 c. — ISBN 5-7133-1273-9 (in Russian).
  • Феодосия: краткий путеводитель. Редакторы А. В. Меснянко, Ю. С. Воронцова. — Севастополь: Библекс, 2007. — 96 с. — ISBN 978-966-8231-93-3 (in Russian).
  • Aivazovsky National Art Gallery. The guide. Simferopol, 1971.

Crimea (; Russian: Крым; Ukrainian: Крим, romanized: Krym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, romanized: Kirim/Qırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, romanized: Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge. The Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey.

Crimea (or Tauric Peninsula, as it was called from antiquity until the early modern period) has historically been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Goths, Alans, Bulgars, Huns, Khazars, Kipchaks, Mongols and the Golden Horde. Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century.

In 1783, Crimea became a part of the Russian Empire as the result of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR.With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was reestablished as an independent state in 1991 and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine. The 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russian's Black Sea Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol. Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas.

In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces took over the territory. A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions, was held on the issue of reunification with Russia which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans. Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.


Feodosia (Russian: Феодосия, Feodosiya; Ukrainian: Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from Greek: Θεοδοσία), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Feodosia serves as the administrative center of Feodosia Municipality, one of the regions into which Crimea is divided. During much of its history the city was known as Caffa (Ligurian: Cafà) or Kaffa. Population: 69,145 (2014 Census).

Ivan Aivazovsky

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Russian: Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 1817 – 2 May 1900) was a Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art. Baptized as Hovhannes Aivazian, he was born into an Armenian family in the Black Sea port of Feodosia in Crimea and was mostly based there.

Following his education at the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, Aivazovsky traveled to Europe and lived briefly in Italy in the early 1840s. He then returned to Russia and was appointed the main painter of the Russian Navy. Aivazovsky had close ties with the military and political elite of the Russian Empire and often attended military maneuvers. He was sponsored by the state and was well-regarded during his lifetime. The saying "worthy of Aivazovsky's brush", popularized by Anton Chekhov, was used in Russia for describing something lovely. He remains highly popular in Russia.One of the most prominent Russian artists of his time, Aivazovsky was also popular outside Russia. He held numerous solo exhibitions in Europe and the United States. During his almost 60-year career, he created around 6,000 paintings, making him one of the most prolific artists of his time. The vast majority of his works are seascapes, but he often depicted battle scenes, Armenian themes, and portraiture. Most of Aivazovsky's works are kept in Russian, Ukrainian and Armenian museums as well as private collections.

List of museums in Russia

This is a list of museums in Russia. It includes details of museums within Crimea as Russia annexed the territory in 2014 and now administers it as two federal subjects, though Ukraine regards Crimea as an occupied territory which continues to be an integral part of that country.

List of museums in Ukraine

This is a list of museums in Ukraine. It contains details of museams within Crimea though Crimea was annexed by Russia in 2014 and is now administered as part of the Russian Federation.

Mkrtich Khrimian

Mkrtich Khrimian (classical Armenian: Մկրտիչ Խրիմեան, reformed: Մկրտիչ Խրիմյան; 4 April 1820 – 29 October 1907) was an Armenian Apostolic Church leader, educator, and publisher who served as Catholicos of All Armenians from 1893 to 1907. During this period he was known as Mkrtich I of Van (Մկրտիչ Ա Վանեցի, Mkrtich A Vanetsi).

A native of Van, one of the largest cities in Turkish (Western) Armenia, Khrimian became a celibate priest (vardapet) in 1854 after the death of his wife and daughter. In the 1850s and 1860s he served as the abbot of two important monasteries in Turkish Armenia: Varagavank near Van and Surb Karapet Monastery near Mush. During this period he established schools and journals in both monasteries. He served as Patriarch of Constantinople—the most influential figure within the Ottoman Armenian community—from 1869 to 1873 and resigned due to pressure from the Ottoman government which saw him as a threat. He was the head of the Armenian delegation at the 1878 Congress of Berlin. Returning from Europe, he encouraged Armenian peasants to follow the example of Christian Balkan peoples by launching an armed struggle for autonomy or independence from the Ottoman Turks.

Between 1879 and 1885 he served as prelate of Van, after which he was forced into exile to Jerusalem. He was elected as head of the Armenian Church in 1892, however, he was enthroned more than a year later and served in that position until his death. He opposed the Russian government's attempt to confiscate the properties of the Armenian Church in 1903, which was later canceled partly due to his efforts. Khrimian further endorsed the liberation movement of the Armenian revolutionaries.

He is a towering figure in modern Armenian history and has been affectionately called Khrimian Hayrik (hayrik is diminutive for "father"). A well-known defender of Armenian interests and aspirations, his progressive activities are seen as having laid the groundwork for the rise of Armenian nationalism and the consequent national liberation movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Republic of Crimea

The Republic of Crimea (; Russian: Республика Крым, translit. Respublika Krym [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə krɨm]; Ukrainian: Республіка Крим, translit. Respublika Krym; Crimean Tatar: Qırım Cumhuriyeti, Къырым Джумхуриети) is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula. The capital city and largest city within the republic is Simferopol which is also the second largest city of Crimea, behind the federal city of Sevastopol. At the last census the republic had a population of 1,891,465 (2014 Census).The Republic of Crimea came into existence as a republic within the Russian Federation following the events of 2014: in March 2014, after the takeover of Crimea by pro-Russian separatists and the Russian Armed Forces, an unconstitutional  referendum was held on the issue of reunification with Russia, which official results and opinion polls indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans. The official result was that Crimeans overwhelmingly wished to join with Russia. Russia then annexed the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia.Russia and 17 UN member states officially recognize Crimea as part of the Russian Federation, while Ukraine and 114 other UN member states support Ukraine's territorial integrity. Ukraine continues to claim Crimea as an integral part of its territory as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, supported by most foreign governments, and various United Nations General Assembly resolutions (68/262 and certain subsequent resolutions).

Ancient cities


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