Ahmed Zewail

Ahmed Hassan Zewail (Egyptian Arabic: أحمد حسن زويل‎, IPA: [ˈæħmæd ˈħæsæn zeˈweːl]; February 26, 1946 – August 2, 2016) was an Egyptian-American scientist, known as the "father of femtochemistry".[3] He was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry and became the first Egyptian to win a Nobel Prize in a scientific field. He was the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Physics, and the director of the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at the California Institute of Technology.

Ahmed Zewail
Ahmed Zewail HD2009 Othmer Gold Medal portrait
Ahmed Zewail in 2010
Native name
Mohamed Hamed
Ahmed Hassan Zewail

February 26, 1946
Damanhour, Egypt Egypt
DiedAugust 2, 2016 (aged 70)
Alma mater
Known forFemtochemistry
Scientific career
ThesisOptical and magnetic resonance spectra of triplet excitons and localized states in molecular crystals (1975)

Early life and education

Ahmed Hassan Zewail was born on February 26, 1946, in Damanhur, Egypt, and was raised in Desouk.[4] He received a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees in Chemistry from Alexandria University before moving to the United States to complete his PhD at the University of Pennsylvania supervised by Robin M. Hochstrasser.[1][5]


After completing his PhD, Zewail did postdoctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley, supervised by Charles Bonner Harris.[1] Following this, he was awarded a faculty appointment at the California Institute of Technology in 1976, and he was made the first Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Physics.[1] He became a naturalized citizen of the United States on 5 March 1982.[6] Zewail was the director of the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at the California Institute of Technology.[7]

Zewail had been nominated and participated in President Barack Obama's Presidential Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), an advisory group of the nation's leading scientists and engineers to advise the President and Vice President and formulate policy in the areas of science, technology, and innovation.[8]


Zewail's key work was as a pioneer of femtochemistry[9] [10] [11]—i.e. the study of chemical reactions across femtoseconds. Using a rapid ultrafast laser technique (consisting of ultrashort laser flashes), the technique allows the description of reactions on very short time scales – short enough to analyse transition states in selected chemical reactions.[12] Zewail became known as the "father of femtochemistry".[3]

Political work

In a speech at Cairo University on June 4, 2009, US President Barack Obama announced a new Science Envoy program as part of a "new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world." In January 2010, Ahmed Zewail, Elias Zerhouni, and Bruce Alberts became the first US science envoys to Islam, visiting Muslim-majority countries from North Africa to Southeast Asia.[13]

When asked about rumors that he might contest the 2011 Egyptian presidential election, Ahmed Zewail said: "I am a frank man... I have no political ambition, as I have stressed repeatedly that I only want to serve Egypt in the field of science and die as a scientist."[14][15]

During the 2011 Egyptian protests he announced his return to the country. Zewail said that he would join a committee for constitutional reform alongside Ayman Nour, Mubarak's rival at the 2005 presidential elections and a leading lawyer.[16] Zewail was later mentioned as a respected figure working as an intermediary between the military regime ruling after Mubarak's resignation, and revolutionary youth groups such as the April 6 Youth Movement and young supporters of Mohamed ElBaradei.[17]

Awards and honors

In 1999, Zewail became the first Egyptian and the first Arab to receive a science Nobel Prize when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[4] Zewail gave his Nobel Lecture on "Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond Using Ultrafast Lasers".[18][19] In 1999, he received Egypt's highest state honor, the Grand Collar of the Nile.[1] In October 2006, Zewail received the Albert Einstein World Award of Science for "his pioneering development of the new field of femtoscience and for his seminal contributions to the revolutionary discipline of physical biology, creating new ways for better understanding the functional behavior of biological systems by directly visualizing them in the four dimensions of space and time."[20]

Other international awards include the King Faisal International Prize (1989),[1] Wolf Prize in Chemistry (1993) awarded to him by the Wolf Foundation,[1] the Tolman Award (1997),[1] the Robert A. Welch Award (1997),[1] the Othmer Gold Medal (2009),[21][22] the Priestley Medal (2011) from the American Chemical Society[23] and the Davy Medal (2011) from the Royal Society.[24]

Zewail was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2001.[2] He was awarded an honorary doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 2002.[1] He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Lund University in Sweden in May 2003 and was made a Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[1] Cambridge University awarded him an honorary Doctor of Science in 2006.[25] In May 2008, Zewail received an honorary doctorate from Complutense University of Madrid.[26] In February 2009, Zewail was awarded an honorary doctorate in arts and sciences by the University of Jordan.[27] In May 2010, he gave the commencement address at Southwestern University.[28] On 3 October 2011 he was awarded an honorary doctorate in science from the University of Glasgow.[29] On 19 May 2014, he was awarded an honorary degree from Yale University.[30] The Zewail city of science and technology, established in 2000 and revived in 2011, is named in his honour.[4]

Honorary Degrees

Zewail has been bestowed honorary degrees by the following institutions: University of Oxford, UK (1991); The American University in Cairo, Egypt (1993); Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium (1997); University of Pennsylvania, USA (1997); University of Lausanne, Switzerland (1997); Swinburne University of Technology, Australia (1999); Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport, Egypt (1999); D.Sc. Alexandria University, Egypt (1999); D.Sc. University of New Brunswick, Canada (2000); Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (2000); and University of Liège, Belgium (2000).[31]

Personal life

Zewail married his wife Dema Faham in 1989.[1] He had four children: Maha, Amani, Nabeel, and Hani.[32]


Egyptian national honours


Foreign honors




Death and funeral

Zewail died aged 70 on the morning of August 2, 2016. He was recovering from cancer, however, the exact cause of his death is unknown.[33][34][35] A military funeral was held for Zewail on August 7, 2016, at the El-Mosheer Tantawy mosque in Cairo, Egypt.[35] Those attending included President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Prime Minister Sherif Ismail, al-Azhar Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb, Defence Minister Sedki Sobhi, former President Adly Mansour, former Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab and heart surgeon Magdi Yacoub.[35] The funeral prayers were led by Ali Gomaa, former Grand Mufti of Egypt.[35]




Remembering Ahmed H. Zewail

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Zewail, Ahmed. "Autobiography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Fellowship of the Royal Society 1660–2015". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-07-15.
  3. ^ a b Browne, Malcolm W. (13 October 1999). "Nobels for Fast Camera and Tying 2 Forces of Nature". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  4. ^ a b c Weil, Martin (3 August 2016). "Ahmed Zewail, Nobel laureate who sparked a 'revolution in chemistry,' dies at 70". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  5. ^ Zewail, Ahmed (1975). Optical and magnetic resonance spectra of triplet excitons and localized states in molecular crystals (PhD thesis). University of Pennsylvania. OCLC 54507972.
  6. ^ Zewail, Ahmed (2003). Voyage Through Time: Walks of Life to the Nobel Prize. World Scientific. p. 214. ISBN 9789814338097.
  7. ^ Zewail, Ahmed. "A Message from the Director". Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology, California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  8. ^ "President Obama Announces Members of Science and Technology Advisory Council". The White House. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  9. ^ Douhal, Abderrazzak; Lahmani, Françoise; Zewail, Ahmed H. (1996). "Proton-transfer reaction dynamics". Chemical Physics. 207 (2–3): 477–498. Bibcode:1996CP....207..477D. doi:10.1016/0301-0104(96)00067-5. ISSN 0301-0104.
  10. ^ Pal, Samir Kumar; Zewail, Ahmed H. (2004). "Dynamics of Water in Biological Recognition". Chemical Reviews. 104 (4): 2099–2124. doi:10.1021/cr020689l. ISSN 0009-2665. PMID 15080722.
  11. ^ Zewail, Ahmed H. (2000). "Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond†". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 104 (24): 5660–5694. Bibcode:2000JPCA..104.5660Z. doi:10.1021/jp001460h. ISSN 1089-5639.
  12. ^ "Press Release: The 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry". Nobelprize.org. 12 October 1999. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  13. ^ Pellerin, Cheryl (16 February 2010). "First U.S. Science Envoys Begin Work in Muslim-Majority Countries". America.gov. Archived from the original on 26 February 2010.
  14. ^ "Obituary: Envoy to science". Al-Ahram Weekly. 4 August 2016. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  15. ^ Obituary: AHMED HASSAN ZEWAIL (1946–2016). Chemical Physics Letters. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  16. ^ ANSAmed (1 February 2011). "Egypt: Zewail returns, credible post-Mubarak figure". ANSAmed. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  17. ^ Fahim, Kareem; Kirkpatrick, David D. (February 12, 2011). "Military Offers Assurances to Egypt and Neighbors". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  18. ^ Zewail, Ahmed H. (2000). "Angewandte Chemie International Edition". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 39 (15): 2586–2631. doi:10.1002/1521-3773(20000804)39:15<2586::AID-ANIE2586>3.0.CO;2-O.
  19. ^ "Ahmed Zewail – Nobel Lecture: Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond Using Ultrafast Lasers". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  20. ^ "Prof. Ahmed Zewail". World Cultural Council. 28 October 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  21. ^ "Othmer Gold Medal". Science History Institute. 2016-05-31. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  22. ^ "Chemical Heritage Foundation Presents Ahmed Zewail with Othmer Gold Medal". Chromatography Techniques. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  23. ^ "Zewail Wins 2011 Priestley Medal". Chemical & Engineering News. June 21, 2010. p. 5.
  24. ^ "Royal Society announces 2011 Copley Medal recipient". The Royal Society. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  25. ^ "Honorary Degrees 2006". University of Cambridge. 2006-07-03. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  26. ^ "Zewail, Ahmed H (Ciencias Químicas), 12 de mayo de 2008". Complutense University of Madrid. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  27. ^ Kheetan, Thameen (26 February 2009). "Egyptian Nobel laureate calls for 'scientific renaissance' in Arab world". Jordan Times. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
  28. ^ "Nobel Laureate to Give 2010 Commencement Address". Southwestern University. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  29. ^ "Guest lectures – archive: Professor Ahmed Zewail – 3rd October 2011". University of Glasgow. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  30. ^ "Yale awards 12 honorary degrees at 2014 graduation". YaleNews. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  31. ^ "Honorary Degrees". Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  32. ^ "Ahmed Zewail, 1946–2016 | Caltech". California Institute of Technology. 2 August 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
  33. ^ "Nobel Prize-winning Egyptian chemist Zewail dies". Reuters News Agency. 2 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  34. ^ "Egyptian Chemist Zewail, Noble Prize-Winner, Dies at 70". The New York Times. Associated Press. 2 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  35. ^ a b c d "Sisi heads mourners at military funeral for Egyptian Nobel Laureate Ahmed Zewail". Ahram Online. 7 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.

External links

A. David Buckingham

Amyand David Buckingham, CBE, FRS, FAA (born 28 January 1930 in Pymble, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia) is a chemist, with primary expertise in chemical physics. He is currently Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom and Emeritus Fellow at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He obtained a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science, under Professor Raymond Le Fevre, from the University of Sydney and a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge supervised by John Pople. He was an 1851 Exhibition Senior Student in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory at the University of Oxford from 1955–57, Lecturer and then Student (Fellow) at Christ Church, Oxford from 1955–65 and University Lecturer in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory from 1958 - 65. He was Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Bristol from 1965 - 69. He was appointed Professor of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge in 1969.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1975 and a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences in 1992. He is a member of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science. Buckingham was elected to the Australian Academy of Science in 2008 as a Corresponding Fellow.

He was awarded the first Ahmed Zewail Prize in Molecular Sciences for pioneering contributions to the molecular sciences in 2006.

He also played 10 first class cricket matches for Cambridge University and Free Foresters between 1955 and 1960, scoring 349 runs including two half-centuries at an average of 18.36.

Age of Science

Age of Science (2005) is a book about the relationship between Islam and science in Age of Science by author and Egyptian-American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Ahmed Zewail. The book is also a biography and autobiography about Ahmed Zewail.

Albrecht Fleckenstein

Albrecht Fleckenstein (3 March 1917 – 4 April 1992) was a German pharmacologist and physiologist best known for his discovery of calcium channel blockers.

Blaise Pascal Chair

The Blaise Pascal Chair, (Chaires Internationales de Recherche Blaise Pascal, France), established in 1996 by the Government of the Île-de-France Region for internationally acclaimed foreign scientists in all disciplines. A scientific committee annually selects the most outstanding candidates from all over the world. Since its inception a number of famous scientists were the

Blaise Pascal Chair laureates: Gérard Debreu (UC Berkeley, 1983 Nobel Prize in Economics), Ahmed Zewail (Caltech, 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry),

Igor Mel'čuk (University of Montreal, the world leading researcher in linguistics),

George Smoot (LBL, 2006 Nobel Prize in experimental Astrophysics),

Robert Langlands (UBC, 1996 Wolf Prize, one of the most

influential mathematicians of the 20th

century), outstanding theoretical physicists Gabriele Veneziano (CERN/College de France),

Alexander Zamolodchikov (Rutgers), and others.

Culture of Egypt

The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations in Middle East and Africa. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique, complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity, and later, Christian culture.

Herbert P. Broida Prize

The Herbert P. Broida Prize is awarded every two years by the American Physical Society for outstanding work for experimental advances in the field of atomic and molecular spectroscopy or chemical physics. The prize was established in 1979 and is named after the physicist Herbert P. Broida. The winner receives $5000 and travel expenses to the award ceremony.

List of American Chemical Society national awards

The List of American Chemical Society national awards attempts to include national awards, medals and prized offered by the American Chemical Society (ACS). The ACS national awards program began in 1922 with the establishment of the Priestley Medal, the highest award offered by the ACS. As of 2016, the ACS offers a 64 national awards, medals and prizes based on scientific and professional contributions in chemistry. A category of ACS awards is available on Wikipedia.

The complete list of current awards is:

ACS Award for Achievement in Research for the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry

ACS Award for Affordable Green Chemistry

ACS Award for Computers in Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research

ACS Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology

ACS Award for Creative Invention

ACS Award for Creative Work in Fluorine Chemistry

ACS Award for Creative Work in Synthetic Organic Chemistry

ACS Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Inorganic Chemistry

ACS Award for Encouraging Disadvantaged Students into Careers in the Chemical Sciences

ACS Award for Encouraging Women into Careers in the Chemical Sciences

ACS Award for Research at an Undergraduate Institution

ACS Award for Team Innovation

ACS Award in Analytical Chemistry

ACS Award in Applied Polymer Science

ACS Award in Chromatography

ACS Award in Colloid Chemistry

ACS Award in Industrial Chemistry

ACS Award in Inorganic Chemistry

ACS Award in Organometallic Chemistry

ACS Award in Polymer Chemistry

ACS Award in Pure Chemistry

ACS Award in Separations Science and Technology

ACS Award in Surface Chemistry

ACS Award in the Chemistry of Materials

ACS Award in Theoretical Chemistry

Award for Volunteer Service to the American Chemical Society

Roger Adams Award in Organic Chemistry

Alfred Bader Award in Bioinorganic or Bioorganic Chemistry

Earle B. Barnes Award for Leadership in Chemical Research Management

Ronald Breslow Award for Achievement in Biomimetric Chemistry

Herbert C. Brown Award for Creative Research in Synthetic Methods

Alfred Burger Award in Medicinal Chemistry

James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching

Arthur C. Cope Award

Arthur C. Cope Scholar Awards (given for three distinct career levels)

Elias J. Corey Award for Outstanding Original Contribution in Organic Synthesis by a Young Investigator

F. Albert Cotton Award in Synthetic Inorganic Chemistry

Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry

Frank H. Field and Joe L. Franklin Award for Outstanding Achievement in Mass Spectrometry

Francis P. Garvin - John M. Olin Medal

James T. Grady - James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public

Harry Gray Award for Creative Work in Inorganic Chemistry by a Young Investigator

Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products

Katheryn C. Hach Award for Entrepreneurial Success

E. B. Hershberg Award for Important Discoveries in Medicinally Active Substances

Joel Henry Hildebrand Award in the Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry of Liquids

Ralph F. Hirschmann Award in Peptide Chemistry

Ipatieff Prize

Frederic Stanley Kipping Award in Silicon Chemistry

Irving Langmuir Award in Chemical Physics (awarded in even-numbered years by ACS and in odd-numbered years by the American Physical Society)

Josef Michl ACS Award in Photochemistry

E. V. Murphree Award in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry

Nakanishi Prize (awarded in odd-numbered years by ACS and in even-numbered years by the Chemical Society of Japan)

Nobel Laureate Signature Award for Graduate Education in Chemistry

James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry

George A. Olah Award in Hydrocarbon or Petroleum Chemistry

Charles Lathrop Parsons Award

George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education

Priestley Medal

Glenn T. Seaborg Award for Nuclear Chemistry

Gabor A. Somorjai Award for Creative Research in Catalysis

George and Christine Sosnovsky Award for Cancer Research

E. Bright Wilson Award in Spectroscopy

Ahmed Zewail Award in Ultrafast Science and Technology

List of Arab Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969. Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 800 individuals.People from the Arab countries have been the recipients in three of six award categories: Peace, Chemistry and Literature. The first Arab recipient, Anwar Sadat, was awarded the Peace Prize in 1978. The most recent recipient Tawakkol Karman was awarded to Peace prizes in 2011.

One Arab laureate —Anwar Sadat – was president of his country when he was awarded the prize.

List of Egyptian Americans

This is a list of notable Egyptian Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants.

To be included in this list, the person must have a Wikipedia article showing they are Egyptian American or must have references showing they are Egyptian American and are notable.

Abbas El Gamal (1950–present), information theorist, and entrepreneur. Former Chair of Stanford Electrical Engineering Department.

Abdel Nader (1950–present), basketball player for the Boston Celtics.

Ahmed Ahmed (1970–present), actor and comedian.

Ahmed Hassanein, Paul L. Wattelet Distinguished Professor of Nuclear Engineering, director of CMUXE, Purdue University

Ahmed I. Zayed, mathematician

Ahmed Ibrahim, the Cupid Cabbie of New York

Ahmed Tewfik (1960–present), electrical engineer, professor and college administrator. Current Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.

Ahmed Zewail (1946–2016), Nobel laureate in chemistry. He was the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Physics, and the director of the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at the California Institute of Technology at the California Institute of Technology.

Alaa Abdelnaby (1968–present), professional basketball player.

Allen Adham, businessman.

Amir Khillah (1979–present), mixed martial artist

Amr Awadallah (1970–present), Egyptian-born American computer scientist, Cloudera CTO & co-founder

Asaad Kelada, television director.

Ayaad Assaad (1948–present), microbiologist and toxicologist.

Ayman Mohyeldin, journalist for NBC News, formerly worked for Al Jazeera and CNN

Christopher Maher (1955–present), actor ( IMBD ) and James Beard recognized Chef

Dalia Mogahed (1974–present), scholar and advisor to the U.S. President Barack Obama.

Diane Tuckman (1939-present), Silk artist, author and teacher

Dina Habib Powell (1973–present), philanthropist and multi-administration U.S. official

Essam Heggy, NASA scientist and Egyptian presidential science adviser.

Farida Osman (1995–present), swimmer who competed in 2012 summer Olympics.

Farouk El-Baz (1938–present), professor and former NASA scientist who contributed to the Apollo Program.

Fayez Sarofim, fund manager.

Feisal Abdul Rauf (1948–present), Sufi imam.

Gamal Helal (1954–present), interpreter and diplomat.

Halim El-Dabh (1921–present) composer, performer, and educator.

Hoda Kotb (1964–present), TV news anchor and host.

Ibrahim Oweiss (1931–present), economist, international economic advisor, and professor.

Jehane Noujaim, documentary film director.

Joy Garnett, artist.

Kareem Salama (1978–present), country music singer.

Karine Bakhoum, chef.

Khaled Abou El Fadl, law professor, and Islamic studies program chair at University of California, Los Angeles.

Leila Ahmed (1940–present), professor.

Mark Seif (1967–present), two-time World Series of Poker champion and TV show host.

Medhat Haroun (1951–2012), world-renowned expert on earthquake engineering.

Michael Mina (1969–present), award-winning chef and restaurateur.

Mohamed El-Erian (1958–present), CEO of PIMCO and former president and CEO of the Harvard Management Company.

Mona Eltahawy (1967–present), freelance journalist.

Mostafa El-Sayed (1933–present), renowned scientist and university professor.

Nabih Youssef, structural engineer.

Norsereddin, fictional “Egyptian” American Indian figuring in late 19th-century local legend in New York's Hudson Valley.

Omar Metwally (1974–present), actor.

Omar Samhan (1988–present), a professional basketball player.

Omar Sharif (1932-2015), actor and academy award nominee

Stephen T. Shippy, (1977–present), a.k.a. Prozak, rapper from Saginaw, Michigan.

Raef Haggag, (1982–present), singer-songwriter.

Rami Malek (1981–present), actor.

Rana el Kaliouby (1978–present), Egyptian-born American computer scientist, CEO of Affectiva, Researcher at MIT Media Lab, contributor to facial expression recognition research and technology development

Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), biochemist.

Rushdi Said (1920–2013), geologist.

Saad Eddin Ibrahim (1938–present), sociologist and author.

Sam Esmail (1977–present), screenwriter, film and television director, and television producer

Sam Khalifa (1963–present), former Major League Baseball player.

Sammy Sheik (1981–present), actor.

Sarah Fasha, actress and model

Shereef Akeel (1965–present), lawyer.

Sherif Fayed (31 March 1992–present), American-born Egyptian former footballer, viner, actor and model. As a footballer, he last played for the Belgian club Lierse S.K.

Stephen Adly Guirgis, playwright.

Taher Elgamal (1955–present), cryptographer.

Tarek El Moussa (1981–present), host of Flip or Flop series on HGTV

Wendie Malick (1950–present), actress and fashion model, Egyptian paternal grandfather.

List of Egyptian scientists

A list of Egyptian scientists.

Ahmad Fakhri

Ahmed Kamal

Ahmed Zewail

Ali Moustafa Mosharafa

Aziz Suryal Atiya

Essam E. Khalil

Farouk El-Baz

Faten Zahran Mohammed

Fawzia Fahim

Gamal Hemdan

Hamed Gohar

Hatim Zaghloul

Ibrahim Abouleish

Kamal el-Mallakh

Labib Habachi

Mostafa Kamal Tolba

Moustapha Kassem

Rushdi Said

Sameera Moussa

Samir Amin

Selim Hassan

Yehia El-Mashad

Zaghloul El-Naggar

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2001

This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2001.

List of Muslim Nobel laureates

As of 2018, twelve Nobel Prize laureates have been Muslims, more than half in the 21st century. Seven of the twelve laureates have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, while three have been for the sciences. The recipient of the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics, Abdus Salam, was a member of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community of Pakistan. Aziz Sancar is the second Turkish Nobel laureate and was awarded Nobel prize in the field of molecular biology in 2015.

Mark Linz

Werner Mark Linz (6 April 1935 – 9 February 2013) was a German-American publisher who specialised in educational and international publishing in the Americas, Europe and the Middle East. He was born in Cologne, Germany, in 1935. He studied humanities at the University of Frankfurt and continued his education in the United States. In 1960 he moved permanently to New York and became a naturalised United States citizen.

Linz held senior executive position in New York with Herder & Herder, McGraw-Hill, and the Seabury Press in the 1960s and 1970s, before establishing the Continuum and Crossroad publishing companies, and serving as the Continuum Group’s president and publisher in New York from 1979 to 1999. He was the co-founder in 2000 of the Continuum International Publishing Group in London and New York.

In 1984 Linz became director of the American University in Cairo Press, first for two years, and then from 1995 until 2011. On returning to Cairo in 1995 he collaborated with Naguib Mahfouz to establish the Naguib Mahfouz Medal for Literature, an annual literary prize for a work of fiction in Arabic, with the guarantee of translation and publication in English for the winner. Among his authors at the AUC Press were Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, Ahmed Zewail, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, archaeologist Zahi Hawass and Pope Shenouda III, head of the Coptic Church.

Linz retired from the AUC Press in 2011, at the age of seventy-six. He was an active member of the Association of American Publishers, the American Society for Scholarly Publishing and the Publishers Club in New York. A long-time resident of Rye, New York, he was an avid sailor and member of the American Yacht Club.


Nobelity is a feature documentary which looks at the world's most pressing problems through the eyes of Nobel laureates, including Desmond Tutu, Sir Joseph Rotblat, Ahmed Zewail and Wangari Maathai.

The film interviews each of the nine Nobel Prize winners discussing their vision for the world over the next 50 years.

Nobelity was premiered at the 2006 SXSW Film Festival and was the first of several sold-out screenings at Austin's 1,200-seat Paramount Theatre. The film has continued to be shown in theaters, at universities and schools, and in community centers and churches, as well as being released on DVD. Nobelity was written and directed by writer, actor and filmmaker Turk Pipkin and produced by Christy Pipkin, in association with The Nobelity Project.

Norman Davidson (biologist)

Norman Ralph Davidson (April 5, 1916 – February 14, 2002) was an American molecular biologist notable for advancing genome research, member of the National Academy of Sciences, received a National Medal of Science from U.S. President Bill Clinton, was a professor at Caltech. The New York Times called Davidson "major figure in advancing genome research ... whose groundbreaking work in molecular biology led to the earliest understanding of the overall structure of genomes".

The Los Angeles Times called him "a groundbreaking Caltech chemical biologist".

President Bill Clinton cited the scientist for "breakthroughs in chemistry and biology which have led to the earliest understanding of the overall structure of genomes".

Othmer Gold Medal

The Othmer Gold Medal recognizes outstanding individuals who contributed to progress in chemistry and science through their activities in areas including innovation, entrepreneurship, research, education, public understanding, legislation, and philanthropy. The medal is presented annually under the sponsorship of the Science History Institute (formerly the Chemical Heritage Foundation) and four affiliated organizations: the American Chemical Society (ACS), the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), The Chemists' Club, and the American section of the Société de Chimie Industrielle, at the Science History Institute's Heritage Day.The Othmer Medal commemorates chemist Donald Othmer (1904–1995), a researcher, engineer, inventor, philanthropist, professor, and co-editor of the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Each year, the recipient of the award designates an institution to receive a copy of the 26 volume Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology from John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Peter Debye Award

The Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry is awarded annually by the American Chemical Society "to encourage and reward outstanding research in physical chemistry". The award is named after Peter Debye and

granted without regard to age or nationality.

Reaction dynamics

Reaction dynamics is a field within physical chemistry, studying why chemical reactions occur, how to predict their behavior, and how to control them. It is closely related to chemical kinetics, but is concerned with individual chemical events on atomic length scales and over very brief time periods. It considers state-to-state kinetics between reactant and product molecules in specific quantum states, and how energy is distributed between translational, vibrational, rotational, and electronic modes.Experimental methods of reaction dynamics probe the chemical physics associated with molecular collisions. They include crossed molecular beam and infrared chemiluminescence experiments, both recognized by the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Dudley Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, and John C. Polanyi "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes", In the crossed beam method used by Herschbach and Lee, narrow beams of reactant molecules in selected quantum states are allowed to react in order to determine the reaction probability as a function of such variables as the translational, vibrational and rotational energy of the reactant molecules and their angle of approach. In contrast the method of Polanyi measures vibrational energy of the products by detecting the infrared chemiluminescence emitted by vibrationally excited molecules, in some cases for reactants in defined energy states.Spectroscopic observation of reaction dynamics on the shortest time scales is known as femtochemistry, since the typical times studied are of the order of 1 femtosecond = 10−15 s. This subject has been recognized by the award of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed Zewail.

In addition, theoretical studies of reaction dynamics involve calculating the potential energy surface for a reaction as a function of nuclear positions, and then calculating the trajectory of a point on this surface representing the state of the system. A correction can be applied to include the effect of quantum tunnelling through the activation energy barrier, especially for the movement of hydrogen atoms.

Zewail City of Science and Technology

Zewail City of Science and Technology is a nonprofit, independent institution of learning, research and innovation. The concept of the City was proposed in 1999 and its cornerstone laid on January 1, 2000. After numerous delays, the project was revived by the Egyptian cabinet's decree on May 11, 2011 following the January 25 Revolution. The Cabinet labeled it a National Project for Scientific Renaissance and named it Zewail City of Science and Technology. Zewail City of Science and Technology with its three constituents – the university, research institutes, and technology park – is designed to bring about effective participation in 21st Century science, to elevate local technologies to the world level, and to increase national productivity.

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