Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps

The Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) is one of the three primary commissioning sources for officers in the United States Air Force, the other two being the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) and Air Force Officer Training School (OTS). A subordinate command of the Air University within the Air Education and Training Command (AETC), AFROTC is aligned under the Jeanne M. Holm Center for Officer Accessions and Citizen Development at Maxwell AFB, Alabama. The Holm Center, formerly known as the Air Force Officer Accession and Training Schools (AFOATS), retains direct responsibility for both AFROTC and OTS.

AFROTC is the largest and oldest source of commissioned officers for the U.S. Air Force.[1] AFROTC's stated mission is to produce quality leaders for the U.S. Air Force. AFROTC units are located on 145 college and university campuses with 1100+ additional institutions of higher learning participating in cross-town agreements that allow their students to attend AFROTC classes at a nearby "host" college or university.[1] According to AFOATS HQ, in 2006, AFROTC commissioned 2,083 USAF Second Lieutenants, with AFROTC enrollment ranging from 23,605 in 1985 to 10,231 in 1993, and around 13,000 enrolled today.

AFROTC units at colleges and universities are called "detachments," and are headed by an active duty USAF officer in the rank of Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel who functions as both the Detachment Commander for USAF purposes and with the nominal title of professor of aerospace studies (PAS) within the institution's academic community. Most colleges and universities will designate the AFROTC detachment as the Department of Aerospace Studies. Depending on the detachment size, the PAS is typically assisted by one to four assistant professors of aerospace studies (APAS), also all active-duty USAF officers. Most APAS hold the rank of captain; however, some are also first lieutenants or majors. Approximately three USAF non-commissioned officers and one senior non-commissioned officer will typically provide military administrative support and are often augmented by one to two civilian staff support employees of the academic institution. Larger detachments may also have a Lieutenant Colonel serve as a vice commander.

Within AFROTC detachments, the students (referred to as "cadets") are organized into wings, groups, squadrons, and flights, mirroring the USAF functional wing structure.[2] The AFROTC detachment's cadet wing or cadet group is separated into two divisions: the General Military Course (GMC) consisting of the first two years of training, and the Professional Officer Course (POC) consisting of the last two years of training.[3] The AFROTC program is also divided into two training functions: the Academic Classroom Program (Aerospace Studies classes) and Cadet Activities (i.e., Leadership Laboratory, Physical Training, and other training).

Shield of the United States Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps
Air Force ROTC emblem

Aerospace Studies (AS)

Aerospace Studies (AS) classes are the academic portion of AFROTC. The General Military Course (GMC) is a two-year course, consisting of AS100 and AS200 cadets, designed to motivate and prepare cadets for entry into the Professional Officer Course (POC). Each AS100 and AS200 course is designed as a weekly, one academic-hour course. The POC is a two-year course, consisting of AS300 and AS400, designed to prepare cadets for active duty as Air Force officers. Each course in the POC is designed as a weekly, three academic-hour course.[4] Specific topics covered in the AS classes are as follows:

AS100 - Foundations of the Air Force: Structure and missions of Air Force organizations, officership, and professionalism. Introduction to communication skills.
AS200 - The Evolution of Aerospace Studies: Beginnings of manned flight and the development of aerospace power from World War I to present-day current operations.
AS300 - Leadership Studies: Anatomy of leadership, role of discipline in leadership situations, and the variable affecting leadership. Case studies and practical application in Leadership Laboratory (LLAB). The current AS300 curriculum was previously taught as the AS400 curriculum until the 1990s, when it was shifted to the junior year.
AS400 - National Security Studies and Preparation for Active Duty: The role of the professional military leaders in a democratic society, international developments on strategic preparedness, and active-duty assignment preparation.[5] The National Security Studies portion of the current AS400 curriculum was previously taught as the AS300 curriculum until the 1990s, when it was shifted to the senior year.

The AS400 program also previously included a single academic term Flight Instruction Program (FIP) private pilot ground school course. This course was mandatory for all cadets slated for undergraduate pilot training on graduation who did not already hold a private pilot certificate or higher, and was optional for all other cadets. FIP was eliminated from AFROTC in 1991.

Leadership Laboratory (LLAB)

Leadership Laboratory (LLAB) is a weekly 2-hour pass/fail class that trains and prepares cadets for Field Training (FT), develops leadership skills, and promotes espirit de corps among all cadets. At some universities, credit hours may be given for completing LLAB; often universities only give credit hours for completing AS classes. For GMC cadets, LLAB provides new cadets with basic skills and knowledge to be a functional member of the cadet corps, prepares them in Warrior Knowledge and Drill and Ceremonies (marching), and teaches leadership, followership, and teamwork skills. For POC cadets, LLAB furthers leadership and followership skills learned at FT by planning and implementing the activities under the supervision of the active-duty cadre.[4]

Specific LLAB activities are determined by the detachments themselves and thus vary across the nation. Some specific activities include: Field trips to Air Force bases and stations (to include Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard installations), Field Days, physical fitness tests and competitions, Drill and Ceremonies, leadership-building exercises, and Air Force officer career days.[6]

Scholarship programs

AFROTC offers a variety of highly competitive college scholarships, ranging from 3-year and 4-year scholarships offered to graduating high school seniors, 2-year and 3-year scholarships to college students enrolled as AFROTC cadets, and 2-, 3- and 4-year scholarships offered to enlisted military personnel.

AFROTC Scholarships offered to high school seniors are categorized as follows:

Type 1: Pays full college tuition, most fees and $900 per year for books. Approximately 5 percent of AFROTC four-year scholarship winners will be offered a Type 1 scholarship, mostly in technical fields such as engineering, chemistry, meteorology, applied mathematics or computer science.
Type 2: Pays college tuition and most fees up to $18,000 per year and $900 per year for books. Approximately 20 percent of AFROTC four-year scholarship winners will be offered a Type 2 scholarship, again, mostly in technical fields. If a student attends an institution where the tuition exceeds $18,000 per year, then he/she pays the difference. All three-year scholarships are Type 2.
Type 7: Pays college tuition up to the equivalent of the in-state rate and $900 per year for books. If a student receives a Type 7 offer but wishes to attend a college/university where they do not qualify under the guidelines above, the student can convert the four-year Type 7 scholarship to a three-Year Type 2 scholarship. A Type 7 scholarship cannot be activated at a non-qualifying school where the student pays the difference.[7]

AFROTC Scholarships offered to in-college students are as follows:

In-College Scholarship Program (ICSP): Open to college freshmen and sophomores in any major. Program is divided into two selection phases and awards-
ICSP Phase One: Open only to students enrolled in the Air Force ROTC program. Eligible applicants are nominated for ICSP Phase One by their school’s AFROTC detachment commander. Nominees for each detachment are rank-ordered by the detachment commander based on their leadership ability, grades, fitness, and overall participation in the Air Force ROTC program. Headquarters AFROTC makes the final decision and awards scholarships. The nomination deadline is between 10 February and 28 February of each year.

All cadets selected through ICSP Phase One are awarded a Type 2 scholarship (capped at $18,000 per year for tuition, $600 per year for books).

Freshman nominees are awarded three-year scholarships and sophomore nominees are awarded two-year scholarships. All scholarships activate the following fall term.

ICSP Phase Two: Open to college freshman and sophomores in any major. ICSP Phase One nonselects and students not enrolled in Air Force ROTC are eligible to apply for ICSP Phase Two. Eligible applicants are nominated for ICSP Phase Two by the commander of the detachment serving the school where they attend or the school where they will attend once they join Air Force ROTC. Students not currently enrolled in Air Force ROTC must be interviewed by the detachment commander or his/her designee. The deadline for detachments to submit a nomination is 30 June. The board meets in July, and those selected are typically notified by 1 August of each year.

A limited number of cadets selected through ICSP Phase Two are awarded a Type 2 scholarship (capped at $18,000 per year for tuition, $600 per year for books). Most scholarship selected students are awarded a Type 3 scholarship (capped at $9,000 per year for tuition and $600 per year for books).

Freshmen nominees are awarded three-year scholarships, and sophomore nominees are awarded two-year scholarships. All scholarships activate the fall term following their distribution.

ICSP Phase Three: Depending on officer production and funding, a limited number of qualified sophomore ICSP Phase Two nonselects may be offered Type 6 scholarships. This process takes place at the same time ICSP Phase Two results are released.[8]
Express Scholarship: Designed to meet Air Force ROTC officer production requirements in specific fields and year groups. This program awards Type 1 scholarships paying full college tuition, most fees and $600 per year for books. In many cases, these scholarships can activate during the same term as nomination. The Express Scholarship program is operated on a fully qualified basis. Those students who meet the qualifications are awarded the scholarship and do not meet a scholarship selection board. The processing of the scholarship award is completed at the local AFROTC detachment. Eligible majors are Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering and Meteorology[9]
Express Scholarship (Foreign Language): Designed to meet Air Force ROTC officer production requirements in specific fields and year groups. This program awards Type 1 scholarships paying full college tuition, most fees and $600 per year for books. In many cases, these scholarships can activate during the same term as nomination. The Express Scholarship (Foreign Language) program is operated on a fully qualified basis. Those students who meet the qualifications are awarded the scholarship and do not meet a scholarship selection board. The processing of the scholarship award is completed at the local AFROTC detachment. Eligible majors are: Arabic, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Cambodian, Chinese, Hausa, Hindi, Indonesian, Japanese, Kasakh, Kurdish, Malay, Pashtu, Persian-Iranian/Persian-Afghan, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Swahili, Thai, Turkish, Uighur, Urdu/Punjabi, Uzbek and Vietnamese. Most candidates will eventually become USAF officers in the Intelligence career field.

AFROTC Scholarships offered to enlisted military personnel are as follows:

Airman Scholarship and Commissioning Program (ASCP)*: Permits active duty USAF airmen and junior non-commissioned officers to separate from active duty and receive a scholarship worth up to $18,000 per year while pursuing their commission through Air Force ROTC. (* Previously known as Bootstrap Program.)

Professional Officer Course - Early Release Program (POC-ERP): Offers active duty Air Force enlisted personnel an opportunity for an early release from active duty to enter AFROTC and receive a commission as an Air Force officer. Members selected for POC-ERP will separate from active duty, sign a contract with AFROTC and become full-time college students. This program is open to undergraduate degrees only and cannot be used for postgraduate degrees. Upon completion of all undergraduate degree and commissioning requirements, cadets are commissioned as second lieutenants and returned to active duty in USAF for a period of at least four years, with longer service commitments required for those selected for flight training. POC-ERP is open to all academic majors. While in AFROTC, individuals will no longer receive military pay or benefits. All members applying for POC-ERP are required to provide proof that they have the financial means to make it through the program. Enlisted personnel selected for POC-ERP may use their Montgomery GI Bill benefits while in the program along with any additional grants or scholarships for which they may qualify.

Scholarships for Outstanding Airman to ROTC (SOAR): The SOAR program allows USAF enlisted personnel to separate from active duty and receive a scholarship worth up to $18,000 per year while pursuing their commission through AFROTC. Students may not pay the difference to attend higher-cost schools.[10]

Airman Education and Commissioning Program (AECP): THIS PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED FOR FY12 AND FOLLOWING FYs UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE. The Airman Education and Commissioning Program (AECP) offers active duty enlisted personnel the opportunity to earn a commission while completing their bachelor's degree. Students will attend OTS upon completion of their bachelor's degree and this will be their source of commissioning. AECP nursing students graduate, take NCLEX, then attend COT. Those selected for AECP REMAIN ON ACTIVE DUTY and are administratively assigned to an Air Force ROTC detachment. Their duty is to attend school as a full-time college student. In addition to full pay and benefits, AECP cadets are provided with a tuition/fees scholarship of up to $15,000 per year and an annual textbook allowance of $600. Students may not pay the difference to attend higher cost schools. AECP cadets may participate in the program for 1–3 years, depending on their major, prior academic preparation, and age limitations. During the program, they attend school year-round to include summer terms. AECP is not an avenue for Undergraduate Flying Training. [11]

Cadet organization

AFROTC classifies cadets into the following basic categories of training with respect to Field Training attendance and commissioning:[4][12]

Initial Military Training (IMT): Cadets who are part of the GMC but are not scheduled to attend FT the following summer. Normally AS100 cadets.
Field Training Preparation (FTP): Cadets scheduled to attend FT in the upcoming summer. Normally AS200 cadets, or if dual-enrolled in AS100 and AS200 classes, AS250 cadets.
Intermediate Cadet Leader (ICL): Cadets who have successfully completed FT but are not scheduled to commission in the upcoming year. Normally AS300 cadets.
Senior Cadet Leader (SCL): Cadets who have satisfactorily completed FT and are scheduled to be commissioned in the upcoming year. Normally AS400 cadets.
Extended Cadet Leader (ECL): Cadets who have completed the AFROTC curriculum but need additional time to complete their academic degree, such as 5-year engineering program students. Normally AS700 cadets or, if on scholarship, AS800 cadets.

A Cadet who has completed the first two years of academic classes but did not pass Field Training or attain a FT slot is an AS500 cadet.

Detachments organize cadets after the active-duty wing structure to the best of their ability, compensating for variable sizes and circumstances. GMC cadets participate as the underclassmen while the POC cadets participate as the upperclassmen. POC cadets have completed Field Training and are assigned leadership positions in the corps. Cadets are classified and assigned rank commensurate with their position and level of responsibility within the cadet wing and with respect to FT completion.[13]

General Military Course

General Military Course cadets (formerly Cadet Airmen) are all cadets who have not satisfactorily completed Field Training. AS100 IMT cadets hold the Cadet Fourth Class (C/4C) rank while AS200 FTP cadets hold Cadet Third Class Rank (C/3C). GMC cadets are not committed to joining the Air Force unless on AFROTC scholarship.[14] If contracted, AS100 cadets receive a monthly tax-free stipend of $300 while AS200 cadets receive $350.[15]

GMC cadets on contract are also considered to be inactive enlisted members of the Air Force Reserve serving without pay, ranging from Airman Basic (AB, pay grade E-1) to Staff Sergeant (SSgt, pay grade E-5) with higher grades based on prior enlisted military experience in the Active or Reserve Components or other qualifying credentials (i.e., senior Civil Air Patrol cadets or former high school AFJROTC cadets with four years of participation enlisting at Airman First Class {A1C, E-3}, etc.).

Professional Officer Course

Professional Officer Course cadets (formerly Cadet Officers), AS300 (ICL), AS400 (SCL), and AS700 (ECL), are cadets who have satisfactorily completed Field Training. POC cadets wear cadet officer rank (Cadet Second Lieutenant (C/2d Lt) - Cadet Colonel (C/Col)). Unlike the Air Force Academy, for juniors and seniors there is no rank of Cadet Second Class or Cadet First Class, respectively. With some exceptions, all POC cadets are considered to be "on contract" and are committed to joining the Air Force upon completion of their academic degree.

Like GMC cadets on contract, POC cadets are considered to be inactive enlisted members of the Air Force Reserve, serving without pay between the grades of E-1 and E-5, with said enlisted status terminating upon commissioning. However, POC cadets are not subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) and thus in strictly legal cases (such as sexual assault occurring within the cadet corps) they are considered "civilian." As contracted cadets, AS300 cadets also receive a monthly tax-free stipend of $450 and AS400 cadets receive $500.[15] POC cadets are required to meet USAF height and weight standards, pass the Fitness Assessment (FA) each academic semester, and meet a minimum cumulative and term GPA requirement of 2.5. Repeatedly failing to meet the standards may result in disenrollment from AFROTC. All POC cadets also must hold at least one leadership position within the cadet wing or group as designated by the detachment cadre's Commandant of Cadets (COC).[13]

In some cases, students with academic requirements that exceed four years (usually engineers and other technical majors in five-year programs) continue the AFROTC program for additional semesters as needed. During these additional years these cadets (AS700 or AS800, if on scholarship) are only minimally required to participate in LLAB and maintain retention standards.[13] It is important to note that this is not the case for schools with co-op programs that entail a total of four years of classes and one year of cooperative experience. In these cases the cadets are classified as AS300's their first POC year and AS400's their second and third POC years. The cadets will not attend aerospace classes, Physical Training, or Leadership Lab during their co-op blocks (they will be on Periods of Non-Attendance) and otherwise complete the program like any four-year major.[13]

Cadet Wing

The cadet wing (cadet group at smaller detachments) is organized to mirror the active-duty objective wing structure and is composed entirely of AFROTC cadets. Cadet rank is determined by the positions and levels of responsibility in which they hold. Cadet wings strive to include positions similar to those found in active-duty wings but additional positions may be added at the discretion of the detachment cadre's COC. Each wing is headed by a Cadet Colonel and has subsequent groups, squadrons, and flights. POC cadets rotate positions each semester and cannot hold the same position for two consecutive periods without approval. POC cadets are required to serve at least one term in a leadership position. Leadership positions include wing, group, squadron, and flight positions and others named by the CW/CC.[13]

Cadet Fourth Class C/4C Cadet 4th Class (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) shoulder insignia AS100
Cadet Third Class C/3C Cadet 3rd Class (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) shoulder insignia AS200/250/500
Cadet Second Lieutenant C/2d Lt Cadet 2nd Lieutenant (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) shoulder insignia POC
Cadet First Lieutenant C/1st Lt Cadet 1st Lieutenant (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) shoulder insignia POC
Cadet Captain C/Capt Cadet Captain (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) shoulder insignia POC
Cadet Major C/Maj Cadet Major (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) shoulder insignia POC
Cadet Lieutenant Colonel C/Lt Col Cadet Lieutenant Colonel (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) shoulder insignia POC
Cadet Colonel C/Col Cadet Colonel (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) shoulder insignia POC

Physical Training (PT)

Cadets are required to take part in Physical Training (PT) at least twice per week each semester. Whether PT is counted as a school credit or not, attendance at PT (at least 80 percent) is required to pass Leadership Laboratory (LLAB). As a prerequisite, cadets must have a certified DoD physical or a sports physical on file at the detachment and must complete an AFROTC Physical Health Screening Questionnaire. Before the beginning of exercises, cadets receive a safety briefing on the "importance of hydration, heat stress disorders, and prompt reporting of any problems to a cadre member."[16]

Under the supervision of qualified cadre, the PT program is organized and led by AS300 and AS400 cadets.[16] PT activities at detachments may vary from sports games, Field Training Preparation training exercises, cardio and muscular strength exercises. PT sessions usually begin by forming up as a Wing and stretching.

The Fitness Assessment (FA) is taken by each cadet each semester and is formatted after the active-duty Air Force's FA. The FA is the primary instrument for evaluating the fitness level of each cadet. It is structured to assess the muscular endurance of specific muscle groups and the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system.[17] Contracted cadets (i.e. those on scholarship/receiving stipend) must pass the FA. Contracted cadets that fail the FA are subject to discipline. Two consecutive failures can result in dismissal from the program. Non-contracted cadets must attempt the FA each semester. Within 72 hours of taking the FA, cadets have their height, waist, and weight measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). The FA consists of the BMI measurement, one minute of push-ups, one minute of sit-ups, and a 1.5-mile run. Maximum points for each area is 20 for BMI, 10 for push-ups, 10 for crunches, and 60 for the 1.5 mile run. To pass the FA, cadets must obtain a composite score of at least 75 and meet the minimum score requirements in each category.[18]

Field Training (FT)

Field Training is a training program that takes place the summer before cadets enter the POC. Completion of this boot camp-style training is a mandatory program for all individuals qualified to pursue an Air Force commission through AFROTC.[19] All FTP cadets compete among each other nationwide during the spring semester to receive an EA (Enrollment Allocation), which allows them to progress to FT. Cadets compete based on their Grade Point Average, Physical Fitness Assessment scores, and their ranking among other cadets in their class, as determined by the detachment commander. The number of EAs awarded is determined each year by the needs of the Air Force.

2008 marked the first year that all AFROTC Field Training Units (FTU) were held at the Officer Training School complex at Maxwell AFB, Alabama.[20] This move reflects the Air Force's greater emphasis on expeditionary operations in combat zone and the Joint Force Training Center (JFTC) at Camp Shelby, Mississippi.

The Field Training program is designed to evaluate military leadership and discipline, determine the cadet's potential for entry into the Professional Officer Course (POC), and to stratify cadets amongst their peers.[19] In- Garrison (12 days), and Joint Forces Training Center Field Training is currently 13 days long, however the length may change depending on the year. FT is split up into two sections: In-Garrison (located at Maxwell AFB) and Air Expeditionary Force (located at the Vigilant Warrior Training Center at Maxwell AFB). The In-Garrison portion focuses on academics and drill & ceremonies, while AEF part focuses on Expeditionary Skills Training (EST) and deployment, respectively.[21][22]

Field Training is commanded by an active duty USAF Colonel and a staff of approximately 55 active duty USAF officers, non-commissioned officers, and cadet training assistants (CTA). Active duty FT staff are typically selected from cadre at AFROTC detachments and serve in four to six-week rotations. "CTAs are POC cadets selected, based on their FT performance and overall cadet record, to return to Field Training as assistants to active duty staff members."[23] There is one Flight Training Officer and one CTA assigned to each flight. In addition to flight CTAs, there are also traditional CTAs (who focus on Drill & Ceremonies, Physical Training, Public Affairs, and Standardization).

In each flight, cadets are ranked from first to last. The top 10% earn the distinction of "Distinguished Graduate".[24] The rest of the cadets are ranked in one of three divisions in their respective flight: top, middle, or bottom third. Various other awards are given for excelling at physical fitness and warrior spirit.[25]

Cadets' rankings depend on the following criteria:

  • Preparation for Field Training
  • Fitness Assessment (FA)
  • Leadership skills
  • Professional qualities
  • Communication skills
  • Judgment/decision-making skills
  • Warrior Ethos

Only the active duty officers evaluate and stratify the cadets. CTAs often give input but do not officially evaluate cadets. Cadets who are ranked among the top third or better in their flight are recommended for CTA duty and have the option to apply to become CTAs the following year.

Career / Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC) selection

General AFSCs

Generally speaking, most cadets will apply for their initial AFSC career field towards the end of their first semester in their AS 300 (junior) year. AFROTC cadets can apply for various career fields, to include aeronautically rated Pilot, Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Navigator/Combat Systems Officer and Air Battle Manager (ABM) slots, as well as non-rated slots such as Missile Operations or Missile Maintenance, Space Operations, Intelligence, Aircraft Maintenance, Meteorology, Civil Engineering, Security Forces, Admin/Personnel, etc. Cadets will be notified of their prospective AFSCs during the following semester. The eventual duty station/ base of assignment for these various AFSCs will not be determined until midway through their first semester of their final year in school.

Rated candidates

Cadets applying for rated slots, such as Pilot, RPA Pilot (MQ-9 Reaper), Navigator / Combat Systems Officer (CSO), and Air Battle Manager (ABM), will have the opportunity to apply no later than towards the end of the first semester of their second-to-last year (generally, the 1st semester of the academic junior year). These candidates will also be notified of their alternate AFSC (i.e., Intel, Space, Missiles, etc.) at the same time as all other cadets who applied for non-rated AFSCs. However, before candidates are eligible to apply for aeronautically rated positions, they must be medically qualified for their selection. There are different medical standards for pilots, nav/CSOs, and ABMs, respectively, with undergraduate pilot training medical requirements, primarily uncorrected eyesight, being the most stringent. Like OTS candidates, all AFROTC cadets must take the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) prior to going on contract. The AFOQT contains Pilot and Navigator sections for prospective pilots and navs/CSOs. The pilot candidates must also take the Test of Basic Aviation Skills (TBAS) to determine the component score of the Pilot Candidate Selection Model (PCSM) rating. The PCSM rating is a component of the Order of Merit, which allows the USAF to rank-order every single pilot candidate in AFROTC, and determine who gets what undergraduate pilot training (UPT) slot. Once the requirements are met for application, the candidates can apply at this time for specific flight training options at the following Air Education and Training Command (AETC) locations:

Pilots can opt for Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training (ENJJPT) with the 80th Flying Training Wing (80 FTW) at Sheppard AFB, Texas, which will take the top 9-10% of the pilot candidates that wish to pursue ENJJPT in lieu of traditional Specialized UPT (SUPT). ENJJPT selection is based solely off the Order of Merit scores and rank-order.

SUPT options include the 14th Flying Training Wing (14 FTW) at Columbus AFB, Mississippi; the 47th Flying Training Wing (47 FTW) at Laughlin AFB, Texas; and the 71st Flying Training Wing (71 FTW) at Vance AFB, Oklahoma

A final pilot training option is the rotary-wing and tilt-rotor track via Undergraduate Helicopter Pilot Training (UHT) with the 23d Flying Training Squadron (23 FTS) at Fort Rucker, Alabama.

Combat Systems Officers, formerly known as Navigators, will receive their undergraduate CSO flight training with AETC's 479th Flying Training Group (479 FTG), a tenant USAF organization at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida.

Aeronautically rated candidates will be notified of their rated selection or denial during their second semester of their junior year. Base assignments, including ENJJPT assignment, will be given midway through their first semester of the last year in college. Those cadets who were selected for rated slots are then allowed to wear a flight suit during specified LLABs where the Airman Battle Uniform (ABU) or the woodland camouflage Battle Dress Uniform (BDU) is the Uniform of the Day, unless otherwise noted by the Cadet Wing Commander or Cadet Group Commander. Once selected, pilot-selected cadets will contract with the USAF for 10 years of active duty USAF service following completion of flight training, nav/CSO-selected and ABM-selected cadets will contract for 6 years of active duty following flight training, while cadets in all other AFSCs will contract for four years after commissioning.[26]

Pilot candidates also undergo a Flying Class I physical and navigator/CSO candidates a Flying Class IA physical during the first semester of their last year. These are the most stringent physical exams given by the USAF. ABM candidates will undergo a Flying Class III physical exam. If a cadet with a rated slot is unable to pass their flight physical, they will instead be assigned to a non-rated career field.

Flight Indoctrination Program (FIP)

Prior to 1991, AFROTC also conducted a Flight Instruction Program (FIP) parallel to the Pilot Indoctrination Program (PIP) at USAFA. Although often touted as a means for AFROTC cadets to earn a free FAA Private Pilot Certificate while in college, the actual intent of the program was to provide an additional flight training screening process for prospective USAF pilot candidates who had no prior flight experience.

In AFROTC, FIP consisted of two blocks, the first being a private pilot ground school course taught by an aeronautically rated USAF officer assigned to the AFROTC detachment's cadre. The ground school course was also given an AS400 series designation and open to all AFROTC cadets in their senior year regardless of selection or non-selection for USAF undergraduate pilot training. Cadets who had prior civilian flight training and/or civilian pilot certifications could also enroll in the FIP ground school and the course was also offered as option for Army ROTC cadets, Naval ROTC (NROTC) midshipmen on both Navy and Marine Corps commissioning tracks, Naval Aviation Reserve Officer Candidates (AVROC) and Marine Corps Platoon Leaders Class-Air (Marine PLC-Air) officer candidates slated for flight training in their respective services following graduation.

The flying portion of FIP was typically conducted by civilian instructors under USAF contract at a nearby civilian airport, normally employing light general aviation aircraft such as the Cessna 150 / Cessna 152 series, Cessna 172, Piper Cherokee, or other similar aircraft. Since FIP was designed as a washout/attrition device, AFROTC cadets who already held an FAA Private Pilot's Certificate or greater were not eligible for any actual flight time via FIP. Those cadets without prior flight experience initially received 38 flight hours, but post-Vietnam War defense cutbacks in the mid-1970s resulted in FIP being reduced to a "safe for solo" program with 25 hours of funded flight time. FIP was discontinued in 1991 when it was replaced by the single-site Enhanced Flight Screening Program (EFSP) at Hondo, Texas.

Initial Flight Training (IFT) and Navigator Introductory Flight Training (NIFT)

With the demise of FIP and PIP in 1991, the 12th Flying Training Wing (12 FTW) at Randolph AFB, Texas initially assumed responsibility for the Enhanced Flight Screening Program (EFSP) of all candidates for UPT from all USAF commissioning sources (AFROTC, USAFA and OTS). This training was conducted for these officers following graduation and commissioning at Hondo Municipal Airport, Texas in T-41 Mescalero and T-3 Firefly aircraft until 1998. Following several fatal mishaps with the T-3 Firefly, the program was transferred from the 12 FTW to a civilian contract operation under AETC auspices at Pueblo Memorial Airport, Colorado.

The Pueblo program employs civilian Diamond DA-20 aircraft and is officially known as Initial Flight Training (IFT) for USAF specialized undergraduate pilot trainees and Navigator Introductory Flight Training (NIFT) for USAF specialized undergraduate navigator/CSO trainees.[27]

Ribbons

AFROTC ribbons are awarded for many various achievements. The complete list is below as per AFROTCVA 36-3, 4 May.

Badges and pins

AFROTC-CadetPilot

Cadet Pilot Badge

AFROTC-CadetSeniorPilot

Cadet Senior Pilot Badge

AFROTC-CadetNavigator

Cadet Navigator Badge

AFROTC-CadetSeniorNavigator

Cadet Senior Navigator Badge

AFROTC-CadetNurse

Cadet Nurse Badge

AFROTC-CadetPreMed

Cadet Pre-Health Badge

AFROTC-CadetTrainingAssistant

Cadet Training Assistant Badge

AFROTC-CadetParachutist

Parachutist Badge

AFROTC-ArnoldAirSocietyMember

Arnold Air Society Member Pin (AAS C/2d/1st Lt rank)

AFROTC-ArnoldAirSocietyCandidate

Arnold Air Society Candidate Pin

AFROTC-PershingRifles

Pershing Rifles Member Pin

In addition, cadets who have completed Advanced Course in Engineering (ACE) or have attended AFIT courses on information assurance are authorized to wear the Cadet Master Cyber Badge.[28]

Notable Air Force ROTC graduates

Resources

See also

References

  1. ^ a b AFOATS Dec 2006 Fact Sheet
  2. ^ AFROTCI 36-2017, p29, 2004
  3. ^ AFROTCI 36-2017, p14, 2004
  4. ^ a b c AFROTCI 36-2017 - AFROTC Program
  5. ^ U.S. Air Force ROTC - Course Descriptions Archived 14 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ AFROTC Leadership Laboratory Archived 16 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ U.S. Air Force ROTC - Scholarships - High School Scholarships - Scholarship Types Archived 11 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ U.S. Air Force ROTC - Scholarships - In-College Scholarships - In-College Programs Archived 27 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ U.S. Air Force ROTC - Scholarships - In-College Scholarships - Express Scholarships Archived 16 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ AFROTC - Scholarships For Outstanding Airman To ROTC (SOAR)
  11. ^ AFROTC - Airman Education & Commissioning Program (AECP)
  12. ^ T-508 - Leadership Laboratory Curriculum Handbook
  13. ^ a b c d e AFROTCI 36-2017 AFROTC Program
  14. ^ AFROTC General Questions Archived 14 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ a b [1]
  16. ^ a b AFROTCMAN 36-201
  17. ^ AFROTCMAN 36-202 Physical Training
  18. ^ HQ AFROTC/CC Memorandum. ARMS-AFROTC-08-022 - Changes to AFROTC PT Requirements. 8 December 2007.
  19. ^ a b AFOATS T-203, p. 9, 2008
  20. ^ Officials move ROTC field training to Maxwell
  21. ^ HOLM CENTER T-203, p108, 2010
  22. ^ First wave of ROTC field training gets underway
  23. ^ AFOATS T-203, p10, 2008
  24. ^ HOLM CENTER T-203, p105-106, 2010
  25. ^ AFOATS T-203, p93-94, 2008
  26. ^ Air Force ROTC Website - Service Commitments Archived 1 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Air Force Initial Flight Screening (IFS) Program, Pueblo CO
  28. ^ AFI 36-2903 AFROTCSUP 16AUG13
  29. ^ Quann (2005). WSU Military Veterans. Spokane, WA: Tornado Creek Publications. p. 143. ISBN 0-9740881-5-3.
  30. ^ "Air Force General Biographies". www.af.mil. U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  31. ^ "Air Force General Officer Biographies". www.af.mil. U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  32. ^ "U.S. Air Force Biographies". www.af.mil. U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  33. ^ "U.S. Air Force Biographies". www.af.mil. U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  34. ^ "U.S. Air Force Biographies". www.af.mil. U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 13 November 2015.

External links

Air Force Commander's Insignia

The Air Force Commander's Insignia is an insignia of the United States Air Force, that has been in existence since 2002. Also known as the USAF Commander's Badge, the Air Force Commander's Insignia is awarded to any Air Force officer who holds a major command billet within the United States Air Force.

To be eligible for the Air Force Commander's Insignia, an Air Force officer must hold permanent assignment in a command billet, normally in the rank of Major or above. Examples of such billets would include any unit larger than detachment size, including: Squadron, Group, and Wing commanders, as well as the commanding officers of major Air Force installations such as Air Force bases.

Commanders of Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Detachments are also authorized to wear the Air Force Commander's Badge.

The Air Force Commander's Insignia is worn above the name tag when in command of a squadron, group, wing, Numbered Air Force (NAF), major command (MAJCOM), or Unified Command. The insignia is worn below the name tag upon completion of such a command assignment.

Alan G. Sharp

Alan Giles Sharp (born November 7, 1929) was a major general in the United States Air Force who served as vice commander of the United States Air Force Reserve, with headquarters at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia.

Sharp was born in 1929, in Salt Lake City into a Mormon family. He attended high school in Cape Town, Union of South Africa, and graduated from the University of Utah in 1953. He completed Air War College in 1977. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program in March 1953. After completing pilot training at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, he was assigned to Sewart Air Force Base, Tenn., flying C-119s with the 48th Troop Carrier Squadron. He participated in Operation DEW Line during the construction of the Distant Early Warning Radar System across northern Canada.

After his release from active duty in 1957, Sharp joined the Air Force Reserve and was assigned to the 733rd Troop Carrier Squadron, Hill Air Force Base, Utah, flying C-46 Commandos. He later served as flight commander, group operations staff officer and flight examiner in C-119s and C-124s. After being recalled to active duty during the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962, he returned to reserve status and subsequently became deputy commander for operations of the 945th Military Airlift Group at Hill in July 1969.

He was appointed commander of the 940th Tactical Airlift Group, McClellan Air Force Base, California, in November 1972. In July 1976 he took command of the 445th Military Airlift Wing (Associate), Norton Air Force Base, Calif., and qualified as a C-141 pilot. He became commander of the 514th Military Airlift Wing (Associate), McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey, in July 1977. He was named commander of the 94th Tactical Airlift Wing at Dobbins Air Force Base, Ga., in April 1981 and became commander of 14th Air Force there in January 1983. He assumed his present duties in December 1986.

Sharp joined the Air Reserve Technician force in February 1960. He served continuously in that capacity, except for a period from 1962 to 1964.

He is a command pilot with more than 8,000 flying hours. His military decorations and awards include the Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster, Meritorious Service Medal with oak leaf cluster, Air Force Commendation Medal, Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with three oak leaf clusters, Combat Readiness Medal with four oak leaf clusters, National Defense Service Medal with service star, Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, Vietnam Service Medal with seven service stars, Air Force Longevity Service Award Ribbon with six oak leaf clusters, Armed Forces Reserve Medal with two hourglass devices, Small Arms Expert Marksmanship Ribbon, Air Force Training Ribbon, Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm, and Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal.

His civic affiliations include the Reserve Officers Association, Air Force Association and Military Order of the World Wars.

He was promoted to major general May 24, 1984, with same date of rank. Sharp retired on December 1, 1990. He is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Angelo State University College of Business

The Angelo State University College of Business is a college at Angelo State University in San Angelo, Texas. Three departments are housed within the college: the Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, the Department Aerospace Studies, and the Department of Management and Marketing.

The Angelo State University College of Business is in the process obtaining AACSB accreditation, an elite accrediting agency. Less than 15% of business schools achieve AACSB accreditation.The Aerospace Studies Department is home to the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Detachment 847. Established in 1971 the detachment has graduated over 500 2nd Lieutenants. The detachment at ASU has been recognized as one of the best in the nation.

Arnold Air Society

The Arnold Air Society (AAS) is a professional, honorary, service organization advocating the support of aerospace power. AAS is open to officer candidates in Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) and at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA), and is formally affiliated with the Air Force Association (AFA). In addition to AFROTC or Academy commitments, AAS members must complete candidate training, attend meetings, and contribute to their respective Squadrons and ROTC detachments. Doing so enhances the officer candidate experience of cadets as well as builds stronger leadership, organizational, and professional skills.

Camp Shelby

Camp Shelby is a military post whose North Gate is located at the southern boundary of Hattiesburg, Mississippi, on United States Highway 49. It is the largest state-owned training site in the nation. During wartime, the camp's mission is to serve as a major independent mobilization station of the United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM). Camp Shelby Joint Forces Training Center is the largest reserve component training site, covering 136,000 acres (550 km2), allowing up to battalion-level maneuver training, Gunnery Table 8-12, field artillery firing points and a wide range of support facilities. This is the normal Annual Training location for National Guard and Reserve units located in Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee. However, units from across the country use its assets to support a variety of missions. The 2nd Battalion, 114th Field Artillery conducts its gunnery training and has the bulk of its combat equipment stored in the Mobilization and Annual Training Equipment Site (MATES) located there.

Camp Shelby Joint Forces Training Center (CSJFTC), encompassing over 525 square kilometers, is located in portions of Perry and Forrest Counties, in south Mississippi. The training center was established during World War I and it has served almost continuously since then as a training site, not only for the Reserve Components of the Army, but also for the Active Components of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force. The training site consists of a mix of State, Department of Defense, and U.S. Forest Service lands in the DeSoto National Forest.

Encompassing more than 134,820 acres (546 km2), Camp Shelby, Mississippi is the largest state-owned and operated field training center in the United States. It is a training ground for the Abrams M1 Tank, Paladin Howitzers and home to the 3rd Brigade 87th Division Training Support. Camp Shelby serves as a training site for National Guardsmen and Reservists from throughout the country hosting as many as 100,000 personnel annually.

Camp Shelby was established in 1917. The post was named in honor of Isaac Shelby, Indian fighter, Revolutionary War hero and 1st Governor of Kentucky, by the first troops to train here, the 38th Division.

In 1934, the State of Mississippi acquired the site for use as a summer camp by the National Guard. Because of Camp Shelby's natural advantages of climate, terrain and location, it was reopened in 1940 as a federal installation. Some of the divisions that have trained in Mississippi include the 31st, 37th, 38th, 43rd, 63rd, 65th, 69th, 85th, 94th, and the 99th Divisions.

The famous Japanese-American 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the 100th Battalion trained here in preparation for World War II (See the 1951 movie Go For Broke! and the 2006 movie Only the Brave). Women's Army Corps (WAC) units also trained here. The post contained a large convalescent hospital and had a prisoner of war camp which housed soldiers of the famous German Afrika Corps. Camp Shelby is also home to the Mississippi Armed Forces Museum. The history of Camp Shelby is significant part of the museum's collection.

The post closed shortly after the end of World War II. During the Korean War, Camp Shelby was established as an emergency railhead facility.

In the summer of 1954, non-divisional National Guard units trained at Camp Shelby and in 1956, it was designated a permanent training site by Continental Army Command (now FORSCOM). Over 5,000 troops were processed through Camp Shelby during Desert Storm operations.

The 199th Light Infantry Brigade trained at Camp Shelby from September to November 1966 in preparation for deployment to Vietnam from Fort Benning Georgia. The 199th was the only combat unit to train at Camp Shelby during the Vietnam War.

Camp Shelby was federalized as a FORSCOM Mobilization Center on June 6, 2004. Since then, several Regimental or Brigade Combat Teams have mobilized through Camp Shelby including the 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment (Tennessee Army National Guard); the 155th Heavy Brigade Combat Team (MS ARNG); the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 28th Infantry Division (PA ARNG); the 56th Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 28th Infantry Division (PA ARNG) ; the 53rd Brigade Combat Team (FL ARNG); the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 34th Infantry Division (MN ARNG); the 41st Brigade Combat Team (OR ARNG); the 256th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (LA ARNG); the 116th Cavalry Brigade Combat Team (ID ARNG), the 27th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (NY ARNG), and the 48th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (GA ARNG).

U.S. Navy Seabee units homeported or mobilized from the Naval Construction Battalion Center in Gulfport, Mississippi utilize Camp Shelby as the site for their Field Training Exercises (FTX).

Camp Shelby is also home to the Youth Challenge Academy (a military structured GED and State High School diploma program established in 1994 to aid Mississippi High school dropouts, ages 16 to 18, designed and operated by the National Guard Bureau).

In mid-2007, the Air National Guard opened a new combat training runway at Camp Shelby. The 210-acre (0.8 km2) Shelby Auxiliary Field One is one of only two facilities in the world designed for C-17 Globemaster III short-field landing training. It was constructed to meet Air Force C-17 training requirements.Contingency Operating Location 3 at Camp Shelby is used for Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps field training.

Charles C. McDonald

General Charles Clarence McDonald (October 1, 1933 – November 22, 2017) was a United States Air Force general who served as Commander, Air Force Logistics Command (COMAFLC) from 1989 to 1992.

McDonald was born in 1933, in Barron, Wisconsin, where he graduated from Barron High School in 1951. He earned a bachelor of science degree in biology from the University of Wisconsin in 1956 and a master of arts degree in education from the Inter-American University of San German, Puerto Rico, in 1966. He is a distinguished graduate of both Squadron Officer School in 1963 and Air War College in 1973.

In August 1956 he was commissioned as a second lieutenant through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program. He entered active service in June 1957 and completed pilot training in July 1958. From August 1958 until November 1961 he was a B-47 co-pilot at McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas, and Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho.

McDonald volunteered for the B-52 program and after completing combat crew training in March 1962, was assigned to the 319th Bombardment Wing at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. There he was a B-52H co-pilot, aircraft commander and instructor pilot. In June 1965 he transferred to the 72nd Bombardment Wing, Ramey Air Force Base, Puerto Rico, as a wing standardization evaluator.

He served as a command briefer at Headquarters Strategic Air Command, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska, from June 1968 to May 1971. McDonald then began OV-10 training as a forward air controller and was assigned to the 20th Tactical Air Support Squadron at Da Nang Air Base, Republic of Vietnam, as squadron operations officer.

Returning to the United States, he entered Air War College at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, graduating in May 1973. He next was assigned as a B-52 operations planner at Headquarters 7th Air Force, Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand, where he was responsible for coordinating all B-52 air strikes in Southeast Asia. After the cease-fire he conducted a series of inspections for the Defense Attache Office in Saigon, Republic of Vietnam, and the Vietnamese air force.

In May 1974 he was assigned to the Concepts Division, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans and Operations, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C. There he developed a number of future planning tools, including Air Force long-range capability objectives, use of simulation in battle-staff training, refinement of net assessment as an aid to decision-making and mission area analysis in budget planning.

Additionally, he helped direct an interagency airborne warning and control system task force, integrating it into U.S. forces and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization community. In March 1978 he returned to operational duties as assistant deputy commander for operations, 28th Bombardment Wing, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota. He subsequently was appointed deputy commander for operations, then vice commander.

From August 1979 to February 1981 McDonald was commander of the 320th Bombardment Wing, Mather Air Force Base, California. Under his command the wing won the Fairchild Trophy, awarded to the top bomber wing in the Strategic Air Command for combined bombing and navigational excellence. He then transferred to March Air Force Base, California, as commander of the 22nd Bombardment Wing. In July 1982 he became deputy chief of staff for operations, Headquarters 15th Air Force, also at March.

He was vice commander of the Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah, from July 1983 to October 1984. He then went to AFLC headquarters as deputy chief of staff for plans and programs, and in December 1985 became chief of staff. In August 1987 he became deputy chief of staff for logistics and engineering at Air Force headquarters. He assumed AFLC command in November 1989.

He was a command pilot with more than 4,600 flying hours. His military awards and decorations include the Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster, Bronze Star Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Air Medal with oak leaf cluster, Air Force Commendation Medal and Combat Readiness Medal.

He was promoted to general November 1, 1989, with same date of rank, and retired June 30, 1992. McDonald died on November 22, 2017 in Niceville, Florida.

Gilmary M. Hostage III

Gilmary Michael "Mike" Hostage III, (born April 29, 1955) is a retired United States Air Force four-star general who last served as the commander, Air Combat Command from September 13, 2011 to October 2014. He previously served as commander, United States Air Forces Central, Southwest Asia. He retired from the Air Force after over 37 years of service.

As the commander of Air Combat Command, he is responsible for organizing, training, equipping and maintaining combat-ready forces for rapid deployment and employment while ensuring strategic air defense forces are ready to meet the challenges of peacetime air sovereignty and wartime defense. ACC operates more than 1,000 aircraft, 22 wings, 13 bases, and more than 300 operating locations worldwide with 79,000 active-duty and civilian personnel. When mobilized, the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve contribute more than 700 aircraft and 51,000 people to ACC. As the Combat Air Forces lead agent, ACC develops strategy, doctrine, concepts, tactics, and procedures for air- and space-power employment. The command provides conventional and information warfare forces to all unified commands to ensure air, space and information superiority for warfighters and national decision-makers. ACC can also be called upon to assist national agencies with intelligence, surveillance and crisis response capabilities.

As the Air Component Commander for U.S. Central Command, Hostage was responsible for developing contingency plans and conducting air operations in a 20-nation area of responsibility covering Central and Southwest Asia.

General Hostage entered the air force through Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps from Duke University in 1977 with a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering. He is also a graduate of the U.S. Air Force Fighter Weapons School, and a command pilot with more than 4,000 flying hours. He has flown combat missions in multiple aircraft, logging more than 600 combat hours in operations Desert Shield, Desert Storm, Southern Watch, Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn.

In May 2012, press reports have indicated Hostage ordered pilots to fly the F-22 Raptor despite problems with its oxygen system. Hostage has said that some of the problems the pilots encountered were simply limits of the human body, but that UAVs were not suitable for the AirSea Battle concept of the Pacific Pivot.Hostage has put forward the concept of a "combat cloud" for how manned and unmanned systems will work together in the USAF of the future.In 2014 Hostage said that his plans to retire the A-10 fleet would put greater demands on USAF pilots and that their readiness was crucial. He also doubted the usefulness of the planned Combat Rescue Helicopter in a serious conflict against modern air defenses, and that it might be better to just use the V-22.

James G. Jones

Major General James G. Jones (born 1934) is a retired United States Air Force general and former commander of the Keesler Technical Training Center, Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi.

Jones earned a bachelor of arts degree (cum laude) in mathematics from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1956 where he was a member of Phi Kappa Tau. He received a master's degree in public administration from Auburn University in 1975. General Jones was a distinguished graduate of Air Command and Staff College in 1968, and the Air War College in 1975. Both schools are located at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.

He was commissioned through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program in 1956 and received his navigator wings at Harlingen Air Force Base, Texas, in September 1957.

General Jones is a master navigator with 3,000 flying hours. His military decorations and awards include the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Meritorious Service Medal with oak leaf cluster, Air Medal with eight oak leaf clusters, Joint Service Commendation Medal, Air Force Commendation Medal with two oak leaf clusters, Combat Readiness Medal and Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal.

Air Force Distinguished Service Medal

Legion of Merit

Distinguished Flying Cross

Meritorious Service Medal with one oak leaf cluster

Air Medal with eight oak leaf clusters

Joint Service Commendation Medal

Air Force Commendation Medal with two oak leaf clusters

Combat Readiness Medal

Armed Forces Expeditionary MedalHe was promoted to major general on October 1, 1983, with date of rank of September 1, 1980. Jones retired from the Air Force on July 1, 1988.

Joseph K. Spiers

Joseph K. Spiers (born 1937) is an aerospace engineer and retired United States Air Force general, reaching the rank of major general during his military career.

Spiers was born in 1937, in Tarboro, North Carolina. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from North Carolina State University (where he was initiated into Phi Kappa Tau fraternity) and a Master of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering through the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in 1967. He completed Squadron Officer School in 1964, Air Command and Staff College in 1973, and the Air War College in 1976.

Upon graduation from college in 1959, he received his commission as a second lieutenant through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program. After completing pilot training at Moore Air Force Base, Texas, and Craig Air Force Base, Alabama, he served in the Air Training Command at Craig as an instructor pilot and academic instructor in T-33s and T-37s.

The general entered the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in September 1965. Upon graduation in July 1967 with a M.S. in Aerospace Engineering, he transferred to George Air Force Base, California, and upgraded to the F-4 Phantom. He served a year with the 559th Tactical Fighter Squadron in Vietnam and South Korea, flying 102 combat missions.

He returned to the United States in March 1969. For the next six years, he worked in the Air Force Systems Command at the Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California. Assignments at Edwards included project engineer for F-4E category II testing; the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School; research test pilot in the A-7, F-4, F-15, F-104 and U-2; deputy director, F-15 Joint Test Force; and maintenance control officer for the Flight Test Center.

General Spiers completed Air War College in June 1976 and for the next four years served with the Air Force Logistics Command, Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah, as chief of the F-16 Acquisition Division (system manager). From June 1980 to June 1982 he served as a military staff assistant to the director of defense test and evaluation in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Undersecretary of Defense for Research Engineering and Acquisition, Washington, D.C.

In July 1982 the general returned to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base as deputy for strategic missiles, space, electronic and armament programs, Air Force Acquisition Logistics Division. He became vice commander of the Air Force Acquisition Logistics Center in April 1983 and in August 1984 commanded the Logistics Operations Center. In July 1985 he became commander of the Air Force Acquisition Logistics Center. He was assigned as deputy chief of staff for logistics, Headquarters Pacific Air Forces, Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, in August 1986. General Spiers returned as commander of the Air Force Acquisition Logistics Center in May 1988. He became the commander of the Oklahoma City Air Material Area in September 1989, and retired from there on July 1, 1994. After retirement, he moved back to his family home in Tarboro, with plans to restore it.

The general is a command pilot with more than 3,400 flying hours. His military awards and decorations include the Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Air Medal with four oak leaf clusters, Air Force Commendation Medal, Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with oak leaf cluster, Air Force Organizational Excellence Award, National Defense Service Medal, Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, Vietnam Service Medal with five service stars, Air Force Overseas Ribbon-Short, Air Force Longevity Service Award Ribbon with five oak leaf clusters, Small Arms Expert Marksmanship Ribbon, Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm, and Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal.

Legion of Merit

Distinguished Flying Cross

Defense Meritorious Service Medal

Meritorious Service Medal

Air Medal with four oak leaf clusters

Air Force Commendation Medal

Air Force Outstanding Unit Award

Air Force Organizational Excellence Award

National Defense Service Medal

Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal

Vietnam Service Medal with five service stars

Air Force Overseas Ribbon-Short

Air Force Longevity Service Award Ribbon with five oak leaf clusters

Small Arms Expert Marksmanship Ribbon

Vietnam Gallantry Cross (with Palm)

Republic of Vietnam Campaign MedalHe was promoted to major general July 1, 1988, with same date of rank.

List of Tuskegee Airmen, Inc chapters

Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. (TAI) is a non-profit organization with 50 chapters nationwide dedicated to:

Honoring the accomplishments and perpetuating the history of African-Americans who participated in air crew, ground crew and operations support training in the Army Air Corps during World War II.

Introducing young people across the nation to the world of aviation and science through local and national programs such as Young Eagles and TAI youth programs.

Providing annual scholarships and awards to deserving individuals, groups and corporations whose deeds lend support to TAI's goals. TAI also gives awards to deserving cadets in the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC).

List of United States Air Force four-star generals

This is a complete list of four-star generals in the United States Air Force. The rank of general (or full general, or four-star general) is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Air Force. It ranks above lieutenant general (three-star general) and below General of the Air Force (five-star general).

There have been 218 four-star generals in the history of the U.S. Air Force. Of these, 214 achieved that rank while on active duty, 3 were promoted after retirement, and one was promoted posthumously. Generals entered the Air Force via several paths: 60 were commissioned via the U.S. Military Academy (USMA), 49 via the aviation cadet program, 40 via the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), 40 via Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) at a civilian university, 12 via AFROTC at a senior military college, 8 via Air Force Officer Training School (OTS), 4 via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 2 via direct commission (direct), one via Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university, one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the Army National Guard (ARNG), and one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).

Lloyd W. Newton

Lloyd W. "Fig" Newton (born December 24, 1942) is a retired United States Air Force four-star general who served as Commander, Air Education and Training Command (COMAETC) from 1997 to 2000. He was also the first African-American pilot in the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds.Newton was born in Ridgeland, South Carolina, where he graduated from Jasper High School. He earned a bachelor of science degree in aviation education from Tennessee State University in Nashville, where he was commissioned as a distinguished graduate through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program in 1966.

After completing pilot training at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, in June 1967, he attended F-4D qualification training at George Air Force Base, California. He flew 269 combat missions from Da Nang Air Base, South Vietnam, including 79 missions over North Vietnam. Newton was selected to join the U.S. Air Force Aerial Demonstration Squadron, the Thunderbirds, in November 1974. He held several positions including narrator, slot pilot and right wingman. From 1978 to 1982 he was assigned as an Air Force congressional liaison officer with the U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. He has commanded three wings and an air division, and held numerous staff positions. From 1993 to 1995 he was director of operations, J-3, United States Special Operations Command. Newton was a command pilot with more than 4,000 flying hours in the T-37, T-38, F-4, F-15, F-16, C-12 and F-117 stealth fighter.

In 2000 Newton joined Pratt & Whitney as the Vice President of Business Development (Military Engines), a position that he held until 2006.

In 2008 Newton endorsed Barack Obama for President and appeared on stage at the Democratic National Convention at Invesco Field with other former military leaders to lend support to Obama's campaign.

Marion Military Institute

Marion Military Institute, the Military College of Alabama, (MMI, sometimes Marion Institute, Marion Military, or simply Marion) is a public military junior college in Marion, Alabama. Founded in 1842, it is the official state military college of Alabama and the nation's oldest military junior college.Marion Military Institute is one of only four Military Junior Colleges in the United States. These programs include the Army's two-year Early Commissioning Program (ECP), an Army Reserve Officers Training Corps program through which qualified cadets can earn a commission as a Second Lieutenant after only two years of college. MMI's ECP is one of the country's leading U.S. Army commissioning programs. The Service Academy Program (SAP) is a freshman year of academic and physical preparation for students who wish to attend one of the Service Academies in the United States. It is designated, endorsed, and selected by all five Service Academies. MMI also offers Marine Corps Platoon Leaders Course (PLC) and the first two years of Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps. Over the years, MMI has produced more than 200 generals and admirals in the United States Armed Forces.MMI is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award Associate of Arts and Associate of Science degrees. It has association memberships in the Association of Military Colleges and Schools of the United States and the Alabama College Conference. The accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and the Commission on International and Trans-Regional Accreditation entitles all the services and privileges of regional, national and international professional recognition.

Marion Military Institute is an Alabama Historical Marker. It is the home of two National Register of Historic Places - The MMI Chapel and Lovelace Hall, and the President's House. The Alabama Military Hall of Honor (the Old Marion City Hall), created by executive order of Gov. George Wallace in 1975, is also on campus.

Penn State Air Force ROTC

The Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at Pennsylvania State University, known as Detachment 720, provides undergraduate students the opportunity to earn a commission as a second lieutenant in the United States Air Force immediately upon graduation from Penn State. The Air Force ROTC program takes 3 to 4 years to complete. Students do not incur an obligation to the Air Force unless they have accepted a scholarship or have entered the Professional Officer Course.

Prop and Wings

The Prop and Wings (propeller and wings) is a military insignia used to identify various aviation-related units in the United States military. The Prop and Wings originated as branch insignia of the United States Army Air Service in 1920, and remained such from 1926 to 1947 for the successor United States Army Air Corps. Approximately 90% of all officers serving in the United States Army Air Forces were commissioned in the Air Corps and wore the insignia. Versions of the insignia are still used by the United States Air Force and the United States Army Aviation Branch.

The original Prop and Wings insignia, with rounded wingtips, is currently most closely associated with the United States Air Force Academy. The Prop and Wings is worn by cadets on their flight caps, appears on many of the Academy's class crests, and is part of the logo of the Academy's Association of Graduates. The Prop and Wings insignia is traditionally awarded to Academy cadets at the end of their grueling fourth-class (freshman) year, signifying that they have been "recognized" as upper class cadets.

Cadets in the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps are awarded their Prop and Wings insignia after completing Field Training and entry into the Professional Officer Course. Officer Training School allows Basic Officer and Commissioned Officer trainees as well as National Guard Officer Candidates going through the Academy of Military Science to wear the Prop and Wings during the second half of their training.

Although the standard insignia is chrome, cadets from all commissioning sources are authorized to wear a gold Prop and Wings device if they are a direct descendant of a veteran who served in the Army Air Corps, Women Air Force Service Pilots, or were a graduate of the United States Air Force Academy.

Republic of Korea Air Force Education and Training Command

Republic of Korea Air Force Education and Training Command (AFETC, Hangul: 공군 교육사령부, Hanja: 空軍 敎育司令部), located in Jinju, was established 1973. The command is one of the major commands of the Republic of Korea Air Force. The total area of the base is about 1.1 million square meters.

Rudolf Anderson

Rudolf Anderson Jr. (September 15, 1927 – October 27, 1962), was a pilot and commissioned officer in the United States Air Force and the first recipient of the Air Force Cross, the U.S. Air Force's second-highest award for heroism. The only person killed by enemy fire during the Cuban Missile Crisis, Anderson died when his U-2 spy aircraft was shot down over Cuba.

Wills Gymnasium

Wills Gymnasium, often referred to as Wills Gym, was a multi-purpose athletic facility on the campus of Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, United States. Construction started in 1924 and the building was dedicated in 1925. It was the first dedicated gymnasium on the KSU campus, which had opened in 1913. Before the opening of Wills Gym, physical education classes and the intercollegiate and intramural sports teams used a variety of spaces for games and classes, both on campus in other buildings and off campus. The main gym seated approximately 4,000 people and the basement level included an indoor pool, locker rooms, and bowling alley. At the time, its capacity made it one of the largest facilities in the region. The building served as the primary home of the university's athletic teams and physical education department until 1950, when the Men's Physical Education Building opened. Wills Gym was the first permanent home of the Kent State Golden Flashes men's basketball team, and was also the original home venue for wrestling, men's swimming, men's and women's gymnastics, women's volleyball, and women's basketball.

Even after being replaced as the primary athletic venue and physical education facility, Wills Gym continued to be used as the home venue for men's gymnastics, later joined by women's gymnastics in 1959, and women's volleyball and basketball in 1975. It was also used for women's physical education, intramural sports, class registration, and other activities for nearly 30 years. By the 1970s, structural and maintenance issues along with the passage and implementation of Title IX resulted in plans to build a replacement for Wills. Women's basketball and volleyball left Wills after their respective 1977 seasons and moved to Memorial Gym, while both gymnastics teams played part of their home schedules at Wills until 1979. The building was condemned by the state of Ohio in the mid 1970s. Physical education classes and offices were moved to the new Memorial Gym Annex, completed in mid-1979. In August 1979, the gymnasium and pool were razed, though the portion of the building which had housed the physical education offices remained as Wills Hall and housed the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program from 1983–2000. A parking lot was built on the site of the gym and pool. In the early 2000s, Wills Hall was torn down and replaced with a lobby area as part of the renovation of the adjacent University Auditorium, which was renamed Cartwright Hall in 2006.

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