An aide-de-camp (UK: /ˌeɪddəˈkɒ̃/, US: /-ˈkæmp/;[1] French expression meaning literally helper in the [military] camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state.

An aide-de-camp may participate at ceremonial functions, and the first aide-de-camp is typically the foremost personal aide. This is not to be confused with an adjutant, who is the senior administrator of a military unit.

The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is usually the aiguillette, a braided cord in gold or other colours, worn on the shoulder of a uniform. Whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol.

In some countries, aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, which confers the post-nominal letters ADC or A de C.

Napoleon Division General by Bellange
A French aide-de-camp (right) assisting a général de division (centre), during the Napoleonic wars.


In Argentina, three officers (one from each armed service, of the rank of lieutenant colonel or its equivalent), are appointed as aide-de-camp to the president of the republic and three others to the minister of defense, these six being the only ones to be called "edecán", which is one Spanish translation for aide-de-camp ("ayudante de campo" is another – "edecán" is a phonetic imitation of the French term; "ayudante de campo" is a word-for-word translation of it).

A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, one year ahead of his class. Upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp.

In each of the armed forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants, normally of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel, or its equivalent. At unit level, the unit S-1 (personnel officer) doubles as the unit commander's adjutant, although in recent times in many units this practice has been left only for ceremonial purposes, while for everyday duties a senior NCO performs the adjutant's activities.

An aiguillette is worn on the right shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position, the colour of the aiguillette depending of the rank of the person they are serving (there are golden, tan, silver and red aiguillettes, as well as an olive-green one for combat uniform).


In Belgium the title of honorary aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the royal court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John d'Oultremont, and Lieutenant General Baron Albert du Roy de Blicquy.

Commonwealth of Nations countries

Her Aide-de-Camp, early 19th-century humorous/symbolic drawing

An aide-de-camp, according to an 1816 military dictionary, was defined as an officer appointed to attend a general officer, and was traditionally seldom under the grade of captain: "The King may appoint for himself as many as he pleases, which appointment gives the rank of colonel in the army. Generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one".[2]

In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, an aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor and, later, the governor general. These aides were mostly from military branches or native auxiliaries. They were entitled to use letters ADC or A de C after their names.[3] The emblem of the office is the aiguillette worn on their uniform.


Australian Defence Force officers serve as aides-de-camp to specific senior appointments, such as the Queen, Governor-General, state governors, Chief of the Defence Force, and other specified Army, Navy and Air Force command appointments. Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment. Officers of and above the ranks of rear admiral, major general, and air vice marshal in specifically designated command appointments are entitled to an aide de camp with the army rank of captain (or equivalent). Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a "flag lieutenant" (as senior naval officers are "flag officers").


In 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, and his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House.


Lise Thibault-flags
Aide-de-camp Colonel Jean-Claude Cloutier with then–Quebec Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault.

Aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, and to certain other appointments (e.g., Minister of National Defence, flag and general officers, Canadian heads of mission, foreign heads of state visiting Canada).[4]

In addition to the military officers appointed as full-time aides-de-camp to the governor general, several other flag/general and senior officers are appointed ex officio as honorary aides-de-camp to the governor general or Members of the Royal Family including:[4]

Most aides-de-camp wear a gold pattern aiguillette when acting in their official capacity; however, members of St. John Ambulance Canada wear silver aiguillettes consistent with their other accoutrements as aide-de-camp or as a symbol of ceremonial representation such as a member of the honour guard or a position of command on parade. All aides-de-camp also wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed.[5] Honorary appointees to the Queen (royal cypher), to the Duke of Edinburgh, or the Prince of Wales, wear the appropriate cypher on their uniform epaulette and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters ADC for the duration of their appointment.

Aide de camp insignia to Canadian Lieutenant Governors
Royal Canadian Navy shoulder boards worn by honorary aides-de-camp to the lieutenant governors of British Columbia (left) Québec (centre) and New Brunswick (right)

Aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor general's badge (crest of the arms of Canada) and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governor's badge (the shield of the province surmounted by a crown).[5] They are appointed from officers of the Canadian Forces. Aides-de-camp to lieutenant governors are appointed from officers of the Canadian Forces, Royal Canadian Mounted Police and, depending on the province, aides may also be appointed from other uniformed organizations such as municipal or provincial police and emergency services. In certain instances, civilians may be appointed. Non-uniformed civilians do not wear the aiguillette, but do wear their lieutenant governor's badge as a symbol of their appointment. On 29 November 1973, Governor General Roland Michener concluded his initiative to permit aides-de-camp to the governor general and lieutenant governors to use the post-nominal letters A de C for the duration of their appointment.[3][6]

Aides-de-camp to royal and vice-regal personages wear the aiguillette on the right shoulder. Aides-de-camp to all others wear their aiguillette on the left shoulder.[5]


Ram Nath Kovind with Dipak Mishra
A presidential aide-de-camp can be seen to the left of President Ram Nath Kovind, who has just administered the oath of office to Indian chief justice Dipak Misra on 28 August 2017.

In India, officers of the rank of major general and equivalent and above in the sister services who are in command of divisions or of peacetime commands have aides-de-camp who usually belong to their general's parent regiment/battalion. There have been instances where the sons have served a tenure of aide-de-camp to their fathers. The service chiefs (Chief of the Army/Air/Navy Staff) usually have three aides-de-camp and the President of India has five aides-de-camp (three from the army and one each from the navy and the air force). There is also one honorary aide-de-camp from the Territorial Army.The president may at his pleasure appoint any distinguished officer from the armed forces including the service chiefs as honorary aide-de-camp. The governors of the states have two aides-de-camp, one each from the Indian armed forces and the Indian and state police services except for the state of Jammu and Kashmir where both the aides-de-camp to the governor are appointed from the Indian Army.

New Zealand

As in other Commonwealth countries where the Queen is head of state, personnel from the New Zealand Defence Force serve as aides-de-camp to royal and vice-regal personages. The governor-general of New Zealand has two full-time aides-de-camp of the rank of army captain, lieutenant RNZN or RNZAF flight lieutenant. Additional and honorary aides-de-camp to the governor-general are of the rank of lieutenant colonel or equivalent. Aiguilettes are of the standard palace No. 1 type and worn on the right shoulder. Equivalent appointments also serve the minister of Defence, the chief of Defence Force and service chiefs. These are usually known as military assistants (MA) personal staff officers (PSOs) or, in the case of the RNZN, flag lieutenant (flags), and wear service-specific No. 2 aigullettes with coloured flecks (dark blue for navy, red for army and light blue for air force) on the left shoulder.


In Pakistan the President, Prime Minister and Governors have their own aides-de-camp. The aide-de-camp can be from any one of the three Armed Forces and typically are of the rank of captain (army), lieutenant (navy) or flight lieutenant (air force). The aide-de-camp to Justice Khan Habibullah Khan, while he was chief minister and leader of the house of West Pakistan, was his son, a senior bureaucrat, Captain Akhtar Munir Marwat and Captain Gohar Ayub Khan was to his father, President Field Marshal Ayub Khan. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee and all the three service chiefs are authorised to have an aide-de-camp. In Pakistan, officers of the rank of major general and equivalent and above in the sister services who are in command of divisions or of peacetime commands have aides-de-camp who usually belong to their general's parent regiment/battalion.

Papua New Guinea

As in other commonwealth realms where the Queen is head of state, the governor-general of Papua New Guinea has two full-time aides-de-camp. One is from the Papua New Guinea Defence Force and one from the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary of the ranks of PNGDF Captain and RPNGC Superintendent.[7]


In Singapore, the President appoints aides-de-camp from the armed services as well as officers selected from the police force and civil defence force. These officers usually hold the rank of major or military expert 5 in the armed services or major in the Singapore civil defence force, whereas an assistant superintendent of police is chosen from the Singapore police force. Both male and female officers may serve as aides-de-camp.

Their duties include assisting in liaison for important guests on behalf of the president and taking care of visiting foreign dignitaries.[8]

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the president has aides-de-camp from the three armed services as well as extra aides-de-camp. All general, flag and air officers have their own aide-de-camp, usually selected from their parent regiment or unit. In the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a flag lieutenant. Junior officers of the rank of major and below serve as aide-de-camp, appointed only if they have completed three years of commissioned service. Officers appointed as an aide-de-camp or extra aide-de-camp can serve a maximum of three years, with the exception of those serving the president. Once an officer completes a term of service as an aide-de-camp or extra aide-de-camp, the officer can not be reappointed to a similar position for another two years. Medical officers of the rank of lieutenant colonel and above can be appointed as Honorary Physician to the President or Honorary Surgeon to the President.[9]

Twice in 1992, Sri Lankan aides-de-camp were killed in service, and in 2006 an aide-de-camp was seriously injured:


Enhancing HIV Medical Research in Tanzania - Kikwete at WRAIR - U.S Army Africa - 091005
Dr. Jakaya Kikwete, President of Tanzania, with his aide-de-camp (right) in 2009

The President of Tanzania has an aide-de-camp from the Tanzania People's Defence Force, with the rank of Kanali (colonel).

United Kingdom

Baker Russell
General Sir Baker Russell wearing the full-dress uniform of an aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria

In the United Kingdom, junior officers serve as aides-de-camp to certain senior officers. Flag lieutenant is the Royal Navy's equivalent. Equerries are equivalents to aides-de-camp in the Royal Household, in which aides-de-camp are restricted to senior officers with a primarily honorific role.

There are several categories of these senior aides-de-camp to the Queen, which entitle the aide-de-camp to the post-nominal letters "ADC". Most are serving army, navy, and air force officers, usually of colonel or brigadier rank or equivalent. There are also specific posts for very senior officers, such as first and principal naval aide-de-camp, flag aide-de-camp, aides de camp general, and air aides-de-camp. Analogous offices include the Lieutenant of the Admiralty, the Rear Admiral of the United Kingdom, and the Gold Stick and Silver Stick.

Certain members of the Royal Family with military rank may be appointed personal aides-de-camp to the Queen. Those currently holding this appointment are HRH The Duke of Kent; HRH The Prince of Wales; HRH The Duke of Cambridge; HRH The Duke of York; HRH The Earl of Wessex; HRH The Duke of Sussex and Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence. In addition, when wearing a military uniform, HRH The Duke of Edinburgh wears the insignia of a personal aide-de-camp to the Queen's father, King George VI.

Aides-de-camp and equerries (along with certain other officers) are distinguished by the addition of aiguillettes to dress uniforms, which differ in size, colour and position of wear, depending on the appointment. In addition, aides-de-camp to the monarch wear the monarch's royal cypher on their shoulder straps in various orders of dress. A distinctive and elaborate full dress uniform used to be worn by army aides-de-camp, but its use was largely discontinued after World War I.


The President, as commander-in-chief of the French armed forces, is served by aides-de-camp. In general, there are three, including one who traditionally serves in the French Army, and all of whom are at the rank of lieutenant colonel. In essence, their mission is to transport the briefcase permitting the use of nuclear weapons. They can also provide general assistance to the President: For instance, at times aides-de-camp are seen placing the president's speech on his lectern when he arrives, or holding up notes during award ceremonies to remind him of the official words to be pronounced when handing over medals.

When the president travels, an aide-de-camp often rides in the front passenger seat of the presidential car. He is one of the people who are closest to the president.

Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Police Force, the Fire Services Department, the Customs and Excise Department, the Immigration Department, the Government Flying Service, the Civil Aid Service, the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the St. John Ambulance Brigade, and the Correctional Services Department each sends an aide-de-camp to the territory's chief executive, which replaced the governor in 1997.

On the last day of British rule in Hong Kong on 30 June 1997, the police aide-de-camp to Governor Chris Patten, presented Patten with the flag at Government House. He then gave the Vice Regal Salute before proceeding, with the Pattens, to leave Government House for the last time.

Imperial Russia

Levitsky Lanskoy
Portrait of Alexander Lanskoy, aide-de-camp to the Empress, 1782, Russia

In the 18th-Century, under Catherine the Great of Russia, favorites of the Empress were frequently appointed as her aides-de-camp.


From 1896 until the end of World War II, the Emperors of Japan had army and naval aides-de-camp.


Royal aide-de-camp in the the ceremonial Progress for Royal Funeral of Ananda Mahidol
Royal aide-de-camp (center) in the ceremonial progress for the royal funeral of King Ananda Mahidol

Royal Thai Aide-De-Camp Department is a royal service agency under the Royal Security Command. It is responsible for organizing royal appearances and maintaining the safety of the Thai Royal Family. Royal Thai aide-de-camps are also appointed to senior officers of the Thai army, navy, and air force. King Chulalongkorn initiated the Royal Guard in 1870, during his visit to Singapore and Indonesia. He had Lieutenant General Prince Suksvasti serve as his aide, and Prince Suksvasti is considered the first Thai aide-de-camp.[15]

United States

The staff officers of Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, U. S. Navy, ascend steps to their quarters near the "Little White... - NARA - 199003
US Captain A. S. McDill (left rear), aide-de-camp to Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, COMINCH.
Aide de Camp holds a brigadier general's flag as the general unfurls it

Military officers are assigned as aides to the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of Defense, Vice President, and President of the United States. For government officials with more than one aide, the senior-ranking aide usually coordinates the activities of the other aides as well as personal attendants such as drivers or orderlies.

The President has five military aides, one from each of the armed services. The President's aides from the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force are majors or lieutenant colonels, and the aides from the Navy and Coast Guard are lieutenant commanders or commanders. One of their major roles is to hold the Presidential emergency satchel. In addition to the five permanent aides-de-camp, there are some 40–45 military social aides holding more junior ranks from lieutenant to major. Their appointment is temporary and part-time, serving for perhaps two to four afternoons a month as required, for social purposes such as gatherings hosted at the White House.

Within the United States Army, aides-de-camp are specifically appointed to General-grade officers (NATO Code OF-6 through OF-10). The usual tour of duty for aides is up to two years. Although Congress has authorized general officers to be assigned up to three officer aides, their number and rank being contingent upon the general's grade, Army regulations have traditionally limited each general to a single officer aide.[16][17] Some generals are also authorized to have enlisted aides on their staff.[18] A general, based on his or her grade, may choose for an aide-de-camp any commissioned officer up to the following maximum rank:[16]

Brigadier general: Lieutenant
Major general: Captain
Lieutenant General: Major
General: Lieutenant Colonel
General of the Army: Lieutenant Colonel, and 3 authorized enlisted aides[17]
Chief of Staff, U.S. Army: Lieutenant Colonel, and 4 authorized enlisted aides[19]

Lieutenant colonels and colonels in command of units (battalions and brigades, respectively) do not have aides. Occasionally, the unit's adjutant (S-1) will assist the commanding officer as an aide, but this is uncommon. A General of the Army does not retire and remains an officer of the United States Army for life, entitled to an aide of the rank of Colonel.

U.S. Army aides-de-camp wear a special device in place of the branch-of-service insignia (e.g., infantry, artillery, quartermaster) that they would otherwise wear on the lapels of their service uniform. The rank of the General Officer being served is indicated on the device worn by the aide-de-camp, as illustrated below. Although the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are O-10 positions, their aides-de-camp wear devices specific to those offices, rather than the normal four-star aide device. Also, an aide-de-camp wears a special aiguillette on the shoulder of his or her dress uniform.

Lapel insignia of an aide-de-camp to a U.S. Army Brigadier General

Insignia for an aide to a brigadier general


Insignia for an aide to a major general


Insignia for an aide to a lieutenant general


Insignia for an aide to a general


Insignia for an aide to a General of the Army (the most recent General of the Army retired from active service in 1953)

Aide VCoS-Army BC

Insignia for an aide to the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army


Insignia for an aide to the Chief of Staff of the Army

Aide UnderSec-Army BC

Insignia for an aide to the Under Secretary of the Army


Insignia for an aide to the Secretary of the Army

Branch insignia, Aide to Vice Chief, National Guard Bureau

Insignia for an aide to the Vice Chief of the National Guard Bureau

Branch insignia, Aide to Chief, National Guard Bureau

Insignia for an aide to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau


Insignia for an aide to the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff


Insignia for an aide to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff


Insignia for an aide to the Secretary of Defense

Aide-de-camp insignia for VP aide

Insignia for an aide to the Vice President of the United States


Insignia for an aide to the President of the United States

In the United States Navy, the aide-de-camp to an admiral is also known as a "flag aide" (command ashore) or "flag lieutenant" (command afloat).[20][21]


See also


  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917]. Roach, Peter; Hartmann, James; Setter, Jane (eds.). English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 3-12-539683-2.
  2. ^ James, Charles (1816). An Universal Military Dictionary, in English and French (4th ed.). London: T. Egerton. p. 8.
  3. ^ a b Canada Gazette, 9 February 1974.
  4. ^ a b Canadian Forces Administrative Order 3–4.
  5. ^ a b c Canadian Forces Publication 265.
  6. ^ "Styles of address – Others". Canadian Heritage.
  7. ^ "Staff Pay Tribute to Late Sir Michael Ogio". Post Courier. Papua New Guinea.
  8. ^ "103 honorary aides-de-camp appointed". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  9. ^ "Sri Lanka Army Officers Service Regulations" (PDF).
  10. ^ "Gen. Denzil Kobbekaduwa, who led from the front". Sunday Observer. Sri Lanka. 5 August 2007. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014.
  11. ^ "Suicide Terrorism: A Global Threat". Jane's Intelligence Review. 20 October 2000. Archived from the original on 20 August 2001.
  12. ^ Bloom, Mia (24 May 2009). "What the Tigers Taught Al-Qaeda". Washington Post.
  13. ^ "Fonseka still critical after suicide bomb attack". Tamil Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  14. ^ "If This Is Called Peace". Time Magazine. Retrieved 30 April 2006.
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b "Army Regulation 614-100: Officer Assignment Policies, Details, and Transfers" (PDF). Assignments, Details and Transfers. U.S. Department of the Army. 10 January 2006. pp. 8–9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  17. ^ a b U.S. Army Quartermaster Center and School (July 2010). "Enlisted Aide Training Course" (PDF). Fort Lee, Virginia: Army Center of Excellence, Subsistence. p. 34. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 February 2017.
  18. ^ General Officer Management Office (August 2010). "Officer/Enlisted Aide Handbook" (PDF). U.S. Department of the Army. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 June 2017.
  19. ^ "Army Regulation 614-200: Enlisted Assignments and Utilization Management" (PDF). Assignments, Details and Transfers. U.S. Department of the Army. 29 November 2017. p. 76, para. 8-11a. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2019.
  20. ^ "Flag Aide". United States Navy — Navy Personnel Command. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  21. ^ "PERS-412 Flag Aide Nomination Availabilities List" (PDF). United States Navy — Navy Personnel Command. 27 January 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.

Further reading

External links

1889 Birthday Honours

The 1889 Birthday Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The Queen, and were published in the London Gazette on 24 May 1889 and in The Times on 25 May 1889.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1905 Birthday Honours

The 1905 Birthday Honours for the British Empire were announced on 30 June, to celebrate the birthday of Edward VII on 9 November.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1947 Orange Bowl

The 1947 Orange Bowl was a postseason football game featuring the Tennessee Volunteers and the Rice Owls. It was won by Rice on the strength of a first-quarter touchdown and a safety on a bad snap during a Tennessee quick kick. Rice outgained Tennessee 246–145 and both teams combined for 9 turnovers.The pageantry surrounding the game consisted of a halftime show in which over 10,000 balloons were released and an appearance by Generals Dwight D. Eisenhower and Howard McCrum Snyder. Eisenhower's group also consisted of his former Aide-de-camp Charles Craig Cannon and Coral Gables Mayor Tom Mayes. Eisenhower claimed publicly to be taking no sides, but was close friends with Tennessee coach General Robert R. Neyland.

Aide-de-camp general

Aide-de-camp general is a senior honorary appointment for general officers in the British Army. The recipient is appointed as an aide-de-camp general to the head of state, currently Queen Elizabeth II. They are entitled to the post-nominals "ADC (Gen.)".

The Royal Air Force's equivalent appointment is air aide-de-camp, while the Royal Navy's is First and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp.

Aide-de-camp to the Emperor of Japan

In Japan, the aide-de-camp to the Emperor (侍従武官, jiju bukan) is a special military official whose primary duties are to report military affairs to the Emperor and act as a close attendant (chamberlain). From 1896 through to 1945, a small number of army and naval aides-de-camp were supplied to the Emperor due to his increased status and the risks to him during wartime.

An excerpt from the 113th Imperial decree of Meiji-29 (1896) (明治29年勅令第113号):

Aides-de-camp to the Emperor will perform attendant duties and will relay to him military matters and orders, be present at military reviews [in his name] and accompanying him to formal ceremonies and interviews.Both Prime Minister Suzuki Kantaro (鈴木貫太郎) and Anami Korechika (阿南惟幾), army ministers at the end of the war, are said to have contributed to the Potsdam Declaration acceptance by means of their responsibilities to Emperor Showa as the grand chamberlain and aide-de-camp to the Emperor in 1929 (Showa-4).

Moreover, to the Crown Prince, the Imperial Family, and the mediatized Korean royal family (Oukouzoku (王公族), the former Korean imperial family), aides-de-camp were also provided. The military officers serving the Oukouzoku wore silver aiguillettes over their uniform.

Air aide-de-camp

An air aide-de-camp is a senior honorary aide-de-camp appointment for air officers in the Royal Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force and the Indian Air Force. Normally the recipient is appointed as an air aide-de-camp to the head of state. The British Army's equivalent appointment is aide-de-camp general.

Amasya Circular

Amasya Circular (Turkish: Amasya Genelgesi or Amasya Tamimi) was a joint circular issued on 22 June 1919 in Amasya, Sivas Vilayet by Fahri Yaver-i Hazret-i Şehriyari ("Honorary Aide-de-camp to His Majesty Sultan") Mirliva Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Inspector of the Third Army Inspectorate), Rauf Orbay (former Naval Minister), Miralay Refet Bele (Commander of the III Corps stationed at Sivas) and Mirliva Ali Fuat Cebesoy (Commander of the XX Corps stationed at Ankara). And during the whole meeting, Ferik Cemal Mersinli (Inspector of the Second Army Inspectorate) and Mirliva Kâzım Karabekir (Commander of the XV Corps stationed at Erzurum) were consulted with telegraphs.This circular is considered as the first written document putting the Turkish War of Independence in motion.

The circular, distributed across Anatolia, declared Turkey's independence and integrity to be in danger and called for a national conference to be held in Sivas (Sivas Congress) and before that, for a preparatory congress comprising representatives from the eastern provinces of Anatolia to be held in Erzurum in July (Erzurum Congress).

Baron Napier of Magdala

Baron Napier of Magdala, in Abyssinia and of Caryngton in the County Palatine of Chester, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1868 for the military commander Sir Robert Napier, in recognition of his part in the 1868 Expedition to Abyssinia when the town of Magdala was captured. Napier was later Commander-in-Chief in India and Governor of Gibraltar and was made a Field Marshal in 1882. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Baron. He served as Aide-de-Camp to his father. On his death the title passed to his younger brother, the third Baron. He was a Colonel in the British Army. He was succeeded by his half-brother, the fourth Baron. He worked for the Indian State Railways. His son, the fifth Baron, was a Brigadier in the Royal Engineers. As of 2010 the title is held by the latter's son, the sixth Baron, who succeeded in 1987.

The Hon. Sir Albert Napier, youngest son of the first Baron, was Clerk of the Crown in Chancery and Permanent Secretary to the Lord Chancellor's Office between 1944 and 1954.

David Franks (aide-de-camp)

David Salisbury Franks (1740–1793) was aide-de-camp for General Benedict Arnold during the American War of Independence.

Fabian O'Dea

Fabian Aloysius O'Dea, (January 20, 1918 – December 12, 2004) was a Newfoundland and Canadian lawyer and the fourth Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland. He was the son of John V. O'Dea and May (Coady) O'Dea. In 1950 O'Dea married Constance Margaret (Peggy) Ewing. They had four children; Deborah (1951), Victoria (Viki) (1953), Stephen (1954)and Jane (1956).

Born in St. John's, O'Dea was educated at St. Bonaventure's College, Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN), University of Toronto, Dalhousie University and Christ Church, Oxford.

In 1939 he was selected Rhodes Scholar for Newfoundland, but delayed going to Oxford in order to join the Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve, where he served as torpedo officer. In 1945 when he retired from the reserve he attended Oxford for a BCL degree and was admitted to the English Bar at the Inner Temple in 1948.

In 1949 O'Dea was made honorary aide-de-camp to the Governor General of Canada. From 1949 to 1961 he was aide-de-camp to the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1963 O'Dea became Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador and a QC.

O'Dea was a member of the Board of Regents for MUN, Vice-President for Newfoundland at the Canadian Bar Association and a member of the Canadian Rhodes Scholarship selection committee. Fabian O'Dea was also a collector of sixteenth to eighteenth century maps of Newfoundland and Labrador.

James Lister (politician)

James Paul Lister (born 6 April 1976) is an Australian politician. He has been the Liberal National Party member for Southern Downs in the Queensland Legislative Assembly since 2017.Lister was born in Benowa, Queensland, and holds a Bachelor of Applied Science from the Queensland University of Technology. He served in the Royal Australian Air Force from 2000 to 2017, and during that was also aide-de-camp to the Governor-General, Michael Jeffery, in 2004, and to the Governor of Queensland, Quentin Bryce, from 2007 to 2008.

Joan Röell

Jhr. Joan Röell (21 July 1844 – 13 July 1914) was a Dutch nobleman, lawyer and statesman. He was a member of a prominent Dutch noble family which produced many public administrators, and politicians.

From 1894 to 1897 Röell headed the Dutch government as Prime Minister, (formally: chairman of the Council of Ministers) and Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Louis Knollys

Major Louis Frederick Knollys, (1847–1922) was the fourth British colonial Inspector-General of Police in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

Knollys was born on 26 February 1847, the third son of Rev. Canon William Frederick Ernest Knollys and Caroline Augusta née North. He was educated at Radley College, and Marlborough.

Knollys enlisted in the 32nd (Cornwall) Regiment of Foot in 1866 and in September 1868 was made a Lieutenant.

In 1872 he was appointed the aide-de-camp to the Governor of Mauritius Arthur Hamilton-Gordon, and continued as Hamilton-Gordon's aide-de-camp when he was transferred to become Governor of Fiji in 1875. In 1876 he commanded an expedition into the mountains of Fiji, where he suppressed an uprising amongst the local tribes, receiving a promotion to captain. Knollys was subsequently created a Companion in the Order of St Michael and St George in "recognition of his distinguished services in quelling recent disturbances in the Island of Fiji." In 1877 he was appointed Commandant of the Armed Native Constabulary in Fiji. In 1880 when Hamilton-Gordon was appointed as Governor of New Zealand and subsequently in 1883 when he was made Governor of Ceylon, Knollys continued in his role as his aide-de-camp. He was made a Major in the Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) in 1881. Knollys was appointed as Inspector-General of Police and Prisons in Jamaica in 1886 and Inspector-General of Police and Prisons in Ceylon in 1891. In 1899 he became a member of the Legislative Council, Ceylon. Knollys retired in 1902 and died at Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire, England on 15 December 1922.

Personal aide-de-camp

A personal aide-de-camp is a senior military officer who is appointed to act as the honorary military attendant to the monarch of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms or any of his or her viceroys. The Sovereign will typically commission another member of the Royal Family to act as his or her personal aide-de-camp, though other non-royal officers will be assigned to the role, especially when the monarch is in one of the realms besides the United Kingdom. Those designated as aide-de-camp to a governor general, lieutenant governor, or governor use the letters ADC or in Canada A de C after their names.

Prince Maurits of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven

Prince Maurits Willem Pieter Hendrik of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven (born 17 April 1968) is a member of the Dutch royal family as the eldest son of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and Pieter van Vollenhoven.

Before the succession of his cousin Willem-Alexander as King, he was a member of the Dutch Royal House and tenth in the line of succession to the Dutch throne. With Willem-Alexander's succession however, he is no longer a member of the Dutch Royal House, and is no longer in line to direct succession to the Dutch throne.

Samuel S. Conner

Samuel Shepard Conner (ca. 1783 – December 17, 1820) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.

Born in Exeter, New Hampshire, Conner attended Phillips Exeter Academy in 1794. He was graduated from Yale College in 1806. He studied law.

Conner married Elizabeth Denniston of Albany, New York.

He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Waterville, Maine (at that time a district of Massachusetts), in 1810.

Conner served in the War of 1812. Conner was first a Major of the Twenty-first Infantry. In the beginning of 1813 Conner served as Aide-de-camp to General Henry Dearborn. He was one of the American officers who accepted the British surrender at the Battle of York.

He was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the Thirteenth Infantry March 12, 1813.

He resigned July 14, 1814.

He resumed the practice of law in Waterville, Maine.

Conner was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Fourteenth Congress (March 4, 1815 – March 3, 1817).

He was appointed surveyor general of the Ohio land district in 1819.

He died in Covington, Kentucky, December 17, 1820.

Washington's aides-de-camp

Washington's aides-de-camp during the American Revolutionary War were officers of the Continental Army appointed to serve on General George Washington's headquarters staff, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. The headquarters staff also included one military secretary, a full colonel.

Washington had a small number of aides-de-camp at any given time, with relatively frequent turnover. A total of 32 men were appointed to these positions, and served between July 4, 1775, and December 23, 1783. Other people worked as volunteer aides or assistants, and helped with office duties when needed.

Çankaya Mansion

The Çankaya Mansion was the official residence of the Presidency and until 2018 was the residence of the Premiership of Turkey. It is located in the Çankaya district of Ankara, which lends its name to the palace. The Çankaya Campus is home to several buildings, including the mansion and stretches over 438 acres of land with its unique place in the history of the Turkish Republic. The Çankaya Campus houses Atatürk's Museum Mansion, the Çankaya Mansion, the office of the Chief Aide-de-Camp, the Glass Mansion, State Supervision Council, the Financial Affairs and Preservation Directorate buildings, Press Conference Hall, reception halls, fire department building, social facility, garage, greenhouse, artificial turf sports area, tennis court and employee lodgings.

Since the transition to a Presidential system in 2018, the Çankaya Mansion has served as the official residence of the Vice President of Turkey.


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