Aguascalientes

Aguascalientes (Spanish pronunciation: [ˌa.ɣwas.kaˈljen.tes] (listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes, literally: Hot Waters), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Aguascalientes.

It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Zacatecas to the north and Jalisco to the south. Its name means "hot waters" in Spanish and originated from the abundance of hot springs in the area. The demonym for the state's inhabitants is hidrocálido or aguascalentense.

Aguascalientes

Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes
Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes
Flag of Aguascalientes

Flag
Motto(s): 
Bona Terra, Bona Gens, Aqua Clara, Clarum Coelum
(Good Earth, Good People, Clear Water, Clear Sky)
Anthem: Himno de Aguascalientes
"Anthem of Aguascalientes"
State of Aguascalientes within Mexico
State of Aguascalientes within Mexico
Coordinates: 22°1′N 102°21′W / 22.017°N 102.350°WCoordinates: 22°1′N 102°21′W / 22.017°N 102.350°W
CountryMexico
Capital (and largest city)Aguascalientes City
Municipalities11
AdmissionFebruary 5, 1857[1]
Order24th
Government
 • GovernorMartín Orozco PAN
 • Senators[2]Martha Cecilia Márquez Alvarado PAN
Juan Antonio Martín del Campo PAN
Daniel Gutiérrez Castorena Morena Party (Mexico).svg
 • Deputies[3]
Area
 • Total5,617.80 km2 (2,169.04 sq mi)
 Ranked 29th
Highest elevation3,050 m (10,010 ft)
Population
 (2015)[6]
 • Total1,312,544
 • Rank27th
 • Density230/km2 (610/sq mi)
 • Density rank4th
Demonym(s)Hidrocálido (a)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
20
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-AGU
HDIIncrease 0.794 high Ranked 8th
GDPUS$ 7,435.49 mil[a]
WebsiteOfficial Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was 95,174,314 thousand pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 7,435,493.3 thousand dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8]

History

Pre-Columbian era arrowheads, potshards, and rock paintings in the caverns of the Sierra del Laurel and near the present village of Las Negritas testify to the presence of man in this territory for more than 20,000 years. Later in the colonial times, Pedro Almíndez Chirino was the first Spaniard who entered the territory, perhaps by the end of 1530 or the beginning of 1531, following the instructions given by Nuño de Guzmán.

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the territory of what is now the State of Aguascalientes was inhabited by Chichimecas, who made the territory difficult to access. In fact, the total occupation of the lands of El Bajío was a task that would take about two centuries. With respect to this, Viceroy Luis de Velasco offered municipal benefits to those who established settlements to confront the Chichimeca. And for his part, Viceroy Gastón de Peralta decided to confront them directly, which did not end with good results.

It was in order to be in the territory that is presently the state inhabited by Chichimecas, the so-called Guachichiles, that the conquistadors built several forts or presidios.

This was a system devised by Martín Enríquez de Almanza following the strategy that had been developing in Spain throughout the Reconquista period. Therefore, in order to protect the Camino de la Plata,[9] which stretched between Zacatecas and Mexico City, three presidios [garrisoned fortifications] founded by the Indian fighter Juan Domínguez, were to be created, which were: the presidio at Las Bocas, later called Las Bocas de Gallardo, situated on the border of Aguascalientes, in what was the jurisdiction of the mayor of Teocaltiche, presently the border of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas; the presidio at Palmillas, which was located near what is now Tepezalá; and the Ciénega Grande presidio, established around 1570. The latter was located on what are now Moctezuma and Victoria Streets, although some historians place it on the Calle 5 de Mayo (once the Camino Real) at Moctezuma, just in front of the Plaza de Armas. This was a fortress whose purpose was the protection of the Valle de los Romero and the road to Zacatecas, entering this way to secure the passage of convoys loaded with silver and other metals.

The founding of Aguascalientes as a town came from the order that King Felipe II gave the judge of the court of Nueva Galicia, Don Gerónimo de Orozco, in which he stated that he should look for a rich man to settle in the territory with the purpose of expelling the Chichimecas and of assuring safe passage. Gerónimo de Orozco, following that order, looked for someone who would accept the king's order and found a man named Juan de Montoro[10] in the city of Santa María de los Lagos. He accepted the assignment and, accompanied by eleven other people, headed to the territory and thus founded the town of Aguas Calientes on October 22, 1575. It has been noted that it was called San Marcos originally, changing its name on August 18, 1611, to the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. And finally, from June 2, 1875, it was called the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes; later changing to the city of Aguascalientes, which remains its name today.[11]

Zacatecas-1819
Province of Zacatecas including Aguascalientes, early 19th Century period map.

In the act of its establishment, the Villa de San Marcos (Aguascalientes) was awarded the highest mayoral jurisdiction under the Kingdom of New Galicia. As of December 4, 1786, on the occasion of the issuance of the "Ordinance of Mayors," it became a quartermaster sub-delegation.

On April 24, 1789, by order of the Superior Board of Royal Property, the sub-delegation of Aguascalientes became a dependency of Zacatecas.

In the Mexican War of Independence, in the territory which is today the state of Aguascalientes, the fires of independence were stoked by illustrious and courageous men such as Valentin Gómez Farías, Rafael Iriarte, Rafael Vázquez, and Pedro Parga.

México - Zacatecas (1824)
Territory de Aguascalientes annexed to Zacatecas in the Mexico of 1824.

Confusion has arisen regarding the exact date when Aguascalientes formally separated from the territory of Zacatecas. By virtue of having, de facto, defeated the liberal government of Zacatecas by rising against the central government, president Antonio López de Santa Anna passed through Aguascalientes, where he was well received by the people who had wanted to separate from Zacatecas for some time. Taking advantage of the independent souls of the Aguascalentenses, and by way of punishing Zacatecas for supporting the Revolution against them, by Federal Decree of General López de Santa Anna dated May 23, 1835, in the third article; ordered that Aguascalientes to be separated from Zacatecas territory, without granting the territory any specific category, reinstating the appointment of the political boss, Pedro Garcia Rojas. With respect to this, it must be mentioned that said order was not made official as it did not meet the legal requirements to take effect, since it was necessary that two thirds of each house, both Senators and Representatives, approved the order; furthermore it would be required that two thirds of the legislatures of the states also approved it. The second requirement not being completed, the constitutional congress convened again to develop the centralized constitution that would be known later as the Seven Laws. The constitution did not acknowledge Aguascalientes in the rank of department, but it saw fit to eliminate the states, together with the federal regime, replacing the states with departments, and because of this it continued to belong to Zacatecas. What can be said, since in the local constitution of Zacatecas of 1825, Aguascalientes was contemplated as a member of said state.

It was general José Mariano Salas who, on August 5, 1846, announced the reestablishment of federalism, convening a constitutional congress that declared current the constitution of 1824, but still didn't consider Aguascalientes as a state. Subsequently, on May 18, 1847, amendments were approved to the Constitution of 1824, but neither granted to Aguascalientes the status of a state. That brought about a war between Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, and as a consequence Zacatecas would strengthen the partitions, now municipalities, of Cavillo and Rincón de Romos. In July 1848, Aguascalientes accepted the peaceful annexation to Zacatecas; but continued making efforts to separate through Miguel García Rojas. It was not until December 10, 1853, that López de Santa Anna, using his extraordinary powers, issued a decree declaring Aguascalientes a department, based on the decrees of December 30, 1836, and June 30, 1838, without ever referring to the one from March 23, 1835. Finally, in the project that would be the Constitution of 1857, that was presented on June 16, 1856, Aguascalientes was included as a state in Article 43; it was passed unanimously by the 79 deputies present, ensuring the establishment of the state of Aguascalientes on December 10, 1856. On September 16, 1857, on the strength of said constitution, Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo reclaimed his post as constitutional governor of the state.

In the independent state, hidrocálidos (people of Aguascalientes) Jesus R. Macías, Manuel Rangel, Augustín Orona, José María Arellano and many other anonymous heroes distinguished themselves in the War of Reform.

Silvestre Dorador, Román Morales, Pedro Vital, Alfonso Guerrero Aguilera and Alberto Fuentes Dávila were forerunners of the Revolution. The explosion of the Maderist movement embraced the cause in the company of some other compatriots, and the rebel action of the town and the region stayed formalized.

Geography

Cerro del Muerto
Mountain ranges seen from Aguascalientes

The state is located about 480 km (300 mi) from Mexico City in the macroregion of El Bajío, specifically the Bajío Occidental (western Bajío).

It covers 5,471 square kilometers (2,112 sq mi), or 0.3% of the area of the country, and has a little more than one million inhabitants. Most of its inhabitants live in the densely populated metropolitan area of its capital city.

The state as it is now was created on October 27, 1857, when it was separated from Zacatecas after the tale says that the wife of the governor of the state promised to give a kiss to the President of the time, in exchange for the separation of Aguascalientes from Zacatecas, which explains the shape of a kiss the state has. It bears the name Aguascalientes taken from its largest city and capital also called Aguascalientes.

Climate

The state mostly has a semi-arid climate, except in the southeastern and northeastern parts where the climate is wetter and cooler.[12] Mean annual temperature of the state is around 17 to 18 °C (62.6 to 64.4 °F) in which May and June are the hottest months with mean temperatures between 22 to 23 °C (71.6 to 73.4 °F).[12][13] In these months, temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86.0 °F).[12] January is the coldest month, averaging 13 to 14 °C (55.4 to 57.2 °F) with temperatures dropping down to 4 °C (39.2 °F).[12][13] Frosts frequently occur from November to February. Mean rainfall is low, averaging 526 mm (20.7 in) and is mostly concentrated in summer with winters being dry.[12]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895 104,693—    
1900 102,416−2.2%
1910 120,511+17.7%
1921 107,581−10.7%
1930 132,900+23.5%
1940 161,693+21.7%
1950 226,965+40.4%
1960 243,363+7.2%
1970 338,142+38.9%
1980 519,439+53.6%
1990 719,659+38.5%
1995 862,720+19.9%
2000 944,285+9.5%
2005 1,065,416+12.8%
2010 1,184,996+11.2%
2015 1,312,544 [14]—    

Economy and industry

Vista del Museo Espacio del MECA, Aguascalientes 11
The Museo Espacio of the MECA (Macroespacio para la Cultura y las Artes), housed in a former railway workshop. The 86 hectare MECA complex is composed of museums, a library, auditorium, former industrial buildings and sports facilities.

This state originated around the times of colonial Spanish influence. It is located in the middle of the country and is now beginning to make a name for itself as an industrial power within Mexico. The state was once a major silver miner and a major source of railroad transportation, the latter due to its strategic location, midway between the three most populous areas, namely Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey.

Today, Mexico's fast growing car industry is especially important in this state. There are two Nissan factories in Aguascalientes which together produce more than half a million cars per year. Infiniti may build a plant to make vehicles like the QX30.

In the rural area, Aguascalientes was once the largest national producer of grapes and wines. This tradition ceased gradually due to the Spanish Royalty's wishes that grape and wine production be limited to the mother country. Thanks to the influx of immigrants into Mexico, the wineries and vineyards remain and flourish. Guavas are also produced in the state, specifically in the municipality of Calvillo. This county is one of the richest counties in Aguascalientes.

There are several projects for economic development such as: the Financial District Río San Pedro, a monorail, a suburban train, the construction of the newest and most modern WTC in Mexico, over four shopping malls, two theme parks, two Executive Hotels and one whose qualification is five stars, eight bridges for the next five years, a Financial District around the Airport, A Texas Instruments Assembly-Test Plant, A Nissan Assembly plant, a Toyota assembly plant and several others projects place Aguascalientes as the third most competitive state in Mexico with more than US$12,000,000 in foreign direct investment per year (around 8 percent of Mexico's FDI) even though its population is just about 1.03 percent of the country.

However, recently it has also benefited from heavier tourism, since the capital city has gained prestige and status as a national destination for its colonial beauty and cleanliness. In addition, the haciendas and baths around the state have historic and recreational importance.

Tourism

INEGI-Sede
Headquarters of INEGI
Templo San Antonio Ags doble cúpula
Templo San Antonio
Complejo Ferrocarrilero Tres Centurias
Complejo Ferrocarrilero Tres Centurias

Although this state is not often billed as a tourist center, international visitors, as well as citizens from all over Mexico, are attracted to San Marcos Fair, which is considered the national fair of Mexico[16] and contributes much to Mexico's economy.

Recently, its capital city has gained the reputation as a great destination for its superb colonial architecture visible in the colonial center, as well as the modernity and dynamism in the outskirts.

The city is home to Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo International Airport, where 9 flights per day depart to Mexico City, Tijuana, Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston.[17]

The city also hosts many conventions every year. It benefits from its excellent central location. The city is also famed for its environment of relaxation, and for its safety and cleanliness, as it is often described by people when traveling to this part of the country for conventions or tourism.

Most tourists go to the capital. A few tourists explore the former mining towns in the north of the state (in the municipalities of Asientos and Tepezalá), which are now almost ghost cities. The haciendas, hot springs, and baths scattered around the state are also of historical and recreational relevance.

The municipality of Calvillo has a semi-tropical climate, The largest producer of guavas in Mexico,[18] it attracts some fans of watersports to its reservoirs.

The state has a Natural Protected Reserve in the higher mountains called Sierra Fría. Located at a height of 2,500 to 3,000 meters (8,202 to 9,843 ft) above sea level, it comprises oak and pine forests. Its attractions include observing exuberant landscape and wide ravines, in which, there are pumas, lynxes, boar, white-tailed deer, wild turkey, raccoons and many other animals. There are steep-sided cycle paths, camping and picnic areas as well as several hunting clubs. It is the mountain climate and fauna that attracts locals for camping activities. In winter, the temperature sometimes falls to −4.44 °C (24.01 °F) when the weather is poor. Usually, Sierra Fría is the only part of the state that gets snow during winter.

In the city of Aguascalientes one of the best sunsets in the world can be seen in Cerro del Muerto; the hill resembles the shape of a man lying down. The city of Aguascalientes is called "el corazón" which means "the heart" of Mexico because it lies in the middle of the country. This city is often considered, by its locals, to be one of the safest and cleanest in Mexico. Also, the city of Aguascalientes is known as "the land of the good people".

Sports

The state has one football team in the Mexican Premiere League, Club Necaxa, one professional baseball team in the Mexican League, Rieleros de Aguascalientes (The railroad men), and one professional basketball team, Las Panteras (The Panthers)

In December 2009, Necaxa was represented on the field and played their final 2009 match within the Primera División (First Division) tier in the 2009 season after losing 1-0 vs Club América. Under the rules of regulation, Necaxa would not be able to participate in the First Division competition play in the fall 2009 and spring 2010 year.

Necaxa's closing spring 2010 league performance had some accomplishments. They had an undefeated record at home throughout the fall 2009. In the spring 2010 campaign, Necaxa's only loss in the season came against F.C León, Necaxa faced this other soccer team on May 8, 2010 for the second leg of the Bicentennial Closing Spring Tournament of 2010. Necaxa won 4-2 on aggregate. Necaxa abandoned the Liga de Ascenso and returned to First Division fall 2010 season. As a result of this match Necaxa won the bi-championship in the Liga de Ascenso and First Promotion title in their franchise history.

On April 16, 2011, after a draw 1–1 with Atlante F.C., the club's first key game in 2011, Necaxa could not cumulate enough points in order to evade relegation. For a second time, Club Necaxa was relegated to the Liga de Ascenso, the second tier, for the 2011–2012 season. One of the biggest soccer to live Judith Ramírez played for this team from 2001–2017.

Basketball

Aguascalientes hosts the Panteras de Aguascalientes headquarters. This team plays in the Mexican Professional Basketball League.

Baseball

Aguascalientes also hosts the baseball professional team Rieleros.

Racing

Aguascalientes also has important racetracks for the car and motorbike races at a national and international level.

Government and politics

Government

Aguascalientes is subdivided into 11 municipios ("municipalities").

Municipios de Aguascalientes
Municipalities of Aguascalientes, by INEGI code.
INEGI code Municipality Municipal Seat Area (km2) Population (2015)
001 Aguascalientes Aguascalientes 1178.85 877,190
002 Asientos Asientos 547.22 46,464
003 Calvillo Calvillo 932.62 56,048
004 Cosío Cosío 129.21 54,048
005 Jesús María Jesús María 506.32 120,405
006 Pabellón de Arteaga Pabellón de Arteaga 199.72 46,473
007 Rincón de Romos Rincón de Romos 376.77 53,866
008 San José de Gracia San José de Gracia 866.08 8,896
009 Tepezalá Tepezalá 231.70 20,926
010 El Llano Palo Alto 509.77 20,245
011 San Francisco de los Romo   San Francisco de los Romo   139.54 46,454

Politics

Presidential elections results[19]
Year PRI PAN PRD
2012 38.79% 189,027 30.83% 150,231 20.72% 100,958
2006 23.64% 97,935 46.72% 193,588 21.70% 89,920
2000 33.89% 127,134 53.93% 202,335 7.00% 26,264
1994 46.45% 157,736 36.65% 124,484 8.61% 29,236

Major communities

Famous Hidrocálidos

See also articles in the category People from Aguascalientes
William Yarbrough at Walter Reed 150903-D-FW736-009 (cropped)
Mexican-Born WIlliam Yarbrough

See also

References

  1. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2010-04-11.
  2. ^ "Senadores por Aguascalientes LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Aguascalientes". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  4. ^ "Superficie". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  5. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  6. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  7. ^ "Aguascalientes". 2010. Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  8. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  9. ^ La Guerra Chichimeca, POWELL, PHILIP W., Fondo de la Cultura Económica
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved 2016-06-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  11. ^ Evolución Constitucional del Estado de Aguascalientes, José Alfredo Muñoz Delgado, Ed. Piqueta.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Clima". Información por entidad (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  13. ^ a b "Clima" (in Spanish). Gobierno del estado de Aguascalientes. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  14. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
  15. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010". INEGI. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
  16. ^ "San Marco National Fair, Mexico City, Mexico". World Reviewer. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  17. ^ "Grupo Aeroportuario del Pacifo". Archived from the original on 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2009-03-05.
  18. ^ Bucur, Diodora (2009-12-04). "December guava fair in Calvillo, Aguascalientes : Mexico Travel". Mexconnect.com. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  19. ^ "Presidential elections results". Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
  20. ^ "Gimnasia rítmica, una opción". Noroeste.com.mx. 2009-10-17. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-29.

External links

2011 Aguascalientes Open

The 2011 Aguascalientes Open was a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It was the first edition of the tournament which was part of the 2011 ATP Challenger Tour. It took place in Aguascalientes, Mexico between 26 September and 2 October 2011.

Aguascalientes City

Aguascalientes (Spanish pronunciation: [ˌaɣwaskaˈljentes] (listen)) is the capital of the state of Aguascalientes and is its most populous city, with a metropolitan population of 1,000,000. It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is part of the macroregion of Bajío, which is among the safest and most prosperous regions in Mexico. It was part of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia(along with the states of Jalisco, Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Nayarit and a part of Michoacán), during the independence was part of Zacatecas in 1835 it became the capital of the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes. Aguascalientes has been called the cleanest city in Latin America. Aguascalientes is experiencing an ongoing social, economic, and aesthetic revitalization process. Aguascalientes has a population which includes Japanese, Koreans, and Germans.

It stands on the banks of the Aguascalientes river, 1880 meters above sea level, at 21°51′N 102°18′W. It is the municipal seat for the Aguascalientes Municipality. The Aguascalientes metropolitan area includes the municipality of Jesús María and San Francisco de los Romo. It was a Chichimeca Indian territory. It later blossomed as a strategic link between Mexico City and the mines of Zacatecas, while prosperous agriculture and ranching helped feed Spain's emerging New World cities.OECD has recognized Aguascalientes as having a good business climate. It is a strong business and economic center in the Bajío region. Its strategic location and infrastructure have made it a regional hub and a location for international headquarters. Also home to two of Nissan's largest and most important manufacturing plants in Latin America. Other important companies located in Aguascalientes include Jatco, Coca-Cola, Flextronics, Texas Instruments, Donaldson, and Calsonic Kansei.

Because of its services and hotel industry, Aguascalientes is one of the most important centers in Mexico for entertainment, gastronomy, leisure activities, arts and recreation.

Aguascalientes International Airport

Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo International Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Internacional Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo, IATA: AGU, ICAO: MMAS), also known as Aguascalientes International Airport, serves Aguascalientes, the capital city of the state of Aguascalientes in Mexico. It handles national and international air traffic for the city of Aguascalientes. The airport was named after Jesús Terán Peredo, an Aguascalientes governor from 1855 to 1857, and one of the first persons to recognize Benito Juárez as Mexico's president.

Its commercial facilities consist of a sole terminal, with four contact positions plus three remotes used by non-mainline carriers. The terminal has been recently remodeled and expanded to meet the growing demand. The airport is now able to handle 1.5 million passengers, although it only handled 0.4 million during 2012. Several amenities have been recently opened, such as the introduction of a new restaurant on the upper level of the airport, new check-in counters, among many others. The airport has become one of the most important terminals in the Central-West region of Mexico.

Aguascalientes Open

The Aguascalientes Open is a tennis tournament held in Aguascalientes, Mexico since 2011. The event is part of the ATP Challenger Tour and is played on outdoor clay courts.

Bajío

The Bajío (lowlands) is a region of West North-Central Mexico that includes parts of the states of Aguascalientes, Jalisco (Centro-Los Altos), Guanajuato, and Querétaro.The Bajío has repeatedly been recognized as the region with the best quality of life, the safest region, and the most dynamic in Mexico, sometimes credited that in Latin America too. Nowadays, the region is a vigorous services region that is experiencing an ongoing social and economic revitalization. It is a strong business and economic centre.

The largest cities of Bajio are Guadalajara, León, Santiago de Querétaro and Aguascalientes.

Club Necaxa

Impulsora del Deportivo Necaxa S.A. de C.V. (pronounced [ne.ˈkak.sa]); often simply known as Club Necaxa, is a Mexican football club in Liga MX based in the city of Aguascalientes. It plays in the Estadio Victoria.

Convention of Aguascalientes

The Convention of Aguascalientes was a major meeting that took place during the Mexican Revolution between the factions in the Mexican Revolution that had defeated Victoriano Huerta's Federal Army and forced his resignation and exile in July 1914.

The call for the Convention was issued on 1 October 1914 by Venustiano Carranza, head of the Constitutional Army, who described it as the Gran Convención de Jefes militares con mando de fuerzas y gobernadores de los Estados ("Great Convention of Commanding Military Chiefs and State Governors") and seen as "the last attempt to create unity among the revolutionaries."Its first sessions were held in the Chamber of Deputies in Mexico City, but were later transferred to the city of Aguascalientes, whence its name came, where it met from 10 October to 9 November 1914.

Cristero Museum

The Cristero Museum (Spanish: Museo Cristero) was the only museum in Mexico dedicated to the country's religious conflicts, which lasted from 1767 until the Cristero War in the 1900s. It is located in the city of Aguascalientes, in central Mexico. The museum was opened to the public on 20 March 2003. It was composed of five exhibition rooms with seven themes, through which the background of the conflicts between State power and Church power in Mexico was explained, up to the last impact of the Cristero War. The museum also housed the Captain Efrén Quesada Ibarra Historical Archive, a space dedicated to students and researchers, which housed the largest collection of printed documents and audiovisuals in the country. It has been closed since around 2005 but the collection is said to still exist.

Estadio Victoria

Estadio Victoria is sports stadium in the Mexican city of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. The stadium opened in 2003 and has a capacity of 23,851 seats. Although the stadium is capable of multi-use, its main use is for soccer games. It is the home stadium of the Necaxa football club which had previously played in Mexico City (at the Estadio Azteca) before relocating to Aguascalientes and Estadio Victoria. The stadium is named after a leading brand of beer brewed by Grupo Modelo.

Governor of Aguascalientes

List of Governors of the Mexican state of Aguascalientes.

José Valverde

José Rafael Valverde (born March 24, 1978) is a Dominican professional baseball pitcher for the Rieleros de Aguascalientes of the Mexican League. He has played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Arizona Diamondbacks, Houston Astros, Detroit Tigers, and New York Mets over a 12-year MLB career. He is nicknamed "Papa Grande."

List of television stations in Aguascalientes

The following is a list of all IFT-licensed over-the-air television stations broadcasting in the Mexican state of Aguascalientes.

Martín Orozco Sandoval

Martín Orozco Sandoval (born 25 June 1967) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PAN, the Governor of Aguascalientes since 2016. From 2012 to 2016, he represented Aguascalientes in the Senate during the LXII and LXIII Legislatures. He also was the Municipal President of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes from 2005 to 2007.

Mexican Federal Highway 25

Federal Highway 25 (Spanish: Carretera Federal 25, Fed. 25) is a free part of the federal highways corridors (Spanish: los corredores carreteros federales). It starts in Viñedos Rivier, Aguascalientes, runs east, then runs northeast to San Marcos, Zacatecas, just past Loreto, Zacatecas.

Mexican Federal Highway 71

Federal Highway 71 ( La Carretera Federal 71 ) (Fed. 71) is a free (libre) part of the federal highways corridors () of Mexico. Fed. 71 exists in two separate segments; the first runs from Fed. 45 at Luis Moya, Zacatecas in the north to Providencia, Aguascalientes in the south. The second segment runs from San Felipe, Aguascalientes in the north to Villa Hidalgo, Jalisco in the south. The highway continues on from Villa Hidalgo to Teocaltiche as Jal 211.

Miguel Romo Medina

Miguel Romo Medina (born 19 January 1949) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. He currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Aguascalientes. He also was Municipal President of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes during the 1984-1986 period.

Municipalities of Aguascalientes

Aguascalientes is a state in North Central Mexico that is divided into eleven municipalities. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, Aguascalientes is the sixth least populous state with 1,312,544 inhabitants and the fourth smallest by land area spanning 5,630.27 square kilometres (2,173.86 sq mi).Municipalities in Aguascalientes are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Their legal framework derives from the state Constitution and the 2003 Municipal Law for the State of Aguascalientes. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Title 9 of the Municipal Law provides for the establishment of unipersonal auxiliary authorities (autoridades auxiliares) to represent local communities in the municipalities.Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.The largest municipality by population is the state capital Aguascalientes, with 877,190 residents or approximately 66.8% of the state population. The smallest municipality by population is San José de Gracia with 8,896 residents. The largest municipality by land area is also Aguascalientes which spans 1,181.24 km2 (456.08 sq mi), and the smallest is Cosío which spans 130.07 km2 (50.22 sq mi). The first municipality to incorporate was Asientos on January 1, 1797 and the newest municipality is San Francisco de los Romo which incorporated March 1, 1992.

Rieleros de Aguascalientes

The Rieleros de Aguascalientes (English: Aguascalientes Railroaders) are a Triple-A Minor League Baseball team that plays in the Mexican League in Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico.

XHCGA-TDT

XHCGA-TDT channel 26 is a television station in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. It was established in 1976 with the support of the Instituto Cultural de Aguascalientes. It is part of Radio y Televisión de Aguascalientes, the public television and radio broadcaster for the state.

Aguascalientes State of Aguascalientes
Municipalities
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