Ahmed Hassan Zewail (Egyptian Arabic: أحمد حسن زويل, IPA: [ˈæħmæd ˈħæsæn zeˈweːl]; February 26, 1946 – August 2, 2016) was an Egyptian-American scientist, known as the "father of femtochemistry". He was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry and became the first Egyptian to win a Nobel Prize in a scientific field. He was the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Physics, and the director of the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at the California Institute of Technology.
Ahmed Zewail in 2010
Ahmed Hassan Zewail
February 26, 1946
|Died||August 2, 2016 (aged 70)|
Pasadena, California, U.S.
|Thesis||Optical and magnetic resonance spectra of triplet excitons and localized states in molecular crystals (1975)|
Ahmed Hassan Zewail was born on February 26, 1946, in Damanhur, Egypt, and was raised in Desouk. He received a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees in Chemistry from Alexandria University before moving to the United States to complete his PhD at the University of Pennsylvania supervised by Robin M. Hochstrasser.
After completing his PhD, Zewail did postdoctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley, supervised by Charles Bonner Harris. Following this, he was awarded a faculty appointment at the California Institute of Technology in 1976, and he was made the first Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Physics. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States on 5 March 1982. Zewail was the director of the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at the California Institute of Technology.
Zewail had been nominated and participated in President Barack Obama's Presidential Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), an advisory group of the nation's leading scientists and engineers to advise the President and Vice President and formulate policy in the areas of science, technology, and innovation.
Zewail's key work was as a pioneer of femtochemistry  —i.e. the study of chemical reactions across femtoseconds. Using a rapid ultrafast laser technique (consisting of ultrashort laser flashes), the technique allows the description of reactions on very short time scales – short enough to analyse transition states in selected chemical reactions. Zewail became known as the "father of femtochemistry".
In a speech at Cairo University on June 4, 2009, US President Barack Obama announced a new Science Envoy program as part of a "new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world." In January 2010, Ahmed Zewail, Elias Zerhouni, and Bruce Alberts became the first US science envoys to Islam, visiting Muslim-majority countries from North Africa to Southeast Asia.
When asked about rumors that he might contest the 2011 Egyptian presidential election, Ahmed Zewail said: "I am a frank man... I have no political ambition, as I have stressed repeatedly that I only want to serve Egypt in the field of science and die as a scientist."
During the 2011 Egyptian protests he announced his return to the country. Zewail said that he would join a committee for constitutional reform alongside Ayman Nour, Mubarak's rival at the 2005 presidential elections and a leading lawyer. Zewail was later mentioned as a respected figure working as an intermediary between the military regime ruling after Mubarak's resignation, and revolutionary youth groups such as the April 6 Youth Movement and young supporters of Mohamed ElBaradei.
In 1999, Zewail became the first Egyptian and the first Arab to receive a science Nobel Prize when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Zewail gave his Nobel Lecture on "Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond Using Ultrafast Lasers". In 1999, he received Egypt's highest state honor, the Grand Collar of the Nile. In October 2006, Zewail received the Albert Einstein World Award of Science for "his pioneering development of the new field of femtoscience and for his seminal contributions to the revolutionary discipline of physical biology, creating new ways for better understanding the functional behavior of biological systems by directly visualizing them in the four dimensions of space and time."
Other international awards include the King Faisal International Prize (1989), Wolf Prize in Chemistry (1993) awarded to him by the Wolf Foundation, the Tolman Award (1997), the Robert A. Welch Award (1997), the Othmer Gold Medal (2009), the Priestley Medal (2011) from the American Chemical Society and the Davy Medal (2011) from the Royal Society.
Zewail was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2001. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 2002. He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Lund University in Sweden in May 2003 and was made a Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Cambridge University awarded him an honorary Doctor of Science in 2006. In May 2008, Zewail received an honorary doctorate from Complutense University of Madrid. In February 2009, Zewail was awarded an honorary doctorate in arts and sciences by the University of Jordan. In May 2010, he gave the commencement address at Southwestern University. On 3 October 2011 he was awarded an honorary doctorate in science from the University of Glasgow. On 19 May 2014, he was awarded an honorary degree from Yale University. The Zewail city of science and technology, established in 2000 and revived in 2011, is named in his honour.
Zewail has been bestowed honorary degrees by the following institutions: University of Oxford, UK (1991); The American University in Cairo, Egypt (1993); Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium (1997); University of Pennsylvania, USA (1997); University of Lausanne, Switzerland (1997); Swinburne University of Technology, Australia (1999); Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport, Egypt (1999); D.Sc. Alexandria University, Egypt (1999); D.Sc. University of New Brunswick, Canada (2000); Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (2000); and University of Liège, Belgium (2000).
Zewail died aged 70 on the morning of August 2, 2016. He was recovering from cancer, however, the exact cause of his death is unknown. A military funeral was held for Zewail on August 7, 2016, at the El-Mosheer Tantawy mosque in Cairo, Egypt. Those attending included President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Prime Minister Sherif Ismail, al-Azhar Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb, Defence Minister Sedki Sobhi, former President Adly Mansour, former Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab and heart surgeon Magdi Yacoub. The funeral prayers were led by Ali Gomaa, former Grand Mufti of Egypt.
Amyand David Buckingham, CBE, FRS, FAA (born 28 January 1930 in Pymble, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia) is a chemist, with primary expertise in chemical physics. He is currently Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom and Emeritus Fellow at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He obtained a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science, under Professor Raymond Le Fevre, from the University of Sydney and a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge supervised by John Pople. He was an 1851 Exhibition Senior Student in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory at the University of Oxford from 1955–57, Lecturer and then Student (Fellow) at Christ Church, Oxford from 1955–65 and University Lecturer in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory from 1958 - 65. He was Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Bristol from 1965 - 69. He was appointed Professor of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge in 1969.
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1975 and a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences in 1992. He is a member of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science. Buckingham was elected to the Australian Academy of Science in 2008 as a Corresponding Fellow.
He was awarded the first Ahmed Zewail Prize in Molecular Sciences for pioneering contributions to the molecular sciences in 2006.
He also played 10 first class cricket matches for Cambridge University and Free Foresters between 1955 and 1960, scoring 349 runs including two half-centuries at an average of 18.36.Age of Science
Age of Science (2005) is a book about the relationship between Islam and science in Age of Science by author and Egyptian-American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Ahmed Zewail. The book is also a biography and autobiography about Ahmed Zewail.Albrecht Fleckenstein
Albrecht Fleckenstein (3 March 1917 – 4 April 1992) was a German pharmacologist and physiologist best known for his discovery of calcium channel blockers.Blaise Pascal Chair
The Blaise Pascal Chair, (Chaires Internationales de Recherche Blaise Pascal, France), established in 1996 by the Government of the Île-de-France Region for internationally acclaimed foreign scientists in all disciplines. A scientific committee annually selects the most outstanding candidates from all over the world. Since its inception a number of famous scientists were the
Blaise Pascal Chair laureates: Gérard Debreu (UC Berkeley, 1983 Nobel Prize in Economics), Ahmed Zewail (Caltech, 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry),
Igor Mel'čuk (University of Montreal, the world leading researcher in linguistics),
George Smoot (LBL, 2006 Nobel Prize in experimental Astrophysics),
Robert Langlands (UBC, 1996 Wolf Prize, one of the most
influential mathematicians of the 20th
century), outstanding theoretical physicists Gabriele Veneziano (CERN/College de France),
Alexander Zamolodchikov (Rutgers), and others.Culture of Egypt
The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations in Middle East and Africa. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique, complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity, and later, Christian culture.Herbert P. Broida Prize
The Herbert P. Broida Prize is awarded every two years by the American Physical Society for outstanding work for experimental advances in the field of atomic and molecular spectroscopy or chemical physics. The prize was established in 1979 and is named after the physicist Herbert P. Broida. The winner receives $5000 and travel expenses to the award ceremony.List of American Chemical Society national awards
The List of American Chemical Society national awards attempts to include national awards, medals and prized offered by the American Chemical Society (ACS). The ACS national awards program began in 1922 with the establishment of the Priestley Medal, the highest award offered by the ACS. As of 2016, the ACS offers a 64 national awards, medals and prizes based on scientific and professional contributions in chemistry. A category of ACS awards is available on Wikipedia.
The complete list of current awards is:
ACS Award for Achievement in Research for the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry
ACS Award for Affordable Green Chemistry
ACS Award for Computers in Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research
ACS Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology
ACS Award for Creative Invention
ACS Award for Creative Work in Fluorine Chemistry
ACS Award for Creative Work in Synthetic Organic Chemistry
ACS Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Inorganic Chemistry
ACS Award for Encouraging Disadvantaged Students into Careers in the Chemical Sciences
ACS Award for Encouraging Women into Careers in the Chemical Sciences
ACS Award for Research at an Undergraduate Institution
ACS Award for Team Innovation
ACS Award in Analytical Chemistry
ACS Award in Applied Polymer Science
ACS Award in Chromatography
ACS Award in Colloid Chemistry
ACS Award in Industrial Chemistry
ACS Award in Inorganic Chemistry
ACS Award in Organometallic Chemistry
ACS Award in Polymer Chemistry
ACS Award in Pure Chemistry
ACS Award in Separations Science and Technology
ACS Award in Surface Chemistry
ACS Award in the Chemistry of Materials
ACS Award in Theoretical Chemistry
Award for Volunteer Service to the American Chemical Society
Roger Adams Award in Organic Chemistry
Alfred Bader Award in Bioinorganic or Bioorganic Chemistry
Earle B. Barnes Award for Leadership in Chemical Research Management
Ronald Breslow Award for Achievement in Biomimetric Chemistry
Herbert C. Brown Award for Creative Research in Synthetic Methods
Alfred Burger Award in Medicinal Chemistry
James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching
Arthur C. Cope Award
Arthur C. Cope Scholar Awards (given for three distinct career levels)
Elias J. Corey Award for Outstanding Original Contribution in Organic Synthesis by a Young Investigator
F. Albert Cotton Award in Synthetic Inorganic Chemistry
Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry
Frank H. Field and Joe L. Franklin Award for Outstanding Achievement in Mass Spectrometry
Francis P. Garvin - John M. Olin Medal
James T. Grady - James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public
Harry Gray Award for Creative Work in Inorganic Chemistry by a Young Investigator
Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products
Katheryn C. Hach Award for Entrepreneurial Success
E. B. Hershberg Award for Important Discoveries in Medicinally Active Substances
Joel Henry Hildebrand Award in the Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry of Liquids
Ralph F. Hirschmann Award in Peptide Chemistry
Frederic Stanley Kipping Award in Silicon Chemistry
Irving Langmuir Award in Chemical Physics (awarded in even-numbered years by ACS and in odd-numbered years by the American Physical Society)
Josef Michl ACS Award in Photochemistry
E. V. Murphree Award in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Nakanishi Prize (awarded in odd-numbered years by ACS and in even-numbered years by the Chemical Society of Japan)
Nobel Laureate Signature Award for Graduate Education in Chemistry
James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry
George A. Olah Award in Hydrocarbon or Petroleum Chemistry
Charles Lathrop Parsons Award
George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education
Glenn T. Seaborg Award for Nuclear Chemistry
Gabor A. Somorjai Award for Creative Research in Catalysis
George and Christine Sosnovsky Award for Cancer Research
E. Bright Wilson Award in Spectroscopy
Ahmed Zewail Award in Ultrafast Science and TechnologyList of Arab Nobel laureates
The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969. Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 800 individuals.People from the Arab countries have been the recipients in three of six award categories: Peace, Chemistry and Literature. The first Arab recipient, Anwar Sadat, was awarded the Peace Prize in 1978. The most recent recipient Tawakkol Karman was awarded to Peace prizes in 2011.
One Arab laureate —Anwar Sadat – was president of his country when he was awarded the prize.List of Egyptian Americans
This is a list of notable Egyptian Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants.
To be included in this list, the person must have a Wikipedia article showing they are Egyptian American or must have references showing they are Egyptian American and are notable.
Abbas El Gamal (1950–present), information theorist, and entrepreneur. Former Chair of Stanford Electrical Engineering Department.
Abdel Nader (1950–present), basketball player for the Boston Celtics.
Ahmed Ahmed (1970–present), actor and comedian.
Ahmed Hassanein, Paul L. Wattelet Distinguished Professor of Nuclear Engineering, director of CMUXE, Purdue University
Ahmed I. Zayed, mathematician
Ahmed Ibrahim, the Cupid Cabbie of New York
Ahmed Tewfik (1960–present), electrical engineer, professor and college administrator. Current Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.
Ahmed Zewail (1946–2016), Nobel laureate in chemistry. He was the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Physics, and the director of the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at the California Institute of Technology at the California Institute of Technology.
Alaa Abdelnaby (1968–present), professional basketball player.
Allen Adham, businessman.
Amir Khillah (1979–present), mixed martial artist
Amr Awadallah (1970–present), Egyptian-born American computer scientist, Cloudera CTO & co-founder
Asaad Kelada, television director.
Ayaad Assaad (1948–present), microbiologist and toxicologist.
Ayman Mohyeldin, journalist for NBC News, formerly worked for Al Jazeera and CNN
Christopher Maher (1955–present), actor ( IMBD ) and James Beard recognized Chef
Dalia Mogahed (1974–present), scholar and advisor to the U.S. President Barack Obama.
Diane Tuckman (1939-present), Silk artist, author and teacher
Dina Habib Powell (1973–present), philanthropist and multi-administration U.S. official
Essam Heggy, NASA scientist and Egyptian presidential science adviser.
Farida Osman (1995–present), swimmer who competed in 2012 summer Olympics.
Farouk El-Baz (1938–present), professor and former NASA scientist who contributed to the Apollo Program.
Fayez Sarofim, fund manager.
Feisal Abdul Rauf (1948–present), Sufi imam.
Gamal Helal (1954–present), interpreter and diplomat.
Halim El-Dabh (1921–present) composer, performer, and educator.
Hoda Kotb (1964–present), TV news anchor and host.
Ibrahim Oweiss (1931–present), economist, international economic advisor, and professor.
Jehane Noujaim, documentary film director.
Joy Garnett, artist.
Kareem Salama (1978–present), country music singer.
Karine Bakhoum, chef.
Khaled Abou El Fadl, law professor, and Islamic studies program chair at University of California, Los Angeles.
Leila Ahmed (1940–present), professor.
Mark Seif (1967–present), two-time World Series of Poker champion and TV show host.
Medhat Haroun (1951–2012), world-renowned expert on earthquake engineering.
Michael Mina (1969–present), award-winning chef and restaurateur.
Mohamed El-Erian (1958–present), CEO of PIMCO and former president and CEO of the Harvard Management Company.
Mona Eltahawy (1967–present), freelance journalist.
Mostafa El-Sayed (1933–present), renowned scientist and university professor.
Nabih Youssef, structural engineer.
Norsereddin, fictional “Egyptian” American Indian figuring in late 19th-century local legend in New York's Hudson Valley.
Omar Metwally (1974–present), actor.
Omar Samhan (1988–present), a professional basketball player.
Omar Sharif (1932-2015), actor and academy award nominee
Stephen T. Shippy, (1977–present), a.k.a. Prozak, rapper from Saginaw, Michigan.
Raef Haggag, (1982–present), singer-songwriter.
Rami Malek (1981–present), actor.
Rana el Kaliouby (1978–present), Egyptian-born American computer scientist, CEO of Affectiva, Researcher at MIT Media Lab, contributor to facial expression recognition research and technology development
Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), biochemist.
Rushdi Said (1920–2013), geologist.
Saad Eddin Ibrahim (1938–present), sociologist and author.
Sam Esmail (1977–present), screenwriter, film and television director, and television producer
Sam Khalifa (1963–present), former Major League Baseball player.
Sammy Sheik (1981–present), actor.
Sarah Fasha, actress and model
Shereef Akeel (1965–present), lawyer.
Sherif Fayed (31 March 1992–present), American-born Egyptian former footballer, viner, actor and model. As a footballer, he last played for the Belgian club Lierse S.K.
Stephen Adly Guirgis, playwright.
Taher Elgamal (1955–present), cryptographer.
Tarek El Moussa (1981–present), host of Flip or Flop series on HGTV
Wendie Malick (1950–present), actress and fashion model, Egyptian paternal grandfather.List of Egyptian scientists
A list of Egyptian scientists.
Ali Moustafa Mosharafa
Aziz Suryal Atiya
Essam E. Khalil
Faten Zahran Mohammed
Mostafa Kamal Tolba
Zaghloul El-NaggarList of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2001
This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2001.List of Muslim Nobel laureates
As of 2018, twelve Nobel Prize laureates have been Muslims, more than half in the 21st century. Seven of the twelve laureates have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, while three have been for the sciences. The recipient of the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics, Abdus Salam, was a member of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community of Pakistan. Aziz Sancar is the second Turkish Nobel laureate and was awarded Nobel prize in the field of molecular biology in 2015.Mark Linz
Werner Mark Linz (6 April 1935 – 9 February 2013) was a German-American publisher who specialised in educational and international publishing in the Americas, Europe and the Middle East. He was born in Cologne, Germany, in 1935. He studied humanities at the University of Frankfurt and continued his education in the United States. In 1960 he moved permanently to New York and became a naturalised United States citizen.
Linz held senior executive position in New York with Herder & Herder, McGraw-Hill, and the Seabury Press in the 1960s and 1970s, before establishing the Continuum and Crossroad publishing companies, and serving as the Continuum Group’s president and publisher in New York from 1979 to 1999. He was the co-founder in 2000 of the Continuum International Publishing Group in London and New York.
In 1984 Linz became director of the American University in Cairo Press, first for two years, and then from 1995 until 2011. On returning to Cairo in 1995 he collaborated with Naguib Mahfouz to establish the Naguib Mahfouz Medal for Literature, an annual literary prize for a work of fiction in Arabic, with the guarantee of translation and publication in English for the winner. Among his authors at the AUC Press were Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, Ahmed Zewail, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, archaeologist Zahi Hawass and Pope Shenouda III, head of the Coptic Church.
Linz retired from the AUC Press in 2011, at the age of seventy-six. He was an active member of the Association of American Publishers, the American Society for Scholarly Publishing and the Publishers Club in New York. A long-time resident of Rye, New York, he was an avid sailor and member of the American Yacht Club.Nobelity
Nobelity is a feature documentary which looks at the world's most pressing problems through the eyes of Nobel laureates, including Desmond Tutu, Sir Joseph Rotblat, Ahmed Zewail and Wangari Maathai.
The film interviews each of the nine Nobel Prize winners discussing their vision for the world over the next 50 years.
Nobelity was premiered at the 2006 SXSW Film Festival and was the first of several sold-out screenings at Austin's 1,200-seat Paramount Theatre. The film has continued to be shown in theaters, at universities and schools, and in community centers and churches, as well as being released on DVD. Nobelity was written and directed by writer, actor and filmmaker Turk Pipkin and produced by Christy Pipkin, in association with The Nobelity Project.Norman Davidson (biologist)
Norman Ralph Davidson (April 5, 1916 – February 14, 2002) was an American molecular biologist notable for advancing genome research, member of the National Academy of Sciences, received a National Medal of Science from U.S. President Bill Clinton, was a professor at Caltech. The New York Times called Davidson "major figure in advancing genome research ... whose groundbreaking work in molecular biology led to the earliest understanding of the overall structure of genomes".
The Los Angeles Times called him "a groundbreaking Caltech chemical biologist".
President Bill Clinton cited the scientist for "breakthroughs in chemistry and biology which have led to the earliest understanding of the overall structure of genomes".Othmer Gold Medal
The Othmer Gold Medal recognizes outstanding individuals who contributed to progress in chemistry and science through their activities in areas including innovation, entrepreneurship, research, education, public understanding, legislation, and philanthropy. The medal is presented annually under the sponsorship of the Science History Institute (formerly the Chemical Heritage Foundation) and four affiliated organizations: the American Chemical Society (ACS), the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), The Chemists' Club, and the American section of the Société de Chimie Industrielle, at the Science History Institute's Heritage Day.The Othmer Medal commemorates chemist Donald Othmer (1904–1995), a researcher, engineer, inventor, philanthropist, professor, and co-editor of the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Each year, the recipient of the award designates an institution to receive a copy of the 26 volume Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology from John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Peter Debye Award
The Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry is awarded annually by the American Chemical Society "to encourage and reward outstanding research in physical chemistry". The award is named after Peter Debye and
granted without regard to age or nationality.Reaction dynamics
Reaction dynamics is a field within physical chemistry, studying why chemical reactions occur, how to predict their behavior, and how to control them. It is closely related to chemical kinetics, but is concerned with individual chemical events on atomic length scales and over very brief time periods. It considers state-to-state kinetics between reactant and product molecules in specific quantum states, and how energy is distributed between translational, vibrational, rotational, and electronic modes.Experimental methods of reaction dynamics probe the chemical physics associated with molecular collisions. They include crossed molecular beam and infrared chemiluminescence experiments, both recognized by the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Dudley Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, and John C. Polanyi "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes", In the crossed beam method used by Herschbach and Lee, narrow beams of reactant molecules in selected quantum states are allowed to react in order to determine the reaction probability as a function of such variables as the translational, vibrational and rotational energy of the reactant molecules and their angle of approach. In contrast the method of Polanyi measures vibrational energy of the products by detecting the infrared chemiluminescence emitted by vibrationally excited molecules, in some cases for reactants in defined energy states.Spectroscopic observation of reaction dynamics on the shortest time scales is known as femtochemistry, since the typical times studied are of the order of 1 femtosecond = 10−15 s. This subject has been recognized by the award of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed Zewail.
In addition, theoretical studies of reaction dynamics involve calculating the potential energy surface for a reaction as a function of nuclear positions, and then calculating the trajectory of a point on this surface representing the state of the system. A correction can be applied to include the effect of quantum tunnelling through the activation energy barrier, especially for the movement of hydrogen atoms.Zewail City of Science and Technology
Zewail City of Science and Technology is a nonprofit, independent institution of learning, research and innovation. The concept of the City was proposed in 1999 and its cornerstone laid on January 1, 2000. After numerous delays, the project was revived by the Egyptian cabinet's decree on May 11, 2011 following the January 25 Revolution. The Cabinet labeled it a National Project for Scientific Renaissance and named it Zewail City of Science and Technology. Zewail City of Science and Technology with its three constituents – the university, research institutes, and technology park – is designed to bring about effective participation in 21st Century science, to elevate local technologies to the world level, and to increase national productivity.