Ahmad Qavam

Ahmad Qavam (2 January 1873 – 23 July 1955; Persian: احمد قوام‎), also known as Qavam os-Saltaneh (Persian: قوام السلطنه‎), was a politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran five times.

Ahmad Qavam
Ahmad Qavam - Q001
19th Prime Minister of Iran
In office
17 July 1952 – 22 July 1952
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded byMohammed Mosaddeq
Succeeded byMohammed Mosaddeq
In office
28 January 1946 – 18 December 1947
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded byEbrahim Hakimi
Succeeded byMohammad-Reza Hekmat
In office
9 August 1942 – 15 February 1943
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded byAli Soheili
Succeeded byAli Soheili
In office
22 June 1922 – 15 February 1923
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Preceded byHassan Pirnia
Succeeded byMostowfi ol-Mamalek
In office
4 June 1921 – 21 January 1922
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Preceded byZia'eddin Tabatabaee
Succeeded byHassan Pirnia
Personal details
Born2 January 1873
Tehran, Iran
Died23 July 1955 (aged 82)
Tehran, Iran
Political partyDemocrat Party
Other political
affiliations
Reformers' Party (1920s)[1]

Early life

Qavam was born in 1876 to a prominent Iranian family with origins in Ashtian. His uncle, Amin Aldoleh, was a prime minister of Iran. He served in the royal court of Nasereddin Shah early in his career. He slowly climbed his way up, and obtained the title Ghavam al-Saltaneh during the Constitutional Revolution of Iran. Hasan Vothuq (also known as Vothuq al-Dowleh) was his older brother. The letter signed by Mozaffaredin Shah to accept the Iranian Constitutional Revolution was written by ghavam, who had the title of Dabir-e Hozoor (Private Secretary) at the time. In fact ghavam was instrumental in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution[2]. He became Prime Minister several times during both Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties. Any time the country needed him, he accepted the challenge. He played a significant role in preventing the USSR from separating Iran's northern states twice. Nevertheless, historians have mixed feelings about his legacy.

Political career

Ahmad-qavam

In 1921, during the coup d'état of Tehran against the Qajar government, Tabatabaei ordered Colonel Pessian to arrest many of the opposition, among them Ahmad Qavam. Qavam was arrested and sent to Tehran.

However with the fall of Zia'eddin Tabatabaee's government, Mostowfi ol-Mamalek among others was offered the position of Prime Minister, which he and the rest declined, due to the unstable political situation at the time. Hence Ghavam who had just been released from the Ishratabad prison of Tehran was offered the position, which he accepted and became Prime Minister overnight. So unusual was his rise that Iraj Mirza wrote the following verses:

یکی را افکند امروز در بند
کند روز دیگر او را خداوند

"One day in prison he is thrown,
another day the King's chair he'll own"

Ghavam in fact ordered the arrest of Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee in an incident 25 years later. He also ordered the crackdown on the revolt of Colonel Pessian which he crushed with the aid of Reza Pahlavi

Of the major events that occurred during his terms as the Prime Minister, was his invitation to Arthur Millspaugh for assisting the government in its finances. Another was the riots of 1942 for economic hardship. He appointed Sepahbod Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi to restore order and end the riots, which he did forcefully. Qavam was also instrumental in the 1942 Tripartrite Treaty between Iran, Russia, and Britain.

He was again voted Prime Minister on 26 January 1946 with a slim margin in the Majlis of 52-51.[2] The Majlis thought he would have the best chance of resolving the Soviet inspired rebellion of the occupied Azerbaijan province since Qavam was the largest property-owner in the region. Qavam did not disappoint. He ordered the Iranian delegation to the UN to negotiate issues pending before the Security Council directly with the Soviet delegation. He then flew to Moscow to discuss the issues personally with Stalin.[3]

When the Soviets violated the terms of the Tripartite Pact which called for all foreign military forces to be withdrawn from Iranian territory by 2 March 1946, it drew a strong rebuke from Parliamentary Whip, Mohammed Mossadegh.

Qavam arranged a deal with the Soviets, granting an oil concession in the North contingent on the approval of the Majlis after the elections. Under the terms of the agreement with Qavam, Soviet troops began withdrawing from Iran. When the new Majlis was seated, they immediately voted against the proposed Soviet oil concession.[4] This earned Qavam the congenial title, "The Old Fox".

Death

Qavam died at the age of 82 in 1955 in Tehran. He was survived by his second wife and his only son, Hossein.

See also

References

  1. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-691-10134-5.
  2. ^ "Iran Chooses Premier in 51 to 50 Vote", Salt Lake Tribune, 27 January 1946, p8; Manuucher Farmānfarmaian and Roxane Farmanfarmaian, Blood and Oil: A Prince's Memoir of Iran, from the Shah to the Ayatollah (Random House, 2005), p. 179
  3. ^ Samii, Bill (6 May 2005). "World War II -- 60 Years After: The Anglo-Soviet Invasion Of Iran And Washington-Tehran Relations". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  4. ^ Rubin, Barry (1980). Paved With Good Intentions. Oxford University Press. pp. 33–35. ISBN 0-19-502805-8.
  • The following reference was used for the above writing: 'Alí Rizā Awsatí (عليرضا اوسطى), Iran in the Past Three Centuries (Irān dar Se Qarn-e Goz̲ashteh - ايران در سه قرن گذشته), Volumes 1 and 2 (Paktāb Publishing - انتشارات پاکتاب, Tehran, Iran, 2003). ISBN 964-93406-6-1 (Vol. 1), ISBN 964-93406-5-3 (Vol. 2).
  • A book in Persian called Dar Tir Rase Hadese, The political life of Qavam osSaltaneh. First published in Tehran, winter of 2006. Author: Hamid Shokat, ISBN 9789648897142. Published by akhtaranbook (www.akhtaranbook.com)

Sources

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Zia'eddin Tabatabaee
Prime Minister of Iran
1921–1922
Succeeded by
Hassan Pirnia
Preceded by
Hassan Pirnia
Prime Minister of Iran
1922–1923
Succeeded by
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Preceded by
Ali Soheili
Prime Minister of Iran
1942–1943
Succeeded by
Ali Soheili
Preceded by
Ebrahim Hakimi
Prime Minister of Iran
1946–1947
Succeeded by
Mohammad-Reza Hekmat
Preceded by
Mohammad Mossadegh
Prime Minister of Iran
1952
Succeeded by
Mohammad Mossadegh
Party political offices
Vacant
Party founded
Leader of the Democrat Party of Iran
1946–1948
Vacant
Party dissolved
1921 Persian legislative election

The Persian legislative election of 1921 was the first election held after the 1921 Persian coup d'état. Reformers' Party, led by Hassan Modarres was the majority party while Socialist Party was the main opposition.

1946 in Iran

The following lists events that happened during 1946 in the Imperial State of Iran.

1947 Iranian legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Iran in 1947. The newly elected parliament was opened on 17 July. The election was a three-way power struggle between Ahmad Qavam, Mohammad Reza Shah and pro-Britain conservative politicians.Prime Minister Qavam's control over electoral machinery was in many districts challenged by "Imperial Iranian Army officers, independent local magnets and pro-British provincial governors".A public protest by shopkeepers, bazaaris and university students and headed by Mohammad Mosaddegh among other politicians was held to call for a free elections, however, despite Qavam's promise to hold a free election, it was "rigged" and his Democrat Party of Iran won the majority, including all 12 seats in Tehran.

Ahmad-Hossein Adl

Ahmad-Hossein Adl (1889–1963) was an Iranian politician, who served as the minister of agriculture for several periods in the Ahmad Qavam, Ebrahim Hakimi, and Fazlollah Zahedi governments. He was also the first head of the College of Agronomy. After he moved into private business later on his life, he made much effort "to advance industrial development in Isfahan".

Ali Soheili

Ali Soheili (1896 – 1 May 1958) was a Prime Minister of Iran.

Born in Tabriz, he served as Prime Minister in 1942, and Ambassador to Britain in 1953.

The Tehran Conference took place during his administration.

It is written that he was well versed in the Fine Arts (music, painting). He died of cancer at the age of 62 in London.

Allah-Yar Saleh

Allah-Yar Saleh (Persian: اللهیار صالح‎, born Saleh Arani; 1897–1981) was an Iranian politician and diplomat who was Iranian Ambassador to United States during Mohammad Mosaddegh's premiership.

Coalition government of Ahmad Qavam

Prime Minister Ahmad Qavam formed a short-lived coalition government on 1 August 1946 with his Democrat Party of Iran and the left-wing Tudeh Party and Iran Party. He offered three portfolios (Health, culture, and trade and industry) to the communists and gave the ministries of finance and communications to two royalists; while maintained his own control over interior and foreign ministries.According to Ervand Abrahamian, Qavam did not consult the Shah before forming his cabinet. Shah ordered Qavam to resign on 16 October 1946. Following the resignation, Qavam formed another cabinet without Tudeh and Iran parties.

Democrat Party of Iran

Iranian Democrat Party or Democrat Party of Iran (DPI; Persian: حزب دموکرات ایران‎, translit. Ḥezb-e Demowkrāt-e Irān) was a short-lived political party in Iran, founded in 1946 and led by Ahmad Qavam. It was the most important party formed by the old Qajar nobility, and an association of aristocrats and anti-British radical intellectuals. With the fall of Qavam, it disintegrated in 1948.The organization tried to give itself the appearance of being the heir of the old Democrat party and was ironically named "Democrat Party of Iran" in contrast to the communist "Democrat Party of Azerbaijan".The party's ideology was to be nationalist and reformist, but it was organizationally fragile as it was ideologically amorphous. It called for extensive economic, social, and administrative reforms while advocating a revision of the Iranian Armed Forces. It developed an authoritarianist structure and some suspect it planned to create one-party state.According to Ervand Abrahamian, Qavam had two paradoxical reasons to establish the party, a "double-edged sword directed at the left as well as the right".

He intended to defeat royalist and pro-British candidates in the Iranian legislative election, 1947 and to use it to "mobilize non-communist reformers, steal the thunder from the left, and hence build a counterbalance to the Tudeh Party".

Ebrahim Hakimi

Ebrahim Hakimi (15 August 1871 – 19 October 1959) was an Iranian statesman, who served as prime minister of Iran on three occasions.

Governments of Mohammad Mosaddegh

The premiership of Mohammad Mosaddegh began when his first government was formed on 28 April 1951 and ended on 19 August 1953, when his second government was overthrown by the American–British backed coup d'état. During the time, the two cabinets of Mosaddegh took control except for a brief period between 16 and 21 July 1952, in which Ahmad Qavam was the Prime Minister, taking office due to resignation of Mosaddegh from premiership and deposed by Shah after five days of mass demonstrations.

Hassan Pirnia

Hassan Pirnia (Persian: حسن پیرنیا‎ ‎; 1872–1935), was a prominent Iranian politician of 20th-century Iran. He held a total of twenty-four posts during his political career, serving four times as Prime Minister of Iran. He was also a historian, co-founding the Society for the National Heritage of Iran.

Hossein Makki

Seyyed Hossein Makki (Persian: سید حسین مکی‎) was an Iranian politician, orator and historian. He was a member of Parliament of Iran for three consecutive terms from 1947 to 1953.

The son of a bazaari merchant, Makki was an employee of National Iranian Railroad Company, having previously served as a non-commissioned officer in the Imperial Iranian Air Force.

He began his career as a journalist in 1941 and was a founding member of the Iran Party, as one of the few who was not Western-educated. He left the party as a leading member of Democrat Party of Iran in 1946 and entered the Parliament of Iran as a protégé of Ahmad Qavam in 1947. He left his patron in 1949 to embrace a nationalist cause, befriending Mohammad Mossadegh and co-founding National Front. He actively supported nationalization of the Iran oil industry movement and delivered a filibustering speech that took four days to prevent the oil agreement. He later broke away from Mossadegh and the National Front.He was briefly imprisoned in 1955 and spent the rest of his life writing about Iranian history, most notably the best-selling eight-volume series Tāriḵ-e bist sāla-ye Irān (Twenty Year History of Iran).

Iran crisis of 1946

The Iran crisis of 1946, also known as the Azerbaijan Crisis (Persian: غائله آذربایجان‎ translit.: Qaʾilih Âzarbâyjân) in the Iranian sources, was one of the first crises of the Cold War, sparked by the refusal of Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union to relinquish occupied Iranian territory, despite repeated assurances. The end of World War II should have resulted in the end of the Allied joint occupation of Iran. Instead, Pro-Soviet Iranians proclaimed the separatist Azerbaijan People's Government and the Kurdish separatist Republic of Mahabad. The United States pressured Soviet withdrawal in the earliest success of the new containment strategy.

As of August 1941, the United States was a neutral nation and had not yet entered as a belligerent in World War II. Therefore, the bloc known as 'The Allies' were principally (with Poland and France occupied by Germany in 1939 and 1940, respectively) the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, recently forming their alliance after the German invasion of territories of the Western Soviet Union in June 1941. In August–September 1941, Pahlavi Iran had been jointly invaded and occupied by the Allied powers of the Soviet Red Army in the north and by the British in the centre and south. Iran was used by the Americans and the British as a transportation route to provide vital supplies to the Soviet Union's war efforts.In the aftermath of the occupation of Iran, those Allied forces agreed to withdraw from Iran within six months after the cessation of hostilities. However, when this deadline came in early 1946, the Soviets, under Joseph Stalin, remained in Iran. Soon, the alliance of the Kurdish and People's Azerbaijani forces, supported in arms and training by the Soviet Union, engaged in fighting with Iranian forces, resulting in a total of 2,000 casualties. Negotiation by Iranian premier Ahmad Qavam and diplomatic pressure on the Soviets by the United States eventually led to Soviet withdrawal and dissolution of the separatist Azeri and Kurdish states.

Justice Party (Iran)

Justice Party (Persian: حزب عدالت‎, translit. Ḥezb-e ʿEdālat) was a political party in Iran, led by Ali Dashti who co-founded it with other intellectuals who had participated in the politics of the early 1920s. Other prominent politicians include Jamal Emami, Ebrahim Kajanouri, Farajollah Bahrami, Jamshid Alam and Abulqassem Amini.The party was "an association somewhat resembling a private club, with little organizational cohesion or collective sense of identity". Idologically, its character consisted of a centre-right nationalism and advocated general reforms in the administration and legal and educational systems.The party opposed the Tudeh Party and supported a constitutional monarchy in Iran. According to Hossein Dadgar, a leading member of the party, it was formed "to counter the 'Fifty-three' communists who had founded the dangerous Tudeh party."They backed Mohsen Sadr's government and were considered opposition to the governments of Ahmad Qavam and Ali Soheili.

National Will Party

The Party of the National Will or National Will Party (Persian: حزب اراده ملی‎, translit. Ḥezb-e Erāda-ye Mellī), formerly named Vatan Party (Persian: حزب وطن‎, translit. Ḥezb-e Waṭan, lit. 'Fatherland or Homeland') and Halqa Party (Persian: حزب حلقه‎, translit. Ḥezb-e Ḥalqa, lit. 'ring, circle, link'), was an Anglophile political party in Iran, led by Zia'eddin Tabatabaee. The party played an important role in anti-communist activities, specifically against Tudeh Party of Iran, and was rival to other leftists and civic nationalists who later emerged as the National Front.Widely regarded as dedicated to promote British influence in Iran, it enjoyed support from Embassy of the United Kingdom and British agents such as Robert Charles Zaehner. After the British indecisive policy as a result of the Labour Party victory in the 1945 elections, the party was demoralized and went on hiatus in February 1946 when its key members were arrested by Prime Minister Ahmad Qavam. The party was revived in September 1951 to oppose Mohammad Mosaddegh and the nationalization of the Iran oil industry movement, but collapsed after two month.

Reza Hekmat

Reza Hekmat (1891 – 15 March 1978) was a Prime Minister of Iran. He became Prime Minister of Iran on 18 December 1947 and was in office until 29 December 1947 for only 11 days.He was speaker of Parliament of Iran from 1947 to 1955.

He was born in Shiraz in 1891 and died in Tehran in 1978 at the age of 87.

Vossug ed Dowleh

Hassan Vossug ed Dowleh (Persian: حسن وثوق‌الدوله‎; 1 April 1868–3 February 1951) was Prime Minister of Qajar era Iran. He served as Prime Minister of Iran twice.

He was the older brother of Ahmad Qavam.

Zia'eddin Tabatabaee

Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee (June 1889 – August 29, 1969; Persian: سید ضیاءالدین طباطبایی‎) was an Iranian politician and the Prime Minister of Iran (Persia) from February to May 1921 under Ahmad Shah, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty.

Qajar dynasty
(1906–1925)
Pahlavi dynasty
(1925–1979)
Islamic Republic
(1979–1989)

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