Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center

The Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (AFNWC) is a USAF Named Unit, assigned to the Air Force Materiel Command at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. The AFNWC operates at the Center level of the AFMC. It is currently under the command of Major General Shaun Morris.

Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center
Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center
Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center emblem
CountryUnited States
BranchUnited States Air Force
TypeNuclear Experts
RoleCombat Support
Part ofAir Force Materiel Command
Garrison/HQKirtland Air Force Base
Motto(s)"Never Doubted, Always Feared"
Organizational Excellence ribbon

Major General Shaun Morris
Special Weapons Command - Emblem
Emblem of the USAF Special Weapons Command (1949-1952)
Air Force Special Weapons Center - Emblem
Emblem of the USAF Special Weapons Center


The center's mission is to ensure safe, secure, and reliable nuclear weapon systems to support U.S. nuclear deterrence and the United States Air Force warfighter.

The AFNWC’s vision is to be the Air Force’s Center of Excellence for all nuclear weapon systems activities. The responsibilities of the Center include acquisition, modernization and sustainment of nuclear weapon systems for both the Departments of Defense and Energy.


Established on March 31, 2006, the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (AFNWC) is Air Force Materiel Command’s (AFMC) center of expertise for nuclear weapon systems. The AFNWC is the single AFMC voice for integrating nuclear weapon systems requirements and nuclear weapon system resource management.


The origin of the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center began during the post-World War II following the Manhattan Project, which was designed by the United States Army from the outset to be a temporary organization to produce a nuclear weapon. With the end of the war, the establishment of the "Z Division" at Sandia Base and later the Sandia National Laboratory led to the creation of a United States Army Air Forces organization to coordinate military activities with the civilian research organization in 1946. On September 18, 1947, President Harry S. Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, separating the Army Air Forces from the Army by creating the independent United States Air Force. The newly-formed Air Force began assuming activities with nuclear research laboratories as the Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union was rising.

Initially part of Continental Air Command and Air Material Command, the center was established as the Air Force Special Weapons Command as a Major Command of the United States Air Force on 1 December 1949. It was equal to the Air Defense Command, Strategic Air Command, and Tactical Air Command. It assumed all functions of the World War II Atomic Tactical and Technical Liaison Committees, its mission was to provide an organization for the development and testing of atomic weapons. The nucleus of this organization was composed of the pioneering Air Force agencies which had located there to determine future employment of nuclear weapons.

The SWC was headquartered at Kirtland AFB. The mission was to provide an organization for development testing of special weapons, including atomic, biological, and chemical weapons, and to increase the efficiency of airborne vehicles to carry these weapons. As a result, the responsibility for biological-chemical warfare research was moved from Wright-Patterson AFB to the SWC at Kirtland. The SWC assumed all the functions of the old USAF Field Office for Atomic Energy [TandTLC] and employed personnel who were transferred from that office to form the cadre of the HQ, SWC. The command was also directed to provide personnel and equipment for development and proof testing of aircraft equipment and ground handling appurtenance to special weapons. Shortly after it was established, the SWC took over the host responsibilities for Kirtland from Air Materiel Command.[1]

SWC served as the primary source for scientific and technical information on special weapons development. To accomplish its mission, SWC redesignated numerous units that had been under the USAF Field Office of Atomic Energy with no change in station. SWC units at Kirtland in 1951 were:[1]

It appears that the 4901st Special Weapons Wing had administrative control over the groups, with the 4905th Maintenance and Supply Group and the 4910th Air Base Group serving as support and the base host, respectively, while the 4925th Special Weapons Group was the group actively involved with atomic testing.[1]

In January 1950, President Truman directed the Atomic Energy Commission to emphasize thermonuclear research, with the prime objective to become operational in delivering hydrogen bombs. The primary USAF group to work on this mission was the 4925th Special Weapons Group. The 4925th Special Weapons Group was a mix of elite U.S. airmen and support personnel tasked with testing all aircraft in the USAF inventory for nuclear weapons delivery capability. The top bomber and fighter pilots in the USAF and expert support personnel were transferred to the 4925th Special Weapons Group. In July 1951, the 4925th Special Weapons Group was redesignated the 4925th Test Group (Atomic) and continued for 11 years as an important component of Kirtland ’s nuclear responsibilities.[1]

SWC’s responsibilities expanded in July 1951 to include monitoring the Military Weapons Effects Program, the ongoing series of full-scale nuclear tests, and exercising overall control over participating USAF personnel. The 4930th Test Support Group was "a holding cadre for USAF participating personnel of overseas nuclear testing Joint Task Forces".[1]

The command was redesignated the Air Force Special Weapons Center (AFSWC) and assigned to Air Research and Development Command on 1 April 1952, losing major command status and became a subordinate unit of the Air Research and Development Command.

As the AFSWC, it became one of the distinct research and development centers within the command. Its mission was to ensure the atomic capability of aircraft and missiles. During the 1950s, assigned personnel and aircraft participated in atmospheric nuclear tests in Nevada and the Pacific Proving Grounds. The first Air Force scientific capabilities at the base were created during the mid-1950s. Biophysicists deliberately flew aircraft through nuclear clouds to determine radiation hazards. Engineers also launched sounding rockets so physicists could study the effects of high-altitude nuclear explosions and the nature of the recently discovered Van Allen radiation belts around the Earth.

From the early years of Cold War, the need to test and evaluate supersonic aircraft technologies, associated munitions, and eventually space systems, required the Air Force to build specialized ground test facilities. As nuclear weapons and electronics became more a part of air power, two new locations for Test and Evaluation (T&E) were created. The Special Weapons Center (SWC) at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico concentrated on the technologies supporting nuclear weapons development.

Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts concentrated on new levels of sophistication in electronics and avionics development. However, both locations were closed for testing in the late 1970s because the Air Force felt that limited Research and Development funds were better spent on technology than on infrastructure.

One aspect of the testing environment involves the features a particular location might offer that could help (or hinder) testing of weapons such as supersonic aircraft technologies, associated munitions, and space systems. For example, the Special Weapons Center was established at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico because of the concentration of technologies and industries supporting nuclear weapons development in the region.

In 1958 Special Weapons Center scientists began to simulate the effects of nuclear explosions in order to strengthen US missiles, missile sites and aircraft against possible enemy attack. It was in 1958 that a nuclear effects simulator was first constructed in an abandoned dining hall at Kirtland.

In the wake of the signing of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) was created from the Research Directorate elements of the Special Weapons Center. The Special Weapons Center gave up much of its research and development work to the newly created Air Force Weapons Laboratory. The Center continued with its test and evaluation mission and as Kirtland's host organization. The Weapons Laboratory built facilities during the 1960s to simulate nuclear effects such as transient radiation, X-rays, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP).

The Special Weapons Center took over management of Air Force Systems Command's test and evaluation facilities at Holloman Air Force Base near Alamogordo, New Mexico, during the summer of 1970. And, just one year later on 1 July 1971, Kirtland merged with Manzano and Sandia Base, its neighbors to the east, creating the sprawling military complex known as Kirtland Air Force Base. The center then began providing base support services and continued to do so for the next five years, while Field Command, Defense Nuclear Agency, became a major base tenant rather than the base host organization.

Because of budget restrictions and the need to save money, the Air Force Special Weapons Center was disestablished on 1 April 1976. In 1976 AFSWC was closed and OPR functions came to the AFWL. Special Weapons Center's responsibilities as Kirtland's "landlord" were also transferred to the Air Force Contract Management Division on the same day.

On March 31, 2006, the Air Force reactivated the unit as the Nuclear Weapons Center, combining oversight of nuclear weapons under a single organization. In 2008, the Nuclear Weapons Center was redesignated the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center.

In an effort to simplify nuclear sustainment and acquisition, the center was reorganized again in 2015. The 377th Air Base Wing was transferred to Air Force Global Strike Command and maintenance activities in Europe to United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa effective October 1, 2015. At that time, the AFNWC commander became dual-hatted as the Program Executive Officer for Strategic Systems aligning the sustainment activities previously handled by the center with the acquisition functions handled by the Program Executive Officer.[2][3]


  • Established as: 428th Army Air Forces Base Unit (Flight Test) (later: Special) and activated, 1 February 1946
Re-designated as: 2758th Air Force Base Unit, 28 August 1948
Re-designated as: 2758th Experimental Wing, 1 June 1949
  • Established as the Special Weapons Command (a USAF Major Command), and activated on 1 December 1949
2758th Experimental Wing becoming subordinate unit
Re-designated: Air Force Special Weapons Center (lost Major Command status) on 1 April 1952
Inactivated on: 1 April 1976
  • Re-designated: Nuclear Weapons Center on 14 February 2006
Activated on: 31 March 2006
Re-designated: Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center on 29 February 2008


Re-designated: 4901st Special Weapons Wing, 1 December 1949
Re-designated: 4901st Support Wing (Atomic), 1 July 1951
Re-designated: 4900th Air Base Group (later Wing), 1 April 1952-1 April 1976
Re-designated: 4925th Test Group, 1 July 1951-31 August 1961





 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

  1. ^ a b c d e NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES HISTORIC CONTEXT AND EVALUATION FOR KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE Albuquerque, New Mexico Archived June 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^

External links

Template:USAF Materiel Command

377th Air Base Wing

The 377th Air Base Wing is a wing of the United States Air Force based at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. The wing has been the host unit at Kirtland since January 1993. It was activated on 1 January 1993, when Air Force Materiel Command assumed responsibility for operating the base from Air Mobility Command.

The wing was first organized in 1966 as the 377th Combat Support Group at Tan Son Nhut Airport, Republic of Vietnam. In 1972, it was expanded to wing level and gained a tactical flying mission. It began phasing down in early 1973 and transferred most of its remaining assets to the Vietnamese Air Force before inactivating.

The wing was activated in 1985 as the host organization at Ramstein Air Base and served in that capacity until it was inactivated in 1991 when United States Air Forces Europe implemented the Objective Wing organization, combining all functions at Ramstein under the 86th Wing.

498th Nuclear Systems Wing

The 498th Nuclear Systems Wing was a wing of the United States Air Force based at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

526th Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Systems Group

The 526th Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Systems Group (526 ICBMG) is an inactive United States Air Force (USAF) unit. It was last located at Hill AFB, Utah, where it was inactivated in 2010. The group was first activated during World War II to conduct anti-submarine warfare in the Caribbean and off the Atlantic seaboard of Georgia and Florida. It was again active during the Cold War as an Atlas missile wing. Its final period of active service was as a systems and sustainment organization for USAF missile systems.

Air Force Materiel Command

Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) is a major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force (USAF). AFMC was created on July 1, 1992, through the amalgamation of the former Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) and the former Air Force Systems Command (AFSC).

AFMC is headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. AFMC is one of ten Air Force Major Commands and has a workforce of approximately 80,000 military and civilian personnel. It is the Air Force's largest command in terms of funding and second in terms of personnel. AFMC's operating budget represents 31 percent of the total Air Force budget and AFMC employs more than 40 percent of the Air Force's total civilian workforce.

The command conducts research, development, testing and evaluation, and provides the acquisition and life cycle management services and logistics support. The command develops, acquires and sustains the aerospace power needed to defend the United States and its interests. This is accomplished through research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, maintenance and program management of existing and future USAF weapon systems and their components.

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DARPA is independent of other military research and development and reports directly to senior Department of Defense management. DARPA has about 220 employees, of whom approximately 100 are in management.The name of the organization first changed from its founding name ARPA to DARPA in March 1972, briefly changing back to ARPA in February 1993, only to revert to DARPA in March 1996.

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Major General Garrett Harencak is the Commander, Air Force Recruiting Service. Previously, he served as the Assistant Chief of Staff for Strategic Deterrence and Nuclear Integration, Headquarters U. S. Air Force. Prior this position, Harencak served as commander of the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (AFNWC), Air Force Material Command at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. The AFNWC is responsible for the entire scope of U.S. Air Force nuclear weapons support functions and in addition to its headquarters at Kirtland, comprises several other units in the U.S and abroad.

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Hill Air Force Base (IATA: HIF, ICAO: KHIF, FAA LID: HIF) is a major U.S. Air Force base located in northern Utah, just south of the city of Ogden, and near the towns of Layton, Clearfield, Riverdale, Roy, and Sunset. It is about 30 miles (48 km) north of Salt Lake City. The base was named in honor of Major Ployer Peter Hill of the U.S. Army Air Corps, who died test-flying NX13372, the original Model 299 prototype of the B-17 Flying Fortress bomber. In this decade Hill AFB is still the sixth-largest employer in the state of Utah, and the third-largest one excluding the State Government and Higher Education employers.

Hill AFB is the home of the Air Force Materiel Command's (AFMC) Ogden Air Logistics Complex which is the worldwide manager for a wide range of aircraft, engines, missiles, software, avionics, and accessories components. The commander of the Air Logistics Complex is Brigadier General H. Brent Baker Sr. The Ogden Air Logistics Complex is part of the Air Force Sustainment Center.

The host unit at Hill AFB is the Air Force Material Command's 75th Air Base Wing (75 ABW), which provides services and support for the Ogden Air Logistics Complex and its subordinate organizations. The Wing and Installation Commander of Hill Air Force Base is Colonel Ronald Jolly. Additional tenant units at Hill AFB include operational fighter wings of the Air Combat Command (ACC) and the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC).

Kirtland Air Force Base

Kirtland Air Force Base (IATA: ABQ, ICAO: KABQ) is a United States Air Force base located in the southeast quadrant of the Albuquerque, New Mexico urban area, adjacent to the Albuquerque International Sunport. The base was named for the early Army aviator Col. Roy C. Kirtland. The military and the international airport share the same runways, making ABQ a joint civil-military airport.

Kirtland AFB is the largest installation in Air Force Global Strike Command and sixth largest in the Air Force. The base occupies 51,558 acres and employs over 23,000 people, including more than 4,200 active duty and 1,000 Guard, plus 3,200 part-time Reserve personnel. In 2000, Kirtland AFB's economic impact on the City of Albuquerque was over $2.7 billion.

Kirtland is the home of the Air Force Materiel Command's Nuclear Weapons Center (NWC). The NWC's responsibilities include acquisition, modernization and sustainment of nuclear system programs for both the Department of Defense and Department of Energy.The NWC is composed of two wings–the 377th Air Base Wing and 498th Nuclear Systems Wing–along with ten groups and 7 squadrons.

Kirtland is home to the 58th Special Operations Wing (58 SOW), an Air Education and Training Command (AETC) unit that provides formal aircraft type/model/series training. The 58 SOW operates the HC-130J, MC-130J, UH-1N Huey, HH-60G Pave Hawk and CV-22 Osprey aircraft. Headquarters, Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center is also located at Kirtland AFB.

The 150th Special Operations Wing of the New Mexico Air National Guard, an Air Combat Command (ACC)-gained unit, is also home-based at Kirtland.

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Development of the Minuteman began in the mid-1950s, when basic research indicated that an ICBM might be powered by solid fuel rocket motors. Such a rocket might be able to stand ready to launch for long periods of time, in contrast to liquid-fueled rockets that required fueling before launch and so might be destroyed in a surprise attack. The missile was named for the Colonial Minutemen of the American Revolutionary War, who could be ready to fight on short notice.The Minuteman entered service in 1962 as a deterrence weapon that could hit Soviet cities with a second strike and countervalue counterattack if the U.S. was attacked. However, the development of the United States Navy's Polaris missile, which addressed the same role, allowed the Air Force to modify the Minuteman, boosting its accuracy enough to attack hardened military targets, including Soviet missile silos. The Minuteman-II entered service in 1965 with a host of upgrades to improve its accuracy and survivability in the face of an anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system the Soviets were known to be developing. The Minuteman-III followed in 1970, using three smaller warheads instead of one large one, which made it difficult to counter because the ABMs would have to hit all three widely separated warheads to be effective. The Minuteman-III was the first multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) ICBM to be deployed. Each missile can carry up to three thermonuclear weapons, and were initially armed with the W62 warhead with a yield of 170 kilotons.

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Major General Rose retired on 16 June 2017. She is married to retired Navy LT Julie Roth.

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