Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: أهل البيت, Persian: اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt or Ahlul Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House". Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
In Shia Islam the Ahl al-Bayt are central to Islam and interpreters of the Quran and Sunnah. Shias believe they are successors of Muhammad and consist of Muhammad, Fatimah, Ali, Hasan, and Husayn (known collectively as the Ahl al-Kisa, "people of the mantle") and the rest of the Imams from The Fourteen Infallibles. There are differing opinions on the scope and importance of Ahl al-Bayt.
In Sunni Islam, Muhammad's household refers to Muhammad himself; his wives and daughters, including Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali; and their two sons, Hasan and Husayn. In the interpretation of certain traditions the term may also be extended to include the descendants of Muhammad's paternal uncles, Abu Talib and al-'Abbas, or according to Malik ibn Anas and Abu Hanifa, all of the Banu Hashim.
In this topic, the word ahl al-bayt is treated base on the Quranic verse, in line with the commentary. To sum up, the meaning of ahl al-bayt in the Quran follows the accepted usage of the term in pre- and post-Islamic Arab society. It denotes family and blood relations as well as a noble and leading "house" of the tribe.
The term Ahl signifies the members of a household of a man, including his fellow tribesmen, kin, relatives, wife or wives, children and all those who share a family background, religion, housing, city and country with him. Bayt refers to habitation and dwelling, whether tented or built. It can also be roughly translated as "household". The ahl al-bayt of a person refers to his family members and all those who live in his house. Ahl al-Bayt is the polite form of addressing the members and wife of the family.
There has been much debate concerning which people constitute ahl al-bayt. Although there have been many disagreements, there is a consensus amongst Sunni and Shi'a Muslims that the "Ahl al-Kisa" hadith refers specifically to Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. Mention of the ahl al-bayt, Muhammad's household, is present in a verse of the Qur'an as follows:
O wives of the Prophet! you are not like any other of the women; If you will be on your guard, then be not soft in (your) speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease yearn; and speak a good word.
And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore; and keep up prayer, and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.
And keep to mind what is recited in your houses of the communications of Allah and the wisdom; surely Allah is Knower of subtleties, Aware.
The precise definition of the term in this verse has been subject to varying interpretations. In one tradition, according to which Muhammad's companion Salman al-Farsi is included as a member, it is used to distinguish from the muhajirun (Muslim emigrants from Mecca) and ansar (Medinan converts to Islam). According to Sunni doctrine, the term includes the wives and dependants of Muhammad, as it addresses them in the preceding verse - an interpretation which is attributed to 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas and Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl, both of whom were companions of Muhammad. This is supported by various traditions attributed to Muhammad wherein he addresses each of his wives as Ahl al-Bayt. Further members of the household, according to the Sunni perspective, include Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, who are mentioned in the tradition of the mantle. Some versions of this tradition recognise Umm Salamah, a wife of Muhammad, as a part of the household. Thus, according to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, "the current orthodox view is based on a harmonizing opinion, according to which the term ahl al-bayt includes the ahl al-ʿabāʾ, i.e. the Prophet, ʿAlī, Fāṭima, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥussain, together with the wives of the Prophet." According to Laura Veccia Vaglieri in Encyclopaedia of Islam "there is a story narrated in many traditions according to which Muḥammad sheltered under his cloak, in varying circumstances including the Mubahala, his grandchildren Ḥasan and Hussein, his daughter Fatimah and his son-in-law Ali; and therefore it is these five who are given the title Ahl al-Kisa or "People of the Mantle". Some have attempted to add Muḥammad's wives to the list; however, the number of the privileged is limited to these five."
Other interpretations include the family of Ali, as well as the families of Muhammad's relatives such as Aqeel, Ja'far, and al-Abbas. Early Islamic jurists Malik ibn Anas and Abū Ḥanīfa included the clan of Banu Hashim within the definition, while al-Shafi'i included the whole of Banu Muttalib.
In Shia thought, the household is limited to Muhammad, Fatimah, Ali, Hasan, Husayn, and their descendants (altogether known as the Ahl al-Kisa); as per their deduction from the tradition of the mantle. They interpret the change in pronoun in the Qur'anic verse as showing that only the aforementioned members constitute Ahl al-Bayt. Madelung writes that "this change of gender has inevitably contributed to the birth of various accounts of a legendary character, attaching the latter part of the verse to the five People of the Mantle." Shias view these individuals as infallible and sinless Imams and regard devotion to them as an essential part of the religion.
Shia Muslims also support this claim with a hadith mentioned in the Sunni Ṣaḥīḥ collection. Many Sunni scholars remark that the verse of purification was revealed concerning five people: Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn.
'A'isha reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel's hair that there came Hasan b. 'Ali. He wrapped him under it, then came Husain and he wrapped him under it along with the other one (Hasan). Then came Fatima and he took her under it, then came 'Ali and he also took him under it and then said: Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household, and purify you (thorough purifying)
The tradition about this hadith goes from different sources to Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad. She narrated that once her father visited her home, he had fever and was not feeling well, he asked for a Yemeni cloak which Fatimah brought to him and folded it around him. Later he was joined in that Yemeni cloak by his grandsons Hasan and Hussein, who were followed by their father Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Finally Fatimah asked the permission to enter that cloak. When all five of them joined together under the cloak, Muhammad narrated the Qur'anic verse 33:33 to those under the cloak that all five of them are chosen ones, and he further stated that he wants God to keep all impurities out of reach and away from all of us. Muhammad then prayed to God to declare all five of them as his Ahlul Bayt and keep away the Najasat (impurities). God, at that request immediately sent Gabriel (Jibral) to reveal to Muhammad that all the five under the cloak are dearest and closest to God and they are Taher ("purest of the pure") without any traces of impurities.
The Twelver and Ismaili branches of Shia Islam differ in regards to the line of Imamate. While the Twelver believe in a lineage known as the Twelve Imams, the Ismaili believe that the descendants of Isma'il ibn Jafar, rather than his brother Musa al-Kadhim, were the inheritors of the Imamate instead.
According to Anas ibn Malik, Muhammad, for six months straight used to pass by the door of Fatimah whenever he left for fajr prayers and said, "it is time for salat, of family of the house (Ahel al biat)! 'Surely Allah desires to remove all imperfection from you, of family of the house, and purify you completely.'" From surah Al Ahzab 33, verse 33, Sunan al-Tirmidhi- Vol. 2 sahih 902
Most, but not all Shi'a believe that these A'immah to be the divinely chosen leaders of the Muslim community. This is based on the hadith, "People of the Cloak", where the Prophet referred to only Fatimah, Ali, Hasan, Hussain and Himself (stating that wives were not part of the Ahl al Bayt because they could be divorced and were no longer part of the household when their husband died), a hadith which many Sunni Muslims believe in. Collectively Muhammad, Fatimah and the Twelve Imams are known as The Fourteen Infallibles.
In Kitab al-Kafi, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir has narrated that there will be twelve Imams from the family of Muhammad, nine from the family of Husayn ibn Ali, the last being Al-Qa'im, and they will be spoken to by angels..
Muslims accord Muhammad's household a special status and venerate it. This is derived from verses in the Qur'an and hadith which stipulate love towards Muhammad's relatives – though in some cases interpretations differ, an example being: "Say: "No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin". According to classical exegete al-Tabarani (260–360 AH / 873–970 CE) the verse most likely refers to Muslim believers related by blood ties. Another interpretation adopted by Shia applies the verse to the ahl al-bayt; while another view interprets the verse as commanding love for relatives in general. The latter view is favored by contemporary academic scholar Madelung.
Sharia (Islamic law) prohibits the administration of sadaqah (charity) or zakat (tax) to Muhammad's kin (including the Banu Hashim), as Muhammad forbade this income for himself and his family. The explanation given by jurists is that these alms are considered the defilements of the people, who offer them to purify themselves from sin, hence it would be unbecoming of the kin to handle or use them. Instead, they are accorded part of the spoils of war. Muslims in their daily prayers invoke blessings upon them by saying: "O God, bless Muhammad and his family." In many Muslim communities, high social status is attributed to people claiming to be blood-descendants of Muhammad's household, and are labelled sayyids or sharifs.
Most Sunni Sufi circles (tariqah) trace their spiritual chain back to Muhammad through Ali. In Shia thought, Muhammad's household is central to the religion. In one version of Muhammad's farewell sermon, he is represented as saying that God has given believers two safeguards: the Qur'an and his family; in other versions the two safeguards are the Qur'an and his Sunnah (statements and actions of Muhammad). Popular Shia belief ascribes cosmological importance to the family in various texts, wherein it is said that God would not have created Jannah (heaven) and earth, paradise, Adam and Eve, or anything else were it not for them. The majority of Shia regard the heads of the family as divinely chosen Imams who are infallible and sinless.
The term ahl al-bayt (the people of the house) is used in the Qur'an as a term of respect for wives, referring to Abraham's wife Sarah (Q. 11:73), for example, and to the Prophet Muhammad's wives, who are declared to be purified by divine act: "God's wish is to remove uncleanness from you" (Q. 33:32-33).
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (Arabic: العباس بن عبد المطلب, romanized: al-ʿAbbās ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; c. 568 – c. 653 CE) was paternal uncle and Sahabi (companion) of Muhammad, just three years older than his nephew. A wealthy merchant, during the early years of Islam he protected Muhammad while he was in Mecca, but only became a convert after the Battle of Badr in 624 CE (2 AH). His descendants founded the Abbasid Caliphate in 750.Ahl Al-Bayt World Assembly
The Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly (Persian: مجمع جهانی اهل البیت) is an international non-governmental organization (INGO) that was established by a group of Shiite elites under the supervision of the great Islamic authority of the Shiites in 1990 to identify, organize, educate and support the followers of Ahl al-Bayt.Ahl al-Kisa
Ahl al-Kisa' (Arabic: أهل الكساء, romanized: Ahl al-Kisā'), or the People of the Cloak, are the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; his daughter, Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali; and his two grandsons Hassan and Husayn.They are also called Aal al-Aba (Arabic: آل العبا, romanized: Āl al-‘Abā) and in Persian as Panj-tan Aal-e Aba (Persian: پنج تن آل عبا, translit.: Panj-tan-e Āl-e Abā) or simply Panj-tan (Persian: پنج تن), meaning the Five. The origin of this belief is found in the Hadith of the Event of the Cloak and the Hadith of Mubahala. This hadith is graded authentic by Shia Muslims and Sunnis, however many Sunnis plead a different interpretation.
It is one of the foundations of the Shia conception of the Imamah, which states that patrilineal descendants of Muhammad's daughter have a special divine spiritual leadership over the Muslim community. The Ahl al-Kisa, along with their descendants, the Imams, form the Shia definition of Ahl al-Bayt, the "People of the House," or the family of Muhammad.
The three larger branches of Shia Islam differ on the nature of the Ahl al-Kisa and the Imams. The two largest branches, the mainstream Twelvers and the Ismailis, consider them to be in a state of ismah, or infallibility: a belief originating from the verse of purification in the Quran.
In contrast, the third branch, the Zaidis, view them only as political figures with the duty to lead revolts against corrupt rulers and governments.Aqeel ibn Abi Talib
Aqeel ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: عقيل بن أبي طالب) was a companion and first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was known by the kunyas Abu Aqeel and Abu Yazid.Bassim Al-Karbalaei
Basim Karbalaei or Basim Al-Karbalaei (born 1966) is a Shia eulogy (latmiyah) reciter.He was born in the city of Karbala, Iraq in 1966 where he lived until 1980. During this time, he participated in processions in Karbala, which were held in mourning of Prophet Muhammad and Ahl al-Bayt (People of the House [of the Prophet]), who Shi'as regard highly. He then moved and lived in Isfahan, Iran, where he began learning how to read Qur'an which helped soften and improve his voice. He has read thousands of poems regarding Muhammad and his Ahl al-Bayt both in mourning and celebration of them. He has recited in Bahrain, Denmark, Germany, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, the Netherlands, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. He has 1 son and 3 daughters whose names are Ali, Fatimma, Rayhanah and Ruqayyah.Ghulat
Ghulāt (Arabic: غلاة, lit. 'exaggerators', singular ghālī) is a term used in the theology of orthodox Shia Islam to describe some minority Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to figures of Islamic history (usually some members of the Ahl al-Bayt) or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream, orthodox Shi'i theology. In later periods, this term was used to describe any Shia group not accepted by the Zaydis, orthodox Twelvers, and sometimes the Isma'ilis.The usage derives from the idea that the importance or the veneration of such a religious figure has been "exaggerated".Hadith of the Quran and Sunnah
Several hadith (oral tradition about the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) indicate the importance as sources of Islam not only the Quran (the revelation of God to Muhammad, infallible but containing compressed information), but also of the Sunnah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (a detailed explanation of the everyday application of the principles established in the Qur'an that is based on ahadith). One of these hadith quotes Muhammad as saying: "I have left among you two matters by holding fast to which, you shall never be misguided: the Book of God and my Sunna."Hadith of the two weighty things
The Hadith al-Thaqalayn, also known as the Hadith of the two weighty things, refers to a saying (hadith) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to the hadith of Muhammad prophet Qur'an and Ahl al-Bayt ("people of the house", Muhammad's family) had been described as the two weighty things. In the context of this Hadith, Muhammad's family refers to Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, Fatimah bint Muhammad (the daughter of Muhammad), and their children and descendants. This hadith is accepted by Shia and Sunni Islam.History of Shia Islam
Shi‘a Islam, also known as Shi‘ite Islam or Shi‘ism, is the second largest branch of Islam after Sunni Islam. Shias adhere to the teachings of Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family (who are referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendants known as Shia Imams. Muhammad's bloodline continues only through his daughter Fatima Zahra and cousin Ali who alongside Muhammad's grandsons comprise the Ahl al-Bayt. Thus, Shias consider Muhammad's descendants as the true source of guidance. Shia Islam, like Sunni Islam, has at times been divided into many branches; however, only three of these currently have a significant number of followers, and each of them has a separate trajectory.
From a political viewpoint the history of the Shia was in several stages. The first part was the emergence of the Shia, which starts after Muhammad's death in 632 and lasts until Battle of Karbala in 680. This part coincides with the Imamah of Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Hussain. The second part is the differentiation and distinction of the Shia as a separate sect within the Muslim community, and the opposition of the Sunni caliphs. This part starts after the Battle of Karbala and lasts until the formation of the Shia states about 900. During this section Shi'ism divided into several branches. The third section is the period of Shia states. The first Shia state was the Idrisid dynasty (780–974) in Maghreb. Next was the Alavid dynasty (864–928) established in Mazandaran (Tabaristan), north of Iran. These dynasties were local, but they were followed by two great and powerful dynasties. The Fatimid Dynasty formed in Ifriqiya in 909, and ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt and the Levant until 1171. The Buyid dynasty emerged in Daylaman, north of Iran, about 930 and then ruled over central and western parts of Iran and Iraq until 1048. In Yemen, Imams of various dynasties usually of the Zaidi sect established a theocratic political structure that survived from 897 until 1962.Ja'far ibn Abi Talib
Jaʿfar ibn Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: جَعْفَر ابْن أَبِي طَالِب, c.590–629 CE), also known as Jaʿfar aṭ-Ṭayyār (Arabic: جَعْفَر ٱلطَّيَّار, lit. 'Ja'far the Flyer' (of Paradise)), was a companion of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad, and an older brother of Ali.Maddahi
Maddahi is a ceremonial singing or eulogy recitation especially for Shia Muslims. The word Maddahi means "to praise" in Arabic. One who sings this style is called a maddah. Maddahs mostly sing on Ahl al-Bayt's birth and death anniversary. The theme of Maddahi may be joyous or sorrowful. Most maddahs are men but some women perform in exclusively female gatherings. The majority of maddahis are sung in mourning of Ahl al-Bayt, particularly at the Mourning of Muharram in the beginning of Muharram until the Day of Ashura and Arba'een.Mawaddat al-Qurba
Expressed love for the close of kin (Arabic: Mawaddat al-Qurba) is a Hadith collection purportedly written by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani.The book is name based on the Qur'anic verse [Quran 42:23], a verse the according to many Muslims makes love to the Ahl al-Bayt obligatory.
The author, after having read the Qur'anic verse that demand Muslim to express love (mawaddat) for the Ahl al-Bayt (fi al-Qurba), started to collect narrations regarding them. At the end, it mounted up to a book. His book is praised by Shi'as having many hadith that support the Shi'a view.
This book is quoted in Yanabi al-Muwadda purportedly authorized by Sulayman al-Qunduzi.Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in the court of Yazid
Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in the court of Yazid are the statements made by Zaynab bint Ali in the presence of Yazid I in the aftermath of the Battle of Karbala when the captive family members of Muhammad, prophet of Islam, and the heads of those murdered were moved to the Levant (it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria Arabic: شام) by the forces of Yazid I. Zaynab delivered a defiant sermon in the court of Yazid in which she humiliated Yazid and exposed his army's atrocities while honoring the Ahl al-Bayt and those killed in Karbala and expounding upon the eternal consequences of the battle.Sijjin
Sijjin (Arabic: سِجِّين) is in Islamic belief, either a place located in the bottom of Jahannam (hell) or a book, that lists the names of the damned. The word's origin is unknown. It appears in the Quran in Surah 83:7-9. A similar word (sijill) is used in 21:104 often translated as scroll.
According to some exegetes, such as Razi, Sijjin is a prison for the damned in hell.According to some Shia traditions, the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt are created from the earth of Sijjin.The Antithesis of Sijjin is Illiyin.Soaz
Soaz or soz (Persian and Urdu: سوز) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the honor of Husain ibn Ali and his family and Sahabah in the battle of Karbala. In its form the soaz, salam and Marsiya, with a rhyming quatrain and a couplet on a different rhyme. This form found a specially congenial soil in Lucknow (a city in Northern India), chiefly because it was the center of Shia Muslim community, which regarded it an act of piety and religious duty to eulogies and bemoan the person who killed in the battle of Karbala. The form reached its peak in the writing of Mir Babar Ali Anis. A soaz is written to commemorate the honor of Ahl al-Bayt, Imam Hussain and Battle of Karbala. The sub-parts of Marsiya can be called Noha and soz which means the lamentation and burning of (heart) respectively.
People who recite soaz are known as soazkhawan.Tabarra
Tabarra (Arabic: تبرأ) is a doctrine that refers to the obligation of disassociation with those who oppose God and those who caused harm to and were the enemies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad or his family. As Shi'as believe, Imamate is the inheritor of Risala (apostleship), thus it is the protector of Islam. Muhammad introduced them (Imams). Later every Imam introduced and stipulated the next Imam. So, people who were obstacles to the Imamate and implementation of the true form of Islam and equally the people who were the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt are the enemies of God and it is necessary for all believers to dissociate from them.Tawalla
Tawallá "Loving the Ahl al-Bayt" (Arabic: تولّى), is a part of the Twelver Shī‘ah Islām Aspects of the Religion and is derived from a Qur'anic verse.That is of which Allah gives the good news to His servants, (to) those who believe and do good deeds. Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for (my) near relatives; and whoever earns good, We give him more of good therein; surely Allah is Forgiving, Grateful.[Quran 42:23]Furthermore, the Sunni and Shī‘ah Hadith of the Event of the Cloak is used to define who is Muḥammad's near relatives.The verse of purification
The verse of purification (Arabic:آیه تطهیر ) is a verse (Ayah) in the Qur'an. The verse has special importance for Shiite Muslims due to giving information about Ahl al-Bayt of Muhammad. Shiite reportedly believe it to designate the "People of the House" as being Ismah, infallibility. Within Sunni Islam this viewpoint is seen as either rejected or partially supported such as the case of Sufism. Some verses refer to Muhammad's wives.Wasā'il al-Shīʿa
Wasā'il al-Shīʿa (Arabic: وسائل الشيعة) is a reputable book of hadith in Shia Islam, compiled in the 17th century by Shaikh al-Hur al-Aamili. Shaikh Al-Hur wrote two editions of this book, ahl al-bayt which is a 30 volume long edition of it, and Al-Islamiyyah which is 20 volumes long.
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People and things in the Quran
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